Septuagint

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Septuagint
Codex vaticanus.jpg
Fragment of a Septuagint: A column of uncial book from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus c.325–350 CE, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton's Greek edition and English translation
Also known as
Datec.3rd century BCE
Language(s) Koine Greek

The Septuagint (from the Latin : septuāgintā literally "seventy"; often abbreviated as 70 in Roman numerals, i.e., LXX; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Koine Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures. [1] It is estimated that the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, known as the Torah or Pentateuch, were translated in the mid-3rd century BCE and the remaining texts were translated in the 2nd century BCE. [2] The Septuagint was the Koine Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible and the base of the Christian Old Testament, and was in wide use by the time of Jesus and Paul of Tarsus because most Jews could no longer read Hebrew. For this reason it is quoted more often than the original Hebrew Bible text in the New Testament, [3] [4] [ better source needed ] particularly in the Pauline epistles, [5] [ better source needed ] by the Apostolic Fathers, and later by the Greek Church Fathers.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire, and the early Byzantine Empire, or late antiquity. It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries. It was based mainly on Attic and related Ionic speech forms, with various admixtures brought about through dialect levelling with other varieties.

Hebrew Bible Canonical collection of Hebrew scripture

The Hebrew Bible, which is also called the Tanakh or sometimes the Mikra, is the canonical collection of Hebrew scriptures. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, except for some Biblical Aramaic passages in the books of Daniel and Ezra. The Hebrew Bible is also the textual source for the Christian Old Testament. The form of this text that is authoritative for Rabbinic Judaism is known as the Masoretic Text (MT) and it consists of 24 books, while the translations divide essentially the same material into 39 books for the Protestant Bible.

Contents

The full title in Ancient Greek : Ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν Ἑβδομήκοντα, lit.  'The Translation of the Seventy', derives from the story recorded in the Letter of Aristeas that the Septuagint was translated at the request of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285–247 BCE) by 70 Jewish scholars or, according to later tradition, 72, with six scholars from each of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, who independently produced identical translations. The miraculous character of the Aristeas legend indicates the esteem in which the translation was held in the ancient Jewish diaspora and, later, early Christian circles.

Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is a translation of a text done by translating each word separately, without looking at how the words are used together in a phrase or sentence.

The Letter of Aristeas or Letter to Philocrates is a Hellenistic work of the 2nd century BC, assigned by Biblical scholars to the Pseudepigrapha.

Ptolemy II Philadelphus sovereign (0308-0246)

Ptolemy II Philadelphus was the pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE. He was the son of Ptolemy I Soter, the Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great who founded the Ptolemaic Kingdom after the death of Alexander, and queen Berenice I, originally from Macedon in northern Greece.

A Greek translation was certainly in circulation among the Alexandrian Jews who were fluent in Greek but not in Hebrew. [6] The evidence of Egyptian papyri from the period has led most scholars to view as probable Aristeas's dating of the translation of the Pentateuch to the third century BCE.[ citation needed ] Whatever share the Ptolemaic court may have had in the translation, it satisfied a need felt by the Jewish community, among whom a knowledge of Hebrew was waning before the demands of every-day life. [7] [ better source needed ]

While there are other contemporaneous Greek versions of the Old Testament, [4] most did not survive except as fragments. Modern critical editions of the Septuagint are based on the Codices Vaticanus, Sinaiticus, and Alexandrinus.

Codex Vaticanus 4th-century handwritten Bible manuscript in Greek

The Codex Vaticanus is regarded as the oldest extant manuscript of the Greek Bible, one of the four great uncial codices. The Codex is named after its place of conservation in the Vatican Library, where it has been kept since at least the 15th century. It is written on 759 leaves of vellum in uncial letters and has been dated palaeographically to the 4th century.

Codex Sinaiticus Handwritten copy of the Bible in Greek

Codex Sinaiticus or "Sinai Bible" is one of the four great uncial codices, ancient, handwritten copies of the Greek Bible. The codex is a celebrated historical treasure.

Codex Alexandrinus Handwritten copy of the Bible in Greek

The Codex Alexandrinus is a fifth-century manuscript of the Greek Bible, containing the majority of the Septuagint and the New Testament. It is one of the four Great uncial codices. Along with the Codex Sinaiticus and the Vaticanus, it is one of the earliest and most complete manuscripts of the Bible. Brian Walton assigned Alexandrinus the capital Latin letter A in the Polyglot Bible of 1657. This designation was maintained when the system was standardized by Wettstein in 1751. Thus, Alexandrinus held the first position in the manuscript list.

Names

The name "Septuagint" is derived from the Latin phrase versio septuaginta interpretum, "translation of the seventy interpreters", in turn from the Ancient Greek : Ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν Ἑβδομήκοντα, romanized: hē metáphrasis tōn hebdomḗkonta, lit.  'The Translation of the Seventy'. [8] However, it was not until the time of Augustine of Hippo (354–430 CE) that the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures came to be called by the Latin term Septuaginta. [9]

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Augustine of Hippo Early Christian theologian, philosopher and Church Father

Augustine of Hippo was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and Neoplatonic philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of the Western Church and Western philosophy, and indirectly all of Western Christianity. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius in North Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers of the Latin Church for his writings in the Patristic Period. Among his most important works are The City of God, De doctrina Christiana, and Confessions.

The Roman numeral LXX (seventy) is commonly used as an abbreviation, also [10] or G.

From a Christianity-influenced perspective, it is sometimes called the "Greek Old Testament" as it is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures from the original Hebrew and is quoted in the New Testament.[ citation needed ]

Composition

Jewish legend

Beginning of the Letter of Aristeas to Philocrates. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 11th century. Letter of Aristeas (Vat. gr. 747 f. 1r).jpg
Beginning of the Letter of Aristeas to Philocrates. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 11th century.

Seventy-two Jewish scholars were asked by the Greek King of Egypt Ptolemy II Philadelphus to translate the Torah from Biblical Hebrew into Greek for inclusion in the Library of Alexandria. [11]

This narrative is found in the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas to his brother Philocrates [12] and is repeated by Philo of Alexandria, Josephus in Antiquities of the Jews, [13] and by various later sources including St. Augustine. [14] The story is also found in the Tractate Megillah of the Babylonian Talmud:

King Ptolemy once gathered 72 Elders. He placed them in 72 chambers, each of them in a separate one, without revealing to them why they were summoned. He entered each one's room and said: "Write for me the Torah of Moshe, your teacher". God put it in the heart of each one to translate identically as all the others did. [15]

Philo of Alexandria, who relied extensively on the Septuagint, [4] [ better source needed ] claims that the number of scholars was chosen by selecting six scholars from each of the twelve tribes of Israel.

According to later rabbinic tradition, according to which the Greek translation was regarded as a distortion of the sacred text and thus not suitable for use in the synagogue, the Septuagint was handed in to Ptolemy on the date of an annual fast known as the Tenth of Tevet fast and also mourning for the Jewish people. [4] [ better source needed ]

History

The date of the 3rd century BCE is supported for the Torah translation by a number of factors including the Greek being representative of early Koine Greek, citations beginning as early as the 2nd century BCE, and early manuscripts datable to the 2nd century. [16]

After the Torah, other books were translated over the next two to three centuries. It is not altogether clear which was translated when or where; some may even have been translated twice into different versions and then revised. [17] The quality and style of the different translators also varied considerably from book to book from a literal translation to paraphrasing to an interpretative style.

The translation process of the Septuagint itself and from the Septuagint into other versions can be broken down into several distinct stages, during which the social milieu of the translators shifted from Hellenistic Judaism to Early Christianity. The translation of the Septuagint itself began in the 3rd century BCE and was completed by 132 BCE [18] [19] initially in Alexandria but in time elsewhere as well. [8] The Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian, and Coptic versions of the Christian Old Testament. [20]

Language

The Septuagint is written in Koine Greek. Some sections of the Septuagint may contain Semiticisms, which are idioms and phrases based on Semitic languages like Hebrew and Aramaic. [21] Other books, such as Daniel and Proverbs, show Greek influence more strongly. [11]

The Septuagint may also elucidate pronunciation of pre-Masoretic Hebrew: many proper nouns are spelled out with Greek vowels in the translation, while contemporary Hebrew texts lacked vowel pointing. However, it is unlikely that all ancient Hebrew sounds had precise Greek equivalents. [22]

Differences regarding canonicity

As the work of translation progressed, the canon of the Greek Bible expanded. The Hebrew Bible, also called the Tanakh, has three divisions: the Torah (Law), the Neviʾim (Prophets), and the Ketuvim (Writings). The Septuagint has four: law, history, poetry, and prophets, with the books of the Apocrypha inserted at appropriate locations. [2]

The Torah (Pentateuch in Greek) has held preeminence as the basis of the canon.[ citation needed ] It is not known when the Ketuvim (Writings), the final part of the Tanakh, were established, although some sort of selection process must have been utilised, because the Septuagint did not include other Jewish documents such as Enoch or Jubilees or other writings that do not form part of the Jewish canon, which are now classified as pseudepigrapha .[ citation needed ]

Extant copies (dating from the 4th century CE) of the Septuagint contain books and additions [23] that are not present in the Hebrew Bible, not being found in the Palestinian Jewish canon, [24] and are not uniform in their contents. Some argue that the original Septuagint did not originally include these additional books. [25] . [26] [27] [28] These copies of the Septuagint includes books called anagignoskomena in Greek, known in English as deuterocanon, itself derived from the Greek words for "second canon", because they are not included in the Jewish canon. [29] [30]

Among these are the first two books of Maccabees; Tobit; Judith; Wisdom of Solomon; Sirach; Baruch, including the Letter of Jeremiah; additions to Esther; and additions to Daniel. All of these books are considered by the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church as canonical books; to Protestantism, they are the Apocrypha.[ citation needed ] The Septuagint version of some Biblical books, like Daniel and Esther, are longer than those in the Masoretic Text. [31] Meanwhile, the Septuagint text of the Book of Jeremiah is shorter than the Masoretic text. [32]

Additional books that are collectively seen in these copies include the Psalms of Solomon, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, the Epistle of Jeremiah, the Book of Odes, the Prayer of Manasseh and Psalm 151 are included in some copies of the Septuagint, [33] some of which are accepted as canonical by Eastern Orthodox and some other churches.[ citation needed ]

Since Late Antiquity, mainstream rabbinic Judaism rejected the Septuagint as a valid Jewish scriptural text.[ citation needed ] Several reasons have been given for this. First, differences between the Hebrew and the Greek were found. [4] Second, the Hebrew source texts, in some cases, particularly the Book of Daniel, used for the Septuagint differed from the Masoretic tradition of Hebrew texts, which were affirmed as canonical by the rabbis. Third, the rabbis wanted to distinguish their tradition from the emerging tradition of Christianity, which frequently used the Septuagint. [4] Finally, the rabbis claimed for the Hebrew language a divine authority, in contrast to Aramaic or Greek.[ citation needed ] As a result of this teaching, other translations of the Torah into Koine Greek by early Jewish Rabbis have survived as rare fragments only.

In time the Septuagint became synonymous with the Greek Old Testament, a Christian canon of writings which incorporated all the books of the Hebrew canon, along with additional texts. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches include most of the books that are in the Septuagint in their canons. Protestant churches, however, usually do not. After the Protestant Reformation, many Protestant Bibles began to follow the Jewish canon and exclude the additional texts, which came to be called the Apocrypha, with some arguing against them being classified as Scripture. [34] [35] [36] [ full citation needed ] The Apocrypha are included under a separate heading in the King James Version of the Bible. [37]

Deuterocanonical and Apocryphal books included in the Septuagint

Greek name [8] [38] [39] TransliterationEnglish name
Deuterocanonical Books
Τωβίτ (also called Τωβείτ or Τωβίθ in some sources.)Tōbit (or Tōbeit or Tōbith)Tobit or Tobias
ἸουδίθIoudithJudith
ἘσθήρEsthērEsther with additions
Μακκαβαίων Αʹ 1 Makkabaiōn 1 Maccabees
Μακκαβαίων Βʹ 2 Makkabaiōn 2 Maccabees
Σοφία ΣαλoμῶντοςSophia SalomōntosWisdom or Wisdom of Solomon
Σοφία Ἰησοῦ Σειράχ Sophia Iēsou Seirach Sirach or Ecclesiasticus
ΒαρούχBarouchBaruch
Ἐπιστολὴ Ἰερεμίου Epistolē Ieremiou Letter of Jeremiah
ΔανιήλDaniēlDaniel with additions
Apocryphal Books
Ἔσδρας Αʹ 1 Esdras 1 Esdras
Μακκαβαίων Γʹ 3 Makkabaiōn 3 Maccabees
Μακκαβαίων Δ' Παράρτημα 4 Makkabaiōn Parartēma 4 Maccabees [40]
Ψαλμός ΡΝΑʹPsalmos 151 Psalm 151
Προσευχὴ ΜανασσῆProseuchē Manassē Prayer of Manasseh
Ψαλμοί ΣαλoμῶντοςPsalmoi Salomōntos Psalms of Solomon [41]

Final form

All the books of western biblical canons of the Old Testament are found in the Septuagint, although the order does not always coincide with the Western ordering of the books. The Septuagint order for the Old Testament is evident in the earliest Christian Bibles, which were written in the 4th century CE. [11]

Some books that are set apart in the Masoretic Text are grouped together. For example, the Books of Samuel and the Books of Kings are in the Septuagint one book in four parts called Βασιλειῶν ("Of Reigns"). In the Septuagint the Books of Chronicles supplement Reigns, and it is called Παραλειπομένων ("Of Things Left Out"). The Septuagint organizes the minor prophets as twelve parts of one Book of Twelve. [11]

Some scriptures of ancient origin are found in the Septuagint but not in the Hebrew Bible. These additional books are Tobit; Judith; Wisdom of Solomon; Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach; Baruch along with the Letter of Jeremiah, which later became chapter six of Baruch in the Vulgate; additions to Daniel, namely The Prayer of Azarias, the Song of the Three Children, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon; additions to Esther; 1 Maccabees; 2 Maccabees; 3 Maccabees; 4 Maccabees; 1 Esdras; Odes, including the Prayer of Manasseh; the Psalms of Solomon; and Psalm 151.

Despite this, there are fragments of some deuterocanonical books that have been found in Hebrew among the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Qumran

Sirach, whose text in Hebrew was already known from the Cairo Geniza, has been found in two scrolls (2QSir or 2Q18, 11QPs_a or 11Q5) in Hebrew. Another Hebrew scroll of Sirach has been found in Masada (MasSir). [42] :597 Five fragments from the Book of Tobit have been found in Qumran, four written in Aramaic and one written in Hebrew (papyri 4Q, nos. 196-200). [42] :636 Psalm 151 appears along with a number of canonical and non-canonical psalms in the Dead Sea scroll 11QPs(a) (named also 11Q5), a first-century CE scroll discovered in 1956. [43] This scroll contains two short Hebrew psalms which scholars now agree served as the basis for Psalm 151. [42] :585–586

The canonical acceptance of these books varies among different Christian traditions. For more information regarding these books, see the articles Biblical apocrypha, Biblical canon, Books of the Bible, and Deuterocanonical books.

Incorporations from Theodotion

In the most ancient copies of the Bible, which contain the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, the Book of Daniel is not the original Septuagint version but instead is a copy of Theodotion's translation from the Hebrew, which more closely resembles the Masoretic text. The Septuagint version was discarded in favor of Theodotion's version in the 2nd to 3rd centuries CE. In Greek-speaking areas, this happened near the end of the 2nd century; and in Latin-speaking areas, at least in North Africa, it occurred in the middle of the 3rd century. History does not record the reason for this. St. Jerome reports in the preface to the Vulgate version of Daniel, "This thing 'just' happened".[ citation needed ] Several Old Greek texts of the Book of Daniel have been discovered recently, and work is ongoing in reconstructing the original form of the book. [11]

The canonical Ezra–Nehemiah is known in the Septuagint as "Esdras B", and 1 Esdras is "Esdras A". 1 Esdras is a very similar text to the books of Ezra-Nehemiah, and the two are thought to be derived from the same original text.[ citation needed ] It has been proposed that "Esdras B" is Theodotion's version of this material, and "Esdras A" is the version which was previously in the Septuagint on its own.[ citation needed ]

Use

Jewish use

The pre-Christian Jews Philo and Josephus considered the Septuagint on equal standing with the Hebrew text. [11] [44] Manuscripts of the Septuagint have been found among the Qumran Scrolls as part of the Dead Sea Scrolls discovery, and were thought to have been in use among Jews at the time.

Starting approximately in the 2nd century CE, several factors led most Jews to abandon use of the Septuagint. The earliest gentile Christians used the Septuagint out of necessity, as it was at the time the only Greek version of the Bible and most, if not all, of these early non-Jewish Christians could not read Hebrew. The association of the Septuagint with a rival religion may have rendered it suspect in the eyes of the newer generation of Jews and Jewish scholars. [20] Instead, Jews used Hebrew or Aramaic Targum manuscripts later compiled by the Masoretes and authoritative Aramaic translations, such as those of Onkelos and Rabbi Yonathan ben Uziel. [45]

What was perhaps most significant for the Septuagint, as distinct from other Greek versions, was that the Septuagint began to lose Jewish sanction after differences between it and contemporary Hebrew scriptures were discovered (see Differences regarding canonicity). Even Greek-speaking Jews tended less to the Septuagint, preferring other Jewish versions in Greek, such as the translation by Aquila, which seemed to be more concordant with contemporary Hebrew texts. [20]

Christian use

The Early Christian Church used the Greek texts [4] since Greek was a lingua franca of the Roman Empire at the time and the language of the Greco-Roman Church, Aramaic being the language of Syriac Christianity.

The relationship between the apostolic use of the Septuagint and the Hebrew texts is complicated. The Septuagint seems to have been a major source for the Apostles, but it is not the only one. St. Jerome offered, for example, Matthew 2:15 and 2:23, John 19:37, John 7:38, and 1 Corinthians 2:9 [46] as examples not found in the Septuagint but in Hebrew texts. Matthew 2:23 is not present in current Masoretic tradition either, though according to St. Jerome it was in Hosea 11:1. The New Testament writers, when citing the Jewish scriptures or quoting Jesus doing so, freely used the Greek translation, implying that Jesus, his apostles, and their followers considered it reliable. [5] [21] [4]

In the early Christian Church, the presumption that the Septuagint was translated by Jews before the era of Christ and that the Septuagint at certain places gives itself more to a Christological interpretation than 2nd-century Hebrew texts was taken as evidence that "Jews" had changed the Hebrew text in a way that made them less Christological. For example, Irenaeus writes concerning Isaiah 7:14 that the Septuagint clearly writes of a virgin (Greek παρθένος, bethulah in Hebrew) that shall conceive, [47] while the word almah in the Hebrew text was, according to Irenaeus, at that time interpreted by Theodotion and Aquila, both proselytes of the Jewish faith, as a young woman that shall conceive. According to Irenaeus, the Ebionites used this to claim that Joseph was the biological father of Jesus. From Irenaeus' point of view that was pure heresy, facilitated by late anti-Christian alterations of the scripture in Hebrew, as evident by the older, pre-Christian Septuagint. [48]

When Jerome undertook the revision of the Old Latin translations of the Septuagint, he checked the Septuagint in contrast to the Hebrew texts that were then available.[ citation needed ] He broke with church tradition and translated most of the Old Testament of his Vulgate from Hebrew rather than Greek. His choice was severely criticized by Augustine, his contemporary. [49] While on the one hand he argued for the superiority of the Hebrew texts in correcting the Septuagint on both philological and theological grounds, on the other, in the context of accusations of heresy against him, Jerome would acknowledge the Septuagint texts as well. [50] With the passage of time, acceptance of Jerome's version gradually increased until it displaced the Old Latin translations of the Septuagint. [20]

The Eastern Orthodox Church still prefers to use the Septuagint as the basis for translating the Old Testament into other languages. The Eastern Orthodox Church also uses the Septuagint untranslated where Greek is the liturgical language. Critical translations of the Old Testament, while using the Masoretic Text as their basis, consult the Septuagint as well as other versions in an attempt to reconstruct the meaning of the Hebrew text whenever the latter is unclear, undeniably corrupt, or ambiguous. [20] For example, the New Jerusalem Bible Foreword says, "Only when this (the Masoretic Text) presents insuperable difficulties have emendations or other versions, such as the ... LXX, been used." [51] The Translator's Preface to the New International Version says: "The translators also consulted the more important early versions (including) the Septuagint ... Readings from these versions were occasionally followed where the MT seemed doubtful ..." [52]

Textual history

Table of books

Greek name [8] [38] [lower-alpha 1] TransliterationEnglish name
Law
ΓένεσιςGenesisGenesis
ἜξοδοςExodosExodus
ΛευϊτικόνLeuitikonLeviticus
ἈριθμοίArithmoiNumbers
ΔευτερονόμιονDeuteronomionDeuteronomy
History
Ἰησοῦς NαυῆIēsous NauēJoshua
ΚριταίKritaiJudges
ῬούθRouthRuth
Βασιλειῶν Αʹ [lower-alpha 2] 1 BasileiōnKings I (I Samuel)
Βασιλειῶν Βʹ2 BasileiōnKings II (II Samuel)
Βασιλειῶν Γʹ3 BasileiōnKings III (I Kings)
Βασιλειῶν Δʹ4 BasileiōnKings IV (2 Kings)
Παραλειπομένων Αʹ1 Paraleipomenōn [lower-alpha 3] Chronicles I
Παραλειπομένων Βʹ2 ParaleipomenōnChronicles II
Ἔσδρας Αʹ 1 Esdras Esdras I
Ἔσδρας Βʹ2 EsdrasEsdras II (Ezra-Nehemiah)
Τωβίτ [lower-alpha 4] Tōbit [lower-alpha 5] Tobit
ἸουδίθIoudithJudith
ἘσθήρEsthērEsther with additions
Μακκαβαίων Αʹ 1 Makkabaiōn Maccabees I
Μακκαβαίων Βʹ 2 Makkabaiōn Maccabees II
Μακκαβαίων Γʹ 3 Makkabaiōn Maccabees III
Wisdom
ΨαλμοίPsalmoiPsalms
Ψαλμός ΡΝΑʹPsalmos 151 Psalm 151
Προσευχὴ ΜανασσῆProseuchē Manassē Prayer of Manasseh
ἸώβIōbJob
ΠαροιμίαιParoimiaiProverbs
ἘκκλησιαστήςEkklēsiastēs Ecclesiastes
Ἆσμα Ἀσμάτων Asma Asmatōn Song of Songs or Song of Solomon or Canticle of Canticles
Σοφία ΣαλoμῶντοςSophia SalomōntosWisdom or Wisdom of Solomon
Σοφία Ἰησοῦ Σειράχ Sophia Iēsou Seirach Sirach or Ecclesiasticus
Ψαλμοί ΣαλoμῶντοςPsalmoi Salomōntos Psalms of Solomon [53]
Prophets
ΔώδεκαDōdekaMinor Prophets
Ὡσηέ ΑʹI. HōsēeHosea
Ἀμώς ΒʹII. ĀmōsAmos
Μιχαίας ΓʹIII. MichaiasMicah
Ἰωήλ ΔʹIV. IōēlJoel
Ὀβδιού Εʹ [lower-alpha 6] V. ObdiouObadiah
Ἰωνᾶς Ϛ'VI. IōnasJonah
Ναούμ ΖʹVII. NaoumNahum
Ἀμβακούμ ΗʹVIII. AmbakoumHabakkuk
Σοφονίας ΘʹIX. SophoniasZephaniah
Ἀγγαῖος ΙʹX. AngaiosHaggai
Ζαχαρίας ΙΑʹXI. ZachariasZachariah
Μαλαχίας ΙΒʹXII. MalachiasMalachi
ἨσαΐαςĒsaiasIsaiah
ἹερεμίαςHieremiasJeremiah
ΒαρούχBarouchBaruch
ΘρῆνοιThrēnoiLamentations
Ἐπιστολὴ Ἰερεμίου Epistolē Ieremiou Letter of Jeremiah
ἸεζεκιήλIezekiēlEzekiel
ΔανιήλDaniēlDaniel with additions
Appendix
Μακκαβαίων Δ' Παράρτημα 4 Makkabaiōn Parartēma 4 Maccabees [lower-alpha 7]

Textual analysis

The inter-relationship between various significant ancient manuscripts of the Old Testament (some identified by their siglum). LXX here denotes the original Septuagint. Texts of the OT.svg
The inter-relationship between various significant ancient manuscripts of the Old Testament (some identified by their siglum). LXX here denotes the original Septuagint.

Modern scholarship holds that the Septuagint was written during the 3rd through 1st centuries BCE; but nearly all attempts at dating specific books, with the exception of the Pentateuch (early- to mid-3rd century BCE), are tentative and without consensus. [11]

Later Jewish revisions and recensions of the Greek against the Hebrew are well attested, the most famous of which include the Three: Aquila (128 CE), Symmachus, and Theodotion. These three, to varying degrees, are more literal renderings of their contemporary Hebrew scriptures as compared to the Old Greek, the original Septuagint. Modern scholars consider one or more of the 'three' to be totally new Greek versions of the Hebrew Bible.

Around 235 CE, Origen, a Christian scholar in Alexandria, completed the Hexapla, a comprehensive comparison of the ancient versions and Hebrew text side-by-side in six columns, with diacritical markings ("editor's marks", "critical signs", or "Aristarchian signs").[ citation needed ] Much of this work is lost, but several compilations of the fragments are available. In the first column was the contemporary Hebrew, in the second a Greek transliteration of it, then the newer Greek versions each in their own columns.[ citation needed ] Origen also kept a column for the Old Greek (the Septuagint), which included readings from all the Greek versions into a critical apparatus with diacritical marks indicating to which version each line (Gr. στίχος) belonged. Perhaps the voluminous Hexapla was never copied in its entirety, but Origen's combined text ("the fifth column") was copied frequently, eventually without the editing marks, and the older uncombined text of the Septuagint was neglected. Thus this combined text became the first major Christian recension of the Septuagint, often called the Hexaplar recension. In the century following Origen, two other major recensions were identified by Jerome, who attributed these to Lucian (Lucianic or Antiochene recension) and Hesychius (Hesychian or Alexandrian recension). [11]

Manuscripts

The oldest manuscripts of the Septuagint include 2nd century BCE fragments of Leviticus and Deuteronomy (Rahlfs nos. 801, 819, and 957), and 1st century BCE fragments of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and the Minor Prophets (Alfred Rahlfs nos. 802, 803, 805, 848, 942, and 943). [54] Relatively complete manuscripts of the Septuagint postdate the Hexaplar recension and include the Codex Vaticanus from the 4th century CE and the Codex Alexandrinus of the 5th century. These are indeed the oldest surviving nearly complete manuscripts of the Old Testament in any language; the oldest extant complete Hebrew texts date some 600 years later, from the first half of the 10th century. [20] The 4th century Codex Sinaiticus also partially survives, still containing many texts of the Old Testament. [55] While there are differences between these three codices, scholarly consensus today holds that one Septuagint—that is, the original pre-Christian translation—underlies all three.[ citation needed ] The various Jewish and later Christian revisions and recensions are largely responsible for the divergence of the codices. [11] The Codex Marchalianus is another notable manuscript.

Differences with the Latin Vulgate and the Masoretic text

The sources of the many differences between the Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate and the Masoretic Text have long been discussed by scholars. Following the Renaissance, a common opinion among some humanists was that the Septuagint translators bungled the translation from the Hebrew and that the Septuagint became more corrupt with time.[ citation needed ] The most widely accepted view today is that the Septuagint provides a reasonably accurate record of an early Hebrew textual variant that differed from the ancestor of the Masoretic text as well as those of the Latin Vulgate, where both of the latter seem to have a more similar textual heritage. This view is supported by comparisons with Biblical texts found at the Essene settlement at Qumran (the Dead Sea Scrolls).[ citation needed ]

These issues notwithstanding, the text of the Septuagint is generally close to that of the Masoretes and Vulgate. For example, Genesis 4:1–6 is identical in both the Septuagint, Vulgate and the Masoretic Text. Likewise, Genesis 4:8 to the end of the chapter is the same. There is only one noticeable difference in that chapter, at 4:7,[ citation needed ] to wit:

Genesis 4:7, LXX and English Translation (NETS)
Genesis 4:7, Masoretic and English Translation from MT (Judaica Press)
Genesis 4:7, Latin Vulgate and English Translation (Douay-Rheims)
οὐκ ἐὰν ὀρθῶς προσενέγκῃς, ὀρθῶς δὲ μὴ διέλῃς, ἥμαρτες; ἡσύχασον· πρὸς σὲ ἡ ἀποστροφὴ αὐτοῦ, καὶ σὺ ἄρξεις αὐτοῦ.

If you offer correctly but do not divide correctly, have you not sinned? Be still; his recourse is to you, and you will rule over him.
הֲלוֹא אִם תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל בּוֹ:

Is it not so that if you improve, it will be forgiven you? If you do not improve, however, at the entrance, sin is lying, and to you is its longing, but you can rule over it.
nonne si bene egeris, recipies : sin autem male, statim in foribus peccatum aderit? sed sub te erit appetitus ejus, et tu dominaberis illius.

If thou do well, shalt thou not receive? but if ill, shall not sin forthwith be present at the door? but the lust thereof shall be under thee, and thou shalt have dominion over it.

This instance illustrates the complexity of assessing differences between the Septuagint and the Masoretic Text as well as the Vulgate. Despite the striking divergence of meaning here between the Septuagint and later texts, nearly identical consonantal Hebrew source texts can be reconstructed. The readily apparent semantic differences result from alternative strategies for interpreting the difficult verse and relate to differences in vowelization and punctuation of the consonantal text.[ citation needed ]

The differences between the Septuagint and the MT thus fall into four categories. [56]

  1. Different Hebrew sources for the MT and the Septuagint. Evidence of this can be found throughout the Old Testament. Most obvious are major differences in Jeremiah and Job, where the Septuagint is much shorter and chapters appear in different order than in the MT, and Esther where almost one third of the verses in the Septuagint text have no parallel in the MT.[ citation needed ] A more subtle example may be found in Isaiah 36:11; the meaning ultimately remains the same, but the choice of words evidences a different text. The MT reads "...al tedaber yehudit be-'ozne ha`am al ha-homa" [speak not the Judean language in the ears of (or—which can be heard by) the people on the wall]. The same verse in the Septuagint reads, according to the translation of Brenton: "and speak not to us in the Jewish tongue: and wherefore speakest thou in the ears of the men on the wall." The MT reads "people" where the Septuagint reads "men". This difference is very minor and does not affect the meaning of the verse.[ citation needed ] Scholars at one time had used discrepancies such as this to claim that the Septuagint was a poor translation of the Hebrew original. With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, variant Hebrew texts of the Bible were found.[ citation needed ] In fact this verse is found in Qumran (1QIsaa) where the Hebrew word "haanashim" (the men) is found in place of "haam" (the people). This discovery, and others like it, showed that even seemingly minor differences of translation could be the result of variant Hebrew source texts.
  2. Differences in interpretation stemming from the same Hebrew text. A good example is Genesis 4:7, shown above.
  3. Differences as a result of idiomatic translation issues (i.e. a Hebrew idiom may not easily translate into Greek, thus some difference is intentionally or unintentionally imparted). For example, in Psalm 47:10 the MT reads "The shields of the earth belong to God". The Septuagint reads "To God are the mighty ones of the earth." The metaphor "shields" would not have made much sense to a Greek speaker; thus the words "mighty ones" are substituted in order to retain the original meaning.[ citation needed ]
  4. Transmission changes in Hebrew or Greek (Diverging revisionary/recensional changes and copyist errors)

Dead Sea Scrolls

The Biblical manuscripts found in Qumran, commonly known as the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS), have prompted comparisons of the various texts associated with the Hebrew Bible, including the Septuagint. [57] Emanuel Tov, editor of the scrolls [ clarification needed ], [58] identifies five broad variation categories of DSS texts: [59]

  1. Proto-Masoretic: This consists of a stable text and numerous and distinctive agreements with the Masoretic Text. About 60% of the Biblical scrolls fall into this category (e.g. 1QIsa-b)
  2. Pre-Septuagint: These are the manuscripts which have distinctive affinities with the Greek Bible. These number only about 5% of the Biblical scrolls, for example, 4QDeut-q, 4QSam-a, and 4QJer-b, 4QJer-d. In addition to these manuscripts, several others share distinctive individual readings with the Septuagint, although they do not fall in this category.
  3. The Qumran "Living Bible": These are the manuscripts which, according to Tov, were copied in accordance with the "Qumran practice" (i.e. with distinctive long orthography and morphology, frequent errors and corrections, and a free approach to the text. Such scrolls comprise about 20% of the Biblical corpus, including the Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsa-a):
  4. Pre-Samaritan: These are DSS manuscripts which reflect the textual form found in the Samaritan Pentateuch, although the Samaritan Bible itself is later and contains information not found in these earlier scrolls, (e.g. God's holy mountain at Shechem rather than Jerusalem). The Qumran witnesses—which are characterized by orthographic corrections and harmonizations with parallel texts elsewhere in the Pentateuch—comprise about 5% of the Biblical scrolls. (e.g. 4QpaleoExod-m)
  5. Non-Aligned: This is a category which shows no consistent alignment with any of the other four text-types. These number approximately 10% of the Biblical scrolls, and include 4QDeut-b, 4QDeut-c, 4QDeut-h, 4QIsa-c, and 4QDan-a. [59] [60] [lower-alpha 8]

The textual sources present a variety of readings. For example, Bastiaan Van Elderen compares three variations of Deuteronomy 32:43, the Song of Moses. [58] [ failed verification ]

Deuteronomy 32.43, Masoretic
Deuteronomy 32.43, Qumran
Deuteronomy 32.43, Septuagint
1 Shout for joy, O nations, with his people
-------
-------
-------
2 For he will avenge the blood of his servants
3 And will render vengeance to his adversaries
-------
4 And will purge his land, his people.
1 Shout for joy, O heavens, with him
2 And worship him, all you divine ones
-------
-------
3 For he will avenge the blood of his sons
4 And he will render vengeance to his adversaries
5 And he will recompense the ones hating him
6 And he purges the land of his people.
1 Shout for joy, O heavens, with him
2 And let all the sons of God worship him
3 Shout for joy, O nations, with his people
4 And let all the angels of God be strong in him
5 Because he avenges the blood of his sons
6 And he will avenge and recompense justice to his enemies
7 And he will recompense the ones hating
8 And the Lord will cleanse the land of his people.

Printed editions

The texts of all printed editions are derived from the three recensions mentioned above, that of Origen, Lucian, or Hesychius.

English translations

The Septuagint has been translated only a few times into English.[ citation needed ]

The first one, which excluded the Apocrypha, was Charles Thomson's in 1808, which was subsequently revised and enlarged by C.A. Muses in 1954 and published by The Falcon's Wing Press.

The Septuagint with Apocrypha: Greek and English translated by Sir Lancelot Brenton 1854. For most of the years since its publication it has been the only one readily available, and has continually been in print. It is based primarily upon the Codex Vaticanus and contains the Greek and English texts in parallel columns. It has on average four footnoted transliterated words per page, abbreviated by "Alex." and "GK." Updating the English of Brenton's translation, there is a revision of the Brenton Septuagint available, called The Complete Apostles' Bible, translated by Paul W. Esposito, Th.D, and released in 2007. It uses the Masoretic Text in the 23rd Psalm, and possibly other places, although it removed the apocrypha.

A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally Included Under that Title (NETS), an academic translation based on the New Revised Standard version (which is Masoretic Text) was published by the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS) in October 2007.

The Apostolic Bible Polyglot, published in 2003 is not a translation per se, but actually a Greek- English Interlinear Septuagint useful in conjunction with the re-print of Brenton's translation. It includes the Greek books of the Hebrew canon, ( i.e. without the Apocrypha), along with the Greek New Testament, all numerically coded to the AB-Strong numbering system, and set in monotonic orthography. Included in the printed edition is a concordance and index.

The Orthodox Study Bible was released in early 2008 with a new translation of the Septuagint based on the Alfred Rahlfs edition of the Greek text. To this base they brought two additional major sources: first the Brenton translation of the Septuagint from 1851, and, second, the New King James Version text in the places where the translation of the Septuagint would match that of the Hebrew Masoretic text. This edition includes the New Testament as well, which also uses the New King James Version; and it includes, further, extensive commentary from an Eastern Orthodox perspective. [67]

Father Nicholas King, SJ completed a Catholic translation of the Septuagint into English. It is titled The Old Testament (volumes 1 through 4), and The Bible in hardcover and presentation editions. [68]

Brenton's Septuagint, Restored Names Version, (SRNV) is a two volume editing primarily based on Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton's translation. The Hebrew Names restoration is based on the Westminster Leningrad Codex with the prime focus being the restoration of the Divine Name. It is rendered in Modern English yet remains faithful to Brenton's translation. Additionally it features extensive Hebrew and Greek footnotes.

The Eastern Orthodox Bible (EOB, in progress) is an extensive revision and correction of Brenton's translation which was primarily based on Codex Vaticanus. Its language and syntax have been modernized and simplified. It also includes extensive introductory material and footnotes featuring significant inter-LXX and LXX/MT variants.

Holy Orthodox Bible by Peter A. Papoutsis and the Michael Asser English translation of the Septuagint. Both the HOB and the Asser English translations are based on the Church of Greece's Septuagint text.

Society and journal

The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS)—a non-profit, learned society—promotes international research in and study of the Septuagint and related texts [69]

In 2006, IOSCS declared February 8 "International Septuagint Day", a day to promote the discipline on campuses and in communities. [70] The Organization also publishes the Journal of Septuagint and Cognate Studies. [71]

See also

Notes

  1. The canon of the original Old Greek LXX is disputed. This table reflects the canon of the Old Testament as used currently in Orthodoxy.
  2. Βασιλειῶν (Basileiōn) is the genitive plural of Βασιλεία (Basileia).
  3. That is, Things set aside from Ἔσδρας Αʹ.
  4. also called Τωβείτ or Τωβίθ in some sources.
  5. or Tōbeit or Tōbith
  6. Obdiou is genitive from "The vision of Obdias", which opens the book.
  7. Originally placed after 3 Maccabees and before Psalms, but placed in an appendix of the Orthodox Canon
  8. Note that these percentages are disputed. Other scholars credit the Proto-Masoretic texts with only 40%, and posit larger contributions from Qumran-style and non-aligned texts. The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, chapter 6: Questions of Canon through the Dead Sea Scrolls by James C. VanderKam, page 94, citing private communication with Emanuel Tov on biblical manuscripts: Qumran scribe type c.25%, proto-Masoretic Text c. 40%, pre-Samaritan texts c.5%, texts close to the Hebrew model for the Septuagint c.5% and nonaligned c.25%.

Related Research Articles

Bible Collection of religious texts in Judaism and Christianity

The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews, Samaritans, and Rastafarians.

Books of the Bible Wikimedia list article

Different religious groups include different books in their biblical canons, in varying orders, and sometimes divide or combine books. The Jewish Tanakh contains 24 books divided into three parts: the five books of the Torah ("teaching"); the eight books of the Nevi'im ("prophets"); and the eleven books of Ketuvim ("writings"). It is composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew, and its Septuagint is the main textual source for the Christian Greek Old Testament.

Deuterocanonical books Books that Catholics and Orthodox accept as part of the canon, but which Protestants do not accept

The deuterocanonical books are books and passages considered by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Assyrian Church of the East to be canonical books of the Old Testament but which are considered non-canonical by Protestant denominations. They are books thought to have been written some time between 200 BC and 100 AD., and most are seen in copies of the Septuagint dating from the 4th century BC, these being larger than early copies of this original translation of the Hebrew Bible in the Hellenistic period, which was written during the reign of Ptolemy II While the New Testament never quotes from or ascribes canonical authority to these books, some say there is a correspondence of thought, while others see texts from these books being referred or alluded to many times in the New Testament, particularly in the Pauline Epistles depending in large measure on what is counted as a reference.

Old Testament First part of Christian Bibles based on the Hebrew Bible

The Old Testament is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible, a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God. The second part of the Christian Bible is the New Testament.

<i>Letter of Jeremiah</i>

The Letter of Jeremiah, also known as the Epistle of Jeremiah, is a deuterocanonical book of the Old Testament; this letter purports to have been written by Jeremiah to the Jews who were about to be carried away as captives to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. It is included in Catholic Bibles as the final chapter of the Book of Baruch. It is also included in Orthodox Bibles as a standalone book. Some scholars claim that the title of this work is misleading, as they consider it to be neither a letter nor written by the prophet Jeremiah.

Jeremiah 47 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 47

Jeremiah 47 is the forty-seventh chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter is part of a series of "oracles against foreign nations", consisting of chapters 46 to 51. In particular, chapters 46-49 focus on Judah's neighbors. This chapter contains the poetic oracles against the Philistines.

Jeremiah 17 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 17

Jeremiah 17 is the seventeenth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter includes the third of the passages known as the "Confessions of Jeremiah".

Jeremiah 33 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 33

Jeremiah 33 is the thirty-third chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. It is numbered as Jeremiah 40 in the Septuagint. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets.

Jeremiah 44 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 44

Jeremiah 44 is the forty-fourth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter is part of a narrative section consisting of chapters 37 to the present one. Chapters 42-44 describe the emigration to Egypt involving the remnant who remained in Judah after much of the population was exiled to Babylon. The Jerusalem Bible describes this chapter as "the last episode of Jeremiah's ministry".

Jeremiah 25 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 25

Jeremiah 25 is the twenty-fifth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. Chapter 25 is the final chapter in the first section of the Book of Jeremiah, which deals with the earliest and main core of Jeremiah's message. In this chapter, Jeremiah identified the length of the time of exile as seventy years.

Jeremiah 26 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 26

Jeremiah 26 is the twenty-sixth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. It is numbered as Jeremiah 33 in the Septuagint. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter contains an exhortation to repentance, causing Jeremiah to be apprehended and arraigned ; he gives his apology, resulting the princes to clear him by the example of Micah and of Urijah, and by the care of Ahikam.

Jeremiah 51 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 51

Jeremiah 51 is the fifty-first chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter contains the last of a series of "oracles against foreign nations" which commences in chapter 46. Chapters 50 and 51 focus on Babylon. The New American Bible denotes this chapter as "the second oracle against Babylon", following on from "the first oracle" contained in chapter 50.

Jeremiah 27 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 27

Jeremiah 27 is the twenty-seventh chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The material found in Jeremiah 27 is found in Jeremiah 34 and Jeremiah 50 in the Septuagint, which orders some material differently. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. The New American Bible (NABRE) describes chapters 27-29 as "a special collection of Jeremiah’s prophecies dealing with false prophets", and suggests that "stylistic peculiarities evident in the Hebrew suggest that these three chapters once existed as an independent work".

Jeremiah 50 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 50

Jeremiah 50 is the fiftieth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter is part of a series of "oracles against foreign nations", consisting of chapters 46 to 51. Chapters 50 and 51 focus on Babylon. The New American Bible denotes chapter 50 as "the first oracle against Babylon" and chapter 51 as "the second oracle". An unnamed "enemy from the North" is predicted to reduce imperial Babylon "to a wasteland".

Jeremiah 28 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 28

Jeremiah 28 is the twenty-eighth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The material found in Jeremiah 28 of the Hebrew Bible appears in Jeremiah 35 in the Septuagint. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter contains a confrontation between prophets Jeremiah and Hananiah: Hananiah's false prophecy is responded by Jeremiah's answer, Jeremiah 28:1-9. Hananiah breaks Jeremiah's yoke, Jeremiah foretells an iron yoke, and Hananiah's death, Jeremiah 28:10-17.

Jeremiah 30 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 30

Jeremiah 30 is the thirtieth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. It is numbered as Jeremiah 37 in the Septuagint. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. The Jerusalem Bible refers to chapters 30 and 31 as "the Book of Consolation", and Lutheran theologian Ernst Hengstenberg calls these two chapters "the triumphal hymn of Israel’s salvation".

Jeremiah 48 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 48

Jeremiah 48 is the forty-eighth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter is part of a series of "oracles against foreign nations", consisting of chapters 46 to 51. In particular, chapters 46-49 focus on Judah's neighbors. This chapter contains the poetic oracles against Moab.

Jeremiah 42 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 42

Jeremiah 42 is the forty-second chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter is part of a narrative section consisting of chapters 37 to 44. Chapters 42-44 describe the emigration to Egypt involving the remnant who remained in Judah after much of the population was exiled to Babylon. In this chapter, the leaders of the community ask Jeremiah to seek divine guidance as to whether they should go to Egypt or remain in Judah, but they are found to be hypocrites in asking for advice which they intended to ignore.

Jeremiah 45 Book of Jeremiah, chapter 45

Jeremiah 45 is the forty-fifth chapter of the Book of Jeremiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains prophecies attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and is one of the Books of the Prophets. This chapter closes the section comprising chapters 26-44 with the message that the prophetic word will survive through Baruch. In the New Revised Standard Version, this chapter is described as "a word of comfort to Baruch". Biblical commentator A. W. Streane calls it "a rebuke and a promise to Baruch".

References

  1. "Septuagint". Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  2. 1 2 "Septuagint". Encyclopedia Britannica. June 15, 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  3. Nicole, Roger, New Testament Use of the Old Testament Revelation and the Bible, ed. Carl. F.H. Henry (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1958), pp. 137–51.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Toy, Crawford; Gottheil, Richard (1906). "Bible Translations – The Septuagint". Jewish Encyclopedia. The Kopleman Foundation. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  5. 1 2 "Saul of Tarsus". Jewish Encyclopedia. The Kopleman Foundation. 1906. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  6. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Septuagint Version". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 2019-07-24.
  7. Sigfried, Carl; Gottheil, Richard (1906). "Hellenism". Jewish Encyclopedia. The Kopelman Foundation. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  8. 1 2 3 4 Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva (2001). Invitation to the Septuagint. Paternoster Press. ISBN   978-1-84227-061-5.
  9. Sundberg, in McDonald & Sanders, eds., The Canon Debate, p.72.
  10. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia , for instance.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Jennifer M. Dines, The Septuagint, Michael A. Knibb, Ed., London: T&T Clark, 2004.
  12. Davila, J (2008). "Aristeas to Philocrates". Summary of lecture by Davila, February 11, 1999. University of St. Andrews, School of Divinity. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
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  17. Joel Kalvesmaki, The Septuagint
  18. Life after death: a history of the afterlife in the religions of the West (2004), Anchor Bible Reference Library, Alan F. Segal, p.363
  19. Gilles Dorival, Marguerite Harl, and Olivier Munnich, La Bible grecque des Septante: Du judaïsme hellénistique au christianisme ancien (Paris: Cerfs, 1988), p.111
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  21. 1 2 H. B. Swete, An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, revised by R.R. Ottley, 1914; reprint, Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1989.
  22. Paul Joüon, SJ, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, trans. and revised by T. Muraoka, vol. I, Rome: Editrice Pontificio Instituto Biblico, 2000.
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  24. Schiffma, Lawrence H (1991). Brooklyn, New York, NY: KTAV Publishing House, Inc. p. 120 https://books.google.com/books?id=3kWYHyBb4C8C&dq=Text+to+Tradition:+A+History+of+Second+Temple+and+Rabbinic+Judaism&source=gbs_navlinks_s . Retrieved 15 October 2019.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. Ellis, E. E. (1992). The Old Testament in Early Christianity. Baker. p. 34. ISBN   9783161456602 . Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  26. Archer, Gleason, L. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Chicago, Illinois: Moody Press. p. 75. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  27. Beckwith, Roger (1986). The Old Testament Canon of the New Testament Church. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. p. 382.
  28. Beckwith, Roger T. (2008). The Old Testament Canon of the New Testament Church. Eugene, Oregon,: Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 382, 383.|access-date= requires |url= (help)CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  29. Meade, John D. "Was there a "Septuagint Canon"?". Didaktikos: Journal of Theological Education. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  30. Mulder, M. J. (1988). Mikra : text, translation, reading, and interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in ancient Judaism and early Christianity. Phil.: Van Gorcum. p. 81. ISBN   978-0800606046.
  31. Rick Grant Jones, Various Religious Topics, "Books of the Septuagint", (Accessed 2006.9.5).
  32. Blenkinsopp, Joseph (1996). A history of prophecy in Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 130. ISBN   9780664256395.
  33. "The Old Testament Canon and Apocrypha". BibleResearcher. Retrieved 27 November 2015.[ better source needed ]
  34. Blocher, Henri (2004). "Helpful or Harmful? The "Apocrypha" and Evangelical Theology". European Journal of Theology. 13 (2): 81–90.
  35. Webster, William. "The Old Testament Canon and the Apocrypha Part 3" . Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  36. Shamoun, Sam. "Are The Jewish Apocrypha Inspired Scripture? Pt. 4". Answering Islam - A Christian-Muslim dialog. Answering Islam. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  37. "NETS: Electronic Edition". Ccat.sas.upenn.edu. 2011-02-11. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  38. 1 2 Timothy McLay, The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research ISBN   0-8028-6091-5.—The current standard introduction on the NT & LXX.
  39. The canon of the original Old Greek LXX is disputed. This table reflects the canon of the Old Testament as used currently in Orthodoxy.
  40. Originally placed after 3 Maccabees and before Psalms, but placed in an appendix of the Orthodox Canon
  41. Not in Orthodox Canon, but originally included in the LXX. http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/
  42. 1 2 3 Abegg, Martin; Flint, Peter; Ulrich, Eugene (1999). The Dead Sea Scroll Bible. HarperOne. ISBN   978-0-06-060064-8.
  43. Sanders, JA (1963), "Ps. 151 in 11QPss", Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, 75: 73–86, doi:10.1515/zatw.1963.75.1.73 , and slightly revised in Sanders, JA (ed.), "The Psalms Scroll of Qumrân Cave 11 (11QPsa)", DJD, 4: 54–64.
  44. Alexander Zvielli, Jerusalem Post, June 2009, pp. 37
  45. Marcos, Natalio F. The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Bible (2000 ed.).
  46. St. Jerome, Apology Book II.
  47. Paulkovich, Michael (2012), No Meek Messiah, Spillix Publishing, p. 24, ISBN   978-0988216112
  48. Irenaeus, Against Herecies Book III.
  49. Jerome, From Jerome, Letter LXXI (404 CE), NPNF1-01. The Confessions and Letters of St. Augustin, with a Sketch of his Life and Work, Phillip Schaff, Ed.
  50. Rebenich, S., Jerome (Routledge, 2013), p. 58. ISBN   9781134638444
  51. New Jerusalem Bible Readers Edition, 1990: London, citing the Standard Edition of 1985
  52. "Life Application Bible" (NIV), 1988: Tyndale House Publishers, using "Holy Bible" text, copyright International Bible Society 1973
  53. Not in Orthodox Canon, but originally included in the Septuagint. http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/
  54. Brug, John F. (2015). Textual Criticism of the Old Testament. Morrisville, NC: Lulu.com. p. 63. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  55. Würthwein, op. cit., pp. 73 & 198.
  56. See, Jinbachian, Some Semantically Significant Differences Between the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint, .
  57. "Searching for the Better Text – Biblical Archaeology Society". Bib-arch.org. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  58. 1 2 Edwin Yamauchi, "Bastiaan Van Elderen, 1924– 2004", SBL Forum Accessed 26 March 2011.
  59. 1 2 Tov, E. 2001. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (2nd ed.) Assen/Maastricht: Van Gocum; Philadelphia: Fortress Press. As cited in Flint, Peter W. 2002. The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls as presented in Bible and computer: the Stellenbosch AIBI-6 Conference: proceedings of the Association internationale Bible et informatique, "From alpha to byte", University of Stellenbosch, 17–21 July, 2000 Association internationale Bible et informatique. Conference, Johann Cook (ed.) Leiden/Boston BRILL, 2002
  60. Laurence Shiffman, Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls, p. 172
  61. Joseph Ziegler, "Der griechische Dodekepropheton-Text der Complutenser Polyglotte", Biblica 25:297–310, cited in Würthwein.
  62. Google books, 1587.
  63. Rahlfs, A. (Ed.). (1935/1979). Septuaginta. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft.
  64. "Critical Editions of Septuagint/Old Greek Texts". IOSCS. U Penn.
  65. "Septuaginta". Scholarly Bibles.
  66. "Introduction" (PDF). Apostolic Bible. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  67. "Conciliar Press". Orthodox Study Bible. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  68. The Bible is published, Nicholas King, 2013-11-01.
  69. "IOSCS". U Penn. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  70. "International Septuagint Day". The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  71. JSCS .

Further reading

General

Texts and translations

The LXX and the NT