Last updated
Title page, Midrash Tehillim Midrash tehillim title.jpg
Title page, Midrash Tehillim

Midrash ( /ˈmɪdrɑːʃ/ ; [1] Hebrew : מִדְרָשׁ; pl. Hebrew : מִדְרָשִׁיםmidrashim) is biblical exegesis by ancient Judaic authorities, [2] using a mode of interpretation prominent in the Talmud. The word itself means "textual interpretation", "study". [3]


Midrash and rabbinic readings "discern value in texts, words, and letters, as potential revelatory spaces," writes the Hebrew scholar Wilda C. Gafney. "They reimagine dominant narratival readings while crafting new ones to stand alongside—not replace—former readings. Midrash also asks questions of the text; sometimes it provides answers, sometimes it leaves the reader to answer the questions." [4]

Vanessa Lovelace defines midrash as "a Jewish mode of interpretation that not only engages the words of the text, behind the text, and beyond the text, but also focuses on each letter, and the words left unsaid by each line." [5]

The term is also used of a rabbinic work that interprets Scripture in that manner. [6] [7] Such works contain early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature ( aggadah ) and occasionally Jewish religious laws ( halakha ), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture ( Tanakh ). [8]

"Midrash", especially if capitalized, can refer to a specific compilation of these rabbinic writings composed between 400 and 1200 CE. [1] [9]

According to Gary Porton and Jacob Neusner, "midrash" has three technical meanings: 1) Judaic biblical interpretation; 2) the method used in interpreting; 3) a collection of such interpretations. [10]


The Hebrew word midrash is derived from the root of the verb darash (דָּרַשׁ), which means "resort to, seek, seek with care, enquire, require", [11] forms of which appear frequently in the Bible. [12]

The word midrash occurs twice in the Hebrew Bible: 2 Chronicles 13:22 "in the midrash of the prophet Iddo", and 24:27 "in the midrash of the book of the kings". KJV and ESV translate the word as "story" in both instances; the Septuagint translates it as βιβλίον (book) in the first, as γραφή (writing) in the second. The meaning of the Hebrew word in these contexts is uncertain: it has been interpreted as referring to "a body of authoritative narratives, or interpretations thereof, concerning historically important figures" [13] and seems to refer to a "book", perhaps even a "book of interpretation", which might make its use a foreshadowing of the technical sense that the rabbis later gave to the word. [14]

Since the early Middle Ages the function of much of midrashic interpretation has been distinguished from that of peshat, straight or direct interpretation aiming at the original literal meaning of a scriptural text. [13]

As genre

A definition of "midrash" repeatedly quoted by other scholars [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] is that given by Gary G. Porton in 1981: "a type of literature, oral or written, which stands in direct relationship to a fixed, canonical text, considered to be the authoritative and revealed word of God by the midrashist and his audience, and in which this canonical text is explicitly cited or clearly alluded to". [24]

Lieve M. Teugels, who would limit midrash to rabbinic literature, offered a definition of midrash as "rabbinic interpretation of Scripture that bears the lemmatic form", [22] a definition that, unlike Porton's, has not been adopted by others. While some scholars agree with the limitation of the term "midrash" to rabbinic writings, others apply it also to certain Qumran writings, [25] [26] to parts of the New Testament, [27] [28] [29] and of the Hebrew Bible (in particular the superscriptions of the Psalms, Deuteronomy, and Chronicles), [30] and even modern compositions are called midrashim. [31] [32]

As method

Midrash is now viewed more as method than genre, although the rabbinic midrashim do constitute a distinct literary genre. [33] [34]

According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica , "Midrash was initially a philological method of interpreting the literal meaning of biblical texts. In time it developed into a sophisticated interpretive system that reconciled apparent biblical contradictions, established the scriptural basis of new laws, and enriched biblical content with new meaning. Midrashic creativity reached its peak in the schools of Rabbi Ishmael and Akiba, where two different hermeneutic methods were applied. The first was primarily logically oriented, making inferences based upon similarity of content and analogy. The second rested largely upon textual scrutiny, assuming that words and letters that seem superfluous teach something not openly stated in the text." [35]

Many different exegetical methods are employed in an effort to derive deeper meaning from a text. This is not limited to the traditional thirteen textual tools attributed to the Tanna Rabbi Ishmael, which are used in the interpretation of halakha (Jewish law). The presence of words or letters which are seen to be apparently superfluous, and the chronology of events, parallel narratives or what are seen as other textual "anomalies" are often used as a springboard for interpretation of segments of Biblical text. In many cases, a handful of lines in the Biblical narrative may become a long philosophical discussion

Jacob Neusner distinguishes three midrash processes:

  1. paraphrase: recounting the content of the biblical text in different language that may change the sense;
  2. prophecy: reading the text as an account of something happening or about to happen in the interpreter's time;
  3. parable or allegory: indicating deeper meanings of the words of the text as speaking of something other than the superficial meaning of the words or of everyday reality, as when the love of man and woman in the Song of Songs is interpreted as referring to the love between God and Israel or the Church as in Isaiah 5:1-6 and in the New Testament. [36]

Jewish midrashic literature

Numerous Jewish midrashim previously preserved in manuscript form have been published in print, including those denominated as smaller [37] or minor midrashim. Bernard H. Mehlman and Seth M. Limmer deprecate this usage on the grounds that the term "minor" seems judgmental and "small" is inappropriate for midrashim some of which are lengthy. They propose instead the term "medieval midrashim", since the period of their production extended from the twilight of the rabbinic age to the dawn of the Age of Enlightenment. [38]

Generally speaking, rabbinic midrashim either focus on religious law and practice ( halakha ) or interpret biblical narrative in relation to non-legal ethics or theology, creating homilies and parables based on the text. In the latter case they are described as aggadic . [39]

Halakhic midrashim

Midrash halakha is the name given to a group of tannaitic expositions on the first four books of the Hebrew Bible. [40] These midrashim, written in Mishnahic Hebrew, clearly distinguish between the Biblical texts that they discuss, and the rabbinic interpretation of that text. They often go well beyond simple interpretation and derive or provide support for halakha. This work is based on pre-set assumptions about the sacred and divine nature of the text, and the belief in the legitimacy that accords with rabbinic interpretation. [41]

Although this material treats the biblical texts as the authoritative word of God, it is clear that not all of the Hebrew Bible was fixed in its wording at this time, as some verses that are cited differ from the Masoretic, and accord with the Septuagint, or Samaritan Torah instead. [42]


With the growing canonization of the contents of the Hebrew Bible, both in terms of the books that it contained, and the version of the text in them, and an acceptance that new texts could not be added, there came a need to produce material that would clearly differentiate between that text, and rabbinic interpretation of it. By collecting and compiling these thoughts they could be presented in a manner which helped to refute claims that they were only human interpretations. The argument being that by presenting the various collections of different schools of thought each of which relied upon close study of the text, the growing difference between early biblical law, and its later rabbinic interpretation could be reconciled. [41]

Aggadic midrashim

Midrashim that seek to explain the non-legal portions of the Hebrew Bible are sometimes referred to as aggadah or haggadah. [43]

Aggadic discussions of the non-legal parts of Scripture are characterized by a much greater freedom of exposition than the halakhic midrashim (midrashim on Jewish law). Aggadic expositors availed themselves of various techniques, including sayings of prominent rabbis. These aggadic explanations could be philosophical or mystical disquisitions concerning angels, demons, paradise, hell, the messiah, Satan, feasts and fasts, parables, legends, satirical assaults on those who practice idolatry, etc.

Some of these midrashim entail mystical teachings. The presentation is such that the midrash is a simple lesson to the uninitiated, and a direct allusion, or analogy, to a mystical teaching for those educated in this area.

An example of a midrashic interpretation:

"And God saw all that He had made, and found it very good. And there was evening, and there was morning, the sixth day." (Genesis 1:31)—Midrash: Rabbi Nahman said in Rabbi Samuel's name: "Behold, it was very good" refers to the Good Desire; "AND behold, it was very good" refers to the Evil Desire. Can then the Evil Desire be very good? That would be extraordinary! But without the Evil Desire, however, no man would build a house, take a wife and beget children; and thus said Solomon: "Again, I considered all labour and all excelling in work, that it is a man's rivalry with his neighbour." (Kohelet IV, 4). [44]

Classical compilations



Midrash Rabbah

Contemporary Jewish midrash

A wealth of literature and artwork has been created in the 20th and 21st centuries by people aspiring to create "contemporary midrash". Forms include poetry, prose, Bibliodrama (the acting out of Bible stories), murals, masks, and music, among others. The Institute for Contemporary Midrash was formed to facilitate these reinterpretations of sacred texts. The institute hosted several week-long intensives between 1995 and 2004, and published eight issues of Living Text: The Journal of Contemporary Midrash from 1997 to 2000.

Contemporary views

According to Carol Bakhos, recent studies that use literary-critical tools to concentrate on the cultural and literary aspects of midrash have led to a rediscovery of the importance of these texts for finding insights into the rabbinic culture that created them. Midrash is increasingly seen as a literary and cultural construction, responsive to literary means of analysis. [45]

Reverend Wilda C. Gafney has coined and expanded on womanist midrash, a particular practice and method that Gafney defines as:

"[...] A set of interpretive practices, including translation, exegesis, and biblical narratives, that attends to marginalized characters in biblical narratives, specially women and girls, intentionally including and centering on non-Israelite peoples and enslaved persons. Womanist midrash listens to and for their voices in and through the Hebrew Bible, while acknowledging that often the text does not speak, or even intend to speak, to or for them, let alone hear them. In the tradition of rabbinic midrash and contemporary feminist biblical scholarship, womanist midrash offers names for anonymized characters and crafts/listens to/gives voice to those characters." [46]

Gafney's analysis also draws parallels between midrash as a Jewish exegetical practice and African American Christian practices of biblical interpretation, wherein both practices privilege "sacred imaginative interrogation," or "sanctified imagination" as it is referred to in the black preaching tradition, when exegeting and interpreting the text. "Like classical and contemporary Jewish midrash, the sacred imagination [as practiced in black preaching traditions] tells us the story behind the story, the story between the lines on the page," Gafney writes. [47] [5]

Frank Kermode has written that midrash is an imaginative way of "updating, enhancing, augmenting, explaining, and justifying the sacred text". Because the Tanakh came to be seen as unintelligible or even offensive, midrash could be used as a means of rewriting it in a way that both makes it more acceptable to later ethical standards and renders it less obviously implausible. [48]

James L. Kugel, in The Bible as It Was (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1997), examines a number of early Jewish and Christian texts that comment on, expand, or re-interpret passages from the first five books of the Tanakh between the third century BCE and the second century CE.

Kugel traces how and why biblical interpreters produced new meanings by the use of exegesis on ambiguities, syntactical details, unusual or awkward vocabulary, repetitions, etc. in the text. As an example, Kugel examines the different ways in which the biblical story that God's instructions are not to be found in heaven (Deut 30:12) has been interpreted. Baruch 3:29-4:1 states that this means that divine wisdom is not available anywhere other than in the Torah. Targum Neophyti (Deut 30:12) and b. Baba Metzia 59b claim that this text means that Torah is no longer hidden away, but has been given to humans who are then responsible for following it. [49]

See also

Related Research Articles

Rabbinic literature Collective term for Classic Jewish literature, written by, or attributed to the rabbis who lived prior to the 6th century

Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term Sifrut Hazal. This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim, Midrash, and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts.

<i>Midrash halakha</i> Ancient Judaic rabbinic method of Torah study

Midrash halakha was the ancient Judaic rabbinic method of Torah study that expounded upon the traditionally received 613 Mitzvot (commandments) by identifying their sources in the Hebrew Bible, and by interpreting these passages as proofs of the laws' authenticity. Midrash more generally also refers to the non-legal interpretation of the Tanakh. The term is applied also to the derivation of new laws, either by means of a correct interpretation of the obvious meaning of scriptural words themselves or by the application of certain hermeneutic rules.

Genesis Rabbah A midrash comprising a collection of ancient rabbinical homiletical interpretations of the Book of Genesis

Genesis Rabba is a religious text from Judaism's classical period, probably written between 300 and 500 CE with some later additions. It is a midrash comprising a collection of ancient rabbinical homiletical interpretations of the Book of Genesis.

Keturah Biblical character

Keturah was a concubine and wife of the Biblical patriarch Abraham. According to the Book of Genesis, Abraham married Keturah after the death of his first wife, Sarah. Abraham and Keturah had six sons.

According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah", but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given. This holistic Jewish code of conduct encompasses a wide swathe of rituals, worship practices, God–man and interpersonal relationships, from dietary laws to Sabbath and festival observance to marital relations, agricultural practices, and civil claims and damages.

Aggadah non-legalistic exegetical texts in the classical rabbinic literature

Aggadah refers to non-legalistic exegetical texts in the classical rabbinic literature of Judaism, particularly as recorded in the Talmud and Midrash. In general, Aggadah is a compendium of rabbinic texts that incorporates folklore, historical anecdotes, moral exhortations, and practical advice in various spheres, from business to medicine.

Achai Gaon was a leading scholar during the period of the Geonim, an 8th-century Talmudist of high renown. He enjoys the distinction of being the first rabbinical author known to history after the completion of the Talmud.

Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Halakhic midrash to the Book of Exodus

The Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael (Mekilta is a halakhic midrash to the Book of Exodus. The name "Mekhilta" corresponds to the Hebrew middah and is used to denote a compilation of scriptural exegesis.

Tobiah ben Eliezer was a Talmudist and poet of the 11th century, author of the Leḳaḥ Ṭov or Pesiḳta Zuṭarta, a midrashic commentary on the Pentateuch and the Five Megillot.

Sifre Either of two works of classical Jewish legal biblical exegesis.

Sifre refers to either of two works of Midrash halakha, or classical Jewish legal biblical exegesis, based on the biblical books of Numbers and Deuteronomy.

Shemini (parsha) 26th weekly Torah portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the third in the Book of Leviticus

Shemini, Sh'mini, or Shmini is the 26th weekly Torah portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the third in the Book of Leviticus. Parashah Shemini tells of the consecration of the Tabernacle, the deaths of Nadab and Abihu, and the dietary laws of kashrut. The parashah constitutes Leviticus 9:1–11:47. It is made up of 4,670 Hebrew letters, 1,238 Hebrew words, 91 verses, and 157 lines in a Torah Scroll.

Pardes (Jewish exegesis)

"Pardes" refers to approaches to biblical exegesis in rabbinic Judaism or to interpretation of text in Torah study. The term, sometimes also spelled PaRDeS, is an acronym formed from the same initials of the following four approaches:

Numbers Rabbah

Numbers Rabbah is a religious text holy to classical Judaism. It is a midrash comprising a collection of ancient rabbinical homiletic interpretations of the book of Numbers.

Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah aggadic midrash on the Song of Songs

Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah is an aggadic midrash on Song of Songs, quoted by Rashi under the title "Midrash Shir ha-Shirim". It is also called Aggadat Hazita, from its initial word "Hazita", or Midrash Hazita.

Midrash Rabba Part of or the collective whole of aggadic midrashim on the books of the Tanakh

Midrash Rabba or Midrash Rabbah can refer to part of or the collective whole of specific aggadic midrashim on the books of the Torah and the Five Megillot, generally having the term "Rabbah" (רבה), meaning "great," as part of their name. These midrashim are as follows:

<i>Yalkut Shimoni</i> Compilation of Rabbinic legends corresponding to the Tanach, the Hebrew Bible.

The Yalkut Shimoni, or simply Yalkut, is an aggadic compilation on the books of the Hebrew Bible. It is a compilation of older interpretations and explanations of Biblical passages, arranged according to the sequence of those portions of the Bible to which they referred.

<i>Midrash HaGadol</i> 14th century compilation of aggadic midrashim on the Torah taken from the two Talmuds and earlier Midrashim of Yemenite provenance.

Midrash HaGadol or The Great Midrash, written by Rabbi David Adani of Yemen, is a compilation of aggadic midrashim on the Pentateuch taken from the two Talmuds and earlier midrashim of Yemenite provenance. In addition, it borrows quotations from the Targums, Maimonides, and Kabbalistic writings, and in this aspect is unique among the various midrashic collections. This important work—the largest of the midrashic collections—came to popular attention only in the late 19th century through the efforts of Jacob Saphir, Solomon Schecter, and David Zvi Hoffmann. In addition to containing midrashic material that is not found elsewhere, such as part of the Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon, Midrash HaGadol contains what are considered to be more correct versions of previously known Talmudic and Midrashic passages.

Ecclesiastes Rabbah Aggadic commentary on Ecclesiastes

Ecclesiastes Rabbah or Kohelet Rabbah is an aggadic commentary on Ecclesiastes, included in the collection of the Midrash Rabbot. It follows the biblical book verse by verse, only a few verses remaining without commentary.

Midrash Shmuel (aggadah)

Midrash Samuel is an aggadic midrash on the books of Samuel.

The priestly covenant is the biblical covenant that God gave to Aaron and his descendants, the Aaronic priesthood, as found in the Hebrew Bible and Oral Torah.


  1. 1 2 "midrash". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. Jacob Neusner, What Is Midrash (Wipf and Stock 2014), p. xi
  3. Marcus Jastrow , Dictionary of Targumim, Talmud and Midrashic Literature, p. 735
  4. 1966-, Gafney, Wilda. Womanist Midrash : a reintroduction to the women of the Torah and the throne (First ed.). Louisville, Kentucky. ISBN   9780664239039. OCLC   988864539.
  5. 1 2 Lovelace, Vanessa (2018-09-11). "Womanist Midrash: A Reintroduction to the Women of the Torah and the Throne, written by Wilda C. Gafney". Horizons in Biblical Theology. 40 (2): 212–215. doi:10.1163/18712207-12341379. ISSN   0195-9085.
  6. Encyclopædia Britannica: Midrash
  7. Jewish Encyclopedia (1906): "Midrashim, Smaller"
  8. ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 14, pg 182, Moshe David Herr
  9. Collins English Dictionary
  10. Chan Man Ki, "A Comparative Study of Jewish Commentaries and Patristic Literature on the Book of Ruth" (University of Pretoria 2010), p. 112, citing Gary G. Porton, "Rabbinic Midrash" in Jacob Neusner, Judaism in Late Antiquity Vol. 1, p. 217; and Jacob Neusner, Questions and Answers: Intellectual Foundations of Judaism (Hendrickson 2005), p. 41
  11. Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon: Darash
  12. Brown–Driver–Briggs : 1875. darash
  13. 1 2 The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (Oxford University Press 2011): "Midrash and midrashic literature"
  14. Lieve M. Teugels, Bible and Midrash: The Story of "The Wooing of Rebekah" (Gen. 24) (Peeters 2004), p. 162
  15. Paul D. Mandel, The Origins of Midrash: From Teaching to Text (BRILL 2017), p. 16
  16. Jacob Neusner, What Is Midrash? (Wipf and Stock 2014), p. 9
  17. Lidija Novaković, "The Scriptures and Scriptural Interpretation" in Joel B. Green, Lee Martin McDonald (editors), The World of the New Testament: Cultural, Social, and Historical Contexts (Baker Academic 2013)
  18. Martin McNamara, Targum and New Testament: Collected Essays (Mohr Siebeck 2011), p. 417
  19. Carol Bakhos, Current Trends in the Study of Midrash (BRILL 2006), p. 163
  20. Andrew Lincoln, Hebrews: A Guide (Bloomsbury 2006), p. 71
  21. Adam Nathan Chalom, Modern Midrash: Jewish Identity and Literary Creativity (University of Michigan 2005), pp. 42 and 83
  22. 1 2 Lieve M. Teugels, Bible and Midrash: The Story of "The Wooing of Rebekah" (Gen. 24) (Peeters 2004), p. 168
  23. Jacob Neusner, Midrash as Literature: The Primacy of Discourse (Wipf and Stock 2003), p. 3
  24. Gary G. Porton, "Defining Midrash" in Jacob Neusner (editor), The Study of Ancient Judaism: Mishnah, Midrash, Siddur (KTAV 1981), pp. 59−92
  25. Matthias Henze, Biblical Interpretation at Qumran (Eerdmans 2005), p. 86
  26. Hartmut Stegemann, The Library of Qumran: On the Essenes, Qumran, John the Baptist, and Jesus (BRILL 1998)
  27. Craig A. Evans, "Listening for Echoes of Interpreted Scripture" in Craig A. Evans, James A. Sanders (editors), Paul and the Scriptures of Israel (Bloomsbury 2015), p. 50
  28. George Wesley Buchanan, The Gospel of Matthew (Wipf and Stock 2006), p. 644 (vol. 2)
  29. Stanley E. Porter, Dictionary of Biblical Criticism and Interpretation (Routledge 2007), p. 226
  30. Timothy H. Lim, "The Origins and Emergence of Midrash in Relation to the Hebrew Scriptures" in Jacob Neusner, Alan J. Avery-Peck (editors), The Midrash. An Encyclopaedia of Biblical Interpretation in Formative Judaism (Leiden: BRILL 2004), pp. 595-612
  31. David C. Jacobson, Modern Midrash: The Retelling of Traditional Jewish Narratives by Twentieth-Century Hebrew Writers (SUNY 2012)
  32. Adam Nathan Chalom, Modern Midrash: Jewish Identity and Literary Creativity (University of Michigan 2005)
  33. Craig A. Evans, To See and Not Perceive: Isaiah 6.9-10 in Early Jewish and Christian Interpretation (Bloomsbury 1989), p. 14
  34. Jonathan S. Nkoma, Significance of the Dead Sea Scrolls and other Essays (African Books Collective 2013), p. 59
  35. Encyclopaedia Britannica. article "Talmud and Midrash", section "Modes of interpretation and thought"
  36. Jacob Neusner, What Is Midrash (Wipf and Stock 2014), pp. 1−2 and 7−8
  37. Jewish Encyclopedia (1905): "Midrashim, Smaller"
  38. Bernard H. Mehlman, Seth M. Limmer, Medieval Midrash: The House for Inspired Innovation (BRILL 2016), p. 21
  39. My Jewish Learning: What Is Midrash?
  40. ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 14, pg 193
  41. 1 2 ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 14, pg 194
  42. ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 14, pg 195
  43. ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 14, pg 183
  44. (Genesis Rabbah 9:7, translation from Soncino Publications)
  45. Narratology, Hermeneutics, and Midrash: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Narratives from the Late Antique Period Through to Modern Times, ed Constanza Cordoni, Gerhard Langer, V&R unipress GmbH, 2014, pg 71
  46. 1966-, Gafney, Wilda. Womanist Midrash : a reintroduction to the women of the Torah and the throne (First ed.). Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. p. 3. ISBN   9780664239039. OCLC   988864539.
  47. 1966-, Gafney, Wilda (2017). Womanist Midrash : a reintroduction to the women of the Torah and the throne (First ed.). Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. p. 4. ISBN   9780664239039. OCLC   988864539.
  48. Kermode, Frank. "The Midrash Mishmash". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  49. "Review of J. L. Kugel, The Bible as It Was". www.jhsonline.org. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
Full text resources