Catholic Bible

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The prologue of the Gospel of John, Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, 1922 edition Prologus Ioanni Vulgata Clementina.jpg
The prologue of the Gospel of John, Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, 1922 edition

The term Catholic Bible can be understood in two ways. More generally, it can refer to a Christian Bible that includes the whole 73-book canon recognized by the Catholic Church, including some of the deuterocanonical books (and parts of books) of the Old Testament which are in the Greek Septuagint collection, but which are not present in the Hebrew Masoretic Text collection. More specifically, the term can refer to a version or translation of the Bible which is published with the Catholic Church's approval, in accordance with Catholic canon law.


According to the Decretum Gelasianum (a work written by an anonymous scholar between AD 519 and 553), Catholic Church officials cited a list of books of scripture presented as having been made canonical at the Council of Rome (382). Later, the Catholic Church formally affirmed its canon of scripture with the Synod of Hippo (393), followed by a Council of Carthage (397), another Council of Carthage (419), the Council of Florence (1431–1449), and the Council of Trent (1545–1563). The canon consists of 46 books in the Old Testament and 27 books in the New Testament, for a total of 73 books in the Catholic Bible. [1]

Books included

The Catholic Bible is composed of 73 books: an Old Testament of 46 books (including 7 deuterocanonical books and additional deuterocanonical content in 2 books) and a New Testament of 27 books.

Old Testament (46 books)

The 7 deuterocanonical books are indicated by an asterisk (*) and the 2 books with additional deuterocanonical material by a plus sign (+)

The Sixto-Clementine Vulgate and the original Douay–Rheims Bible also included in an appendix three books whose canonicity was questioned: Prayer of Manasseh, 3 Esdras, and 4 Esdras. [2] [3] [lower-alpha 1]

New Testament (27 books)

Canon law

The term "Catholic Bible" also refers to a Bible published in accordance with the prescriptions of Catholic canon law, which states:

Books of the sacred scriptures cannot be published unless the Apostolic See or the conference of bishops has approved them. For the publication of their translations into the vernacular, it is also required that they be approved by the same authority and provided with necessary and sufficient annotations. With the permission of the Conference of Bishops, Catholic members of the Christian faithful in collaboration with separated brothers and sisters can prepare and publish translations of the sacred scriptures provided with appropriate annotations. [4]

Canon 825 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law

Principles of translation

Without diminishing the authority of the texts of the books of Scripture in the original languages, the Council of Trent declared the Vulgate the official translation of the Bible for the Latin Church, but did not forbid the making of translations directly from the original languages. [5] [6] Ronald Knox, the author of what has been called the Knox Bible, a formal equivalence mode bible, wrote: "When I talk about translating the Bible, I mean translating the Vulgate." [7] Today, the version of the Bible that is used in official documents in Latin is the Nova Vulgata, a revision of the Vulgate. [8]

The original Bible text is, according to Catholics, "written by the inspired author himself and has more authority and greater weight than any, even the very best, translation whether ancient or modern". [9]

The principles expounded in Pope Pius XII's encyclical Divino afflante Spiritu regarding exegesis or interpretation, as in commentaries on the Bible, apply also to the preparation of a translation. These include the need for familiarity with the original languages and other cognate languages, the study of ancient codices and even papyrus fragments of the text and the application to them of textual criticism, "to insure that the sacred text be restored as perfectly as possible, be purified from the corruptions due to the carelessness of the copyists and be freed, as far as may be done, from glosses and omissions, from the interchange and repetition of words and from all other kinds of mistakes, which are wont to make their way gradually into writings handed down through many centuries". [10]

Catholic English versions

The following are English versions of the Bible that correspond to the description above and canon law:

DRB Douay–Rheims Bible 1582, 1609, 1610 [lower-alpha 2]
DRB Douay–Rheims Bible Challoner Revision 1749–1752
CB Confraternity Bible 1941 [lower-alpha 3]
Knox Knox Bible 1950
KLNT KleistLilly New Testament1956 [lower-alpha 4]
RSV–CE Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition 1965–66
JB Jerusalem Bible 1966
NAB New American Bible 1970
TLB–CE The Living Bible Catholic Edition 1971
NJB New Jerusalem Bible 1985
CCB Christian Community Bible 1988
NRSV–CE New Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition 1993
GNT–CE Good News Translation Catholic Edition [lower-alpha 5] 1993
RSV–2CE Revised Standard Version, Second Catholic Edition 2006
CTS–NCB CTS New Catholic Bible 2007 [lower-alpha 6]
NABRE New American Bible Revised Edition 2011/1986 (OT/NT)
NLT-CE New Living Translation Catholic Edition [13] 2015
ESV-CE English Standard Version Catholic Edition [14] 2017
NCBSt. Joseph New Catholic Bible [lower-alpha 7] 2019 [16]
RNJB Revised New Jerusalem Bible [17] 2019

In 2013, The Message - Catholic / Ecumenical Edition was also published, with the deuterocanonical books translated by a Catholic scholar, William Griffin. [18] [19]

Differences from Catholic lectionaries

Lectionaries for use in the liturgy differ somewhat in text from the Bible versions on which they are based. Many liturgies, including the Roman, omit some verses in the biblical readings that they use. [20]

Another difference concerns the usage of the Tetragrammaton. Yahweh appears in some Bible translations such as the Jerusalem Bible (1966) throughout the Old Testament. Long-standing Jewish and Christian tradition holds that the name is not to be spoken in worship or printed in liturgical texts out of reverence. [12] [21] A 2008 letter from the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments explicitly forbids the use of the name in worship texts, stating: "For the translation of the biblical text in modern languages, intended for the liturgical usage of the Church, what is already prescribed by n. 41 of the Instruction Liturgiam authenticam is to be followed; that is, the divine tetragrammaton is to be rendered by the equivalent of Adonai/Kyrios; Lord, Signore, Seigneur, Herr, Señor, etc." [12]

Currently, there is only one lectionary reported to be in use corresponding exactly to an in-print Catholic Bible translation: the Ignatius Press lectionary based on the Revised Standard Version, Second Catholic (or Ignatius) Edition (RSV-2CE) approved for liturgical use in the Antilles [22] and by former Anglicans in the personal ordinariates. [23]

In 2007 the Catholic Truth Society published the "CTS New Catholic Bible", consisting of the original 1966 Jerusalem Bible text revised to match its use in lectionaries throughout most English-speaking countries, in conformity with the directives of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments [12] [21] and the Pontifical Biblical Commission. [24]

In 2012, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops "announced a plan to revise the New Testament of the New American Bible Revised Edition so a single version can be used for individual prayer, catechesis and liturgy" in the United States. [25] After developing a plan and budget for the revision project, work began in 2013 with the creation of an editorial board made up of five people from the Catholic Biblical Association (CBA). The revision is now underway and, after the necessary approvals from the bishops and the Vatican, is expected to be done around the year 2025. [26]

Differences from other Christian Bibles

The contents page for a complete 80-book Bible in the King James Version, listing "The Books of the Old Testament", "The Books called Apocrypha", and "The Books of the New Testament" KJV 1769 Oxford Edition, vol. 1.djvu
The contents page for a complete 80book Bible in the King James Version, listing "The Books of the Old Testament", "The Books called Apocrypha", and "The Books of the New Testament"

Bibles used by Catholics differ in the number and order of books from those typically found in bibles used by Protestants, as Catholic bibles retain in their canon seven books that are regarded as non-canonical in Protestantism (though regarding them as non-canonical, many Protestant Bibles traditionally include these books and others as an intertestamental section known as the Apocrypha, totaling to an 80 book Bible, e.g. the King James Version with Apocrypha). [27] As such, its canon of Old Testament texts is somewhat larger than that in translations used by Protestants, which are typically based exclusively on the shorter Hebrew and Aramaic Masoretic Text. [28] On the other hand, its canon, which does not accept all the books that are included in the Septuagint, [29] is shorter than that of some churches of Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, which recognize other books as sacred scripture.[ citation needed ] According to the Greek Orthodox Church, "The translation of the Seventy [the Septuagint] was for the Church the Apostolic Bible, to which both the Lord and His disciples refer. [...] It enjoys divine authority and prestige as the Bible of the indivisible Church of the first eight centuries. It constitutes the Old Testament, the official text of our Orthodox Church and remains the authentic text by which the official translations of the Old Testament of the other sister Orthodox Churches were made; it was the divine instrument of pre-Christ evangelism and was the basis of Orthodox Theology." [30]

The Greek Orthodox Church generally considers Psalm 151 to be part of the Book of Psalms, the Prayer of Manasseh as the final chapter of 2 Chronicles, and accepts the "books of the Maccabees" as four in number, but generally places 4 Maccabees in an appendix. [31] [lower-alpha 8]

The Bible of the Tewahedo Churches differs from the Western and Greek Orthodox Bibles in the order, naming, and chapter/verse division of some of the books. The Ethiopian "narrow" biblical canon includes 81 books altogether: The 27 books of the New Testament; the Old Testament books found in the Septuagint and that are accepted by the Eastern Orthodox (more numerous than the Catholic deuterocanonical books); [lower-alpha 9] and in addition Enoch, Jubilees, 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, Rest of the Words of Baruch and 3 books of Ethiopian Maccabees (Ethiopian books of Maccabees entirely different in content from the 4 Books of Maccabees of the Eastern Orthodox). A "broader" Ethiopian New Testament canon includes 4 books of "Sinodos" (church practices), 2 "Books of Covenant", "Ethiopic Clement", and "Ethiopic Didascalia" (Apostolic Church-Ordinances). This "broader" canon is sometimes said to include with the Old Testament an 8-part history of the Jews based on the writings of Titus Flavius Josephus, and known as "Pseudo-Josephus" or "Joseph ben Gurion" (Yosēf walda Koryon). [32] [33]

See also


  1. There are differences in the nomenclature of the books and most modern English translations call these 1 and 2 Esdras (see, for instance, Esdras#Naming conventions).
  2. The New Testament was published in 1582, the Old Testament in two volumes, one in 1609, the other in 1610. The Old Testament was followed by three Apocrypha books which are in the appendix of the Clementine Vulgate; Prayer of Manasseh, 3 Esdras, and 4 Esdras. [11]
  3. NT released in 1941. The OT contained material from the Challoner Revision until the entire OT was completed in 1969. This Old Testament became the basis for the 1970 NAB
  4. New Testament only; Gospels by James Kleist, rest by Joseph Lilly.
  5. Formerly known as the Today's English Version
  6. The Jerusalem Bible except for the Book of Psalms, which is replaced by the Grail Psalms, and with the word "Yahweh" altered to "the Lord", as directed by the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments for Bibles intended to be used in the liturgy. [12]
  7. Approved by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines [15]
  8. There are differences from Western usage in the naming of some books (see, for instance, Esdras#Naming conventions).
  9. See Deuterocanonical books#In Eastern Orthodoxy

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Apocrypha</span> Works of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin

Apocrypha are biblical or related writings not forming part of the accepted canon of Scripture. While some might be of doubtful authorship or authenticity, in Christianity, the word apocryphal (ἀπόκρυφος) was first applied to writings which were to be read privately rather than in the public context of church services. Apocrypha were edifying Christian works that were not considered canonical scripture. It was not until well after the Protestant Reformation that the word apocrypha was used by some ecclesiastics to mean "false," "spurious," "bad," or "heretical."

The deuterocanonical books are books and passages considered by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches or the Assyrian Church of the East to be canonical books of the Old Testament, but which Jews and Protestants regard as apocrypha. They date from 300 BC to 100 AD, before the separation of the Christian church from Judaism. While the New Testament never directly quotes from or names these books, the apostles quoted the Septuagint, which includes them. Some say there is a correspondence of thought, and others see texts from these books being paraphrased, referred, or alluded to many times in the New Testament, depending in large measure on what is counted as a reference.

The Old Testament (OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon, which is based primarily upon the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh, a collection of ancient religious Hebrew and occasionally Aramaic writings by the Israelites. The second division of Christian Bibles is the New Testament, written in Koine Greek.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vulgate</span> Translation of the Bible by Jerome

The Vulgate, sometimes referred to as the Latin Vulgate, is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Douay–Rheims Bible</span> English-language Catholic Bible

The Douay–Rheims Bible, also known as the Douay–Rheims Version, Rheims–Douai Bible or Douai Bible, and abbreviated as D–R, DRB, and DRV, is a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church. The New Testament portion was published in Reims, France, in 1582, in one volume with extensive commentary and notes. The Old Testament portion was published in two volumes twenty-seven years later in 1609 and 1610 by the University of Douai. The first volume, covering Genesis to Job, was published in 1609; the second, covering the Book of Psalms to 2 Maccabees plus the three apocryphal books of the Vulgate appendix following the Old Testament, was published in 1610. Marginal notes took up the bulk of the volumes and offered insights on issues of translation, and on the Hebrew and Greek source texts of the Vulgate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">New American Bible</span> English-language Catholic Bible translation

The New American Bible (NAB) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1970. The 1986 Revised NAB is the basis of the revised Lectionary, and it is the only translation approved for use at Mass in the Latin Church Catholic dioceses of the United States and the Philippines, and the 1970 first edition is also an approved Bible translation by the Episcopal Church in the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Book of Baruch</span> Deuterocanonical book of the Bible in some Christian traditions

The Book of Baruch is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible, used in many Christian traditions, such as Catholic and Orthodox churches. In Judaism and Protestant Christianity, it is considered not to be part of the canon, with the Protestant Bibles categorizing it as part of the Biblical apocrypha. The book is named after Baruch ben Neriah, the prophet Jeremiah's scribe who is mentioned at Baruch 1:1, and has been presumed to be the author of the whole work. The book is a reflection of a late Jewish writer on the circumstances of Jewish exiles from Babylon, with meditations on the theology and history of Israel, discussions of wisdom, and a direct address to residents of Jerusalem and the Diaspora. Some scholars propose that it was written during or shortly after the period of the Maccabees.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition</span> 1966 English translation of the Bible

The Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition (RSVCE) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1966. In 1965, the Catholic Biblical Association adapted, under the editorship of Bernard Orchard OSB and Reginald C. Fuller, the Revised Standard Version (RSV) for Catholic use. It contains the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament placed in the traditional order of the Vulgate. The editors' stated aim for the RSV Catholic Edition was "to make the minimum number of alterations, and to change only what seemed absolutely necessary in the light of Catholic tradition."

<i>Jerusalem Bible</i> 1966 Catholic English translation of the Bible

The Jerusalem Bible is an English translation of the Bible published in 1966 by Darton, Longman & Todd. As a Catholic Bible, it includes 73 books: the 39 books shared with the Hebrew Bible, along with the seven deuterocanonical books, as the Old Testament, and the 27 books shared by all Christians as the New Testament. It also contains copious footnotes and introductions.

1 Esdras, also Esdras A, Greek Esdras, Greek Ezra, or 3 Esdras, is the ancient Greek Septuagint version of the biblical Book of Ezra in use within the early church, and among many modern Christians with varying degrees of canonicity. 1 Esdras is substantially similar to the standard Hebrew version of Ezra–Nehemiah, with the passages specific to the career of Nehemiah removed or re-attributed to Ezra, and some additional material.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2 Esdras</span> Apocalyptic appendix to Vulgate (70-218 CE)

2 Esdras is an apocalyptic book in some English versions of the Bible. Tradition ascribes it to Ezra, a scribe and priest of the fifth century BC, whom the book identifies with the sixth-century figure Shealtiel.

The name "Esdras" is found in the title of four texts attributed to, or associated with, the prophet Ezra. The naming convention of the four books of Esdras differs between church traditions; and has changed over time.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nova Vulgata</span> Classical Latin translation of the Bible

The Nova Vulgata, also called the Neo-Vulgate, is the Catholic Church's official Classical Latin translation of the original-language texts of the Bible published by the Holy See. It was completed in 1979, and was promulgated the same year by John Paul II in Scripturarum thesaurus. A second, revised edition was published in 1986. It is the official Latin text of the Bible of the Catholic Church. The Nova Vulgata is also called the New Latin Vulgate or the New Vulgate.

The Christian Community Bible is a translation of the Christian Bible in the English language originally produced in the Philippines.

These are the books of the Vulgate along with the names and numbers given them in the Douay–Rheims and King James versions of the Bible. They are all translations, and the Vulgate exists in many forms. There are 76 books in the Clementine edition of the Latin Vulgate, 46 in the Old Testament, 27 in the New Testament, and 3 in the Apocrypha.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Biblical apocrypha</span> Ancient books found in some editions of Bibles

The biblical apocrypha denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books thought to have been written some time between 200 BC and AD 100. The Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches include some or all of the same texts within the body of their version of the Old Testament, with Catholics terming them deuterocanonical books. Traditional 80-book Protestant Bibles include fourteen books in an intertestamental section between the Old Testament and New Testament called the Apocrypha, deeming these useful for instruction, but non-canonical. To this date, the Apocrypha are "included in the lectionaries of Anglican and Lutheran Churches". Anabaptists use the Luther Bible, which contains the Apocrypha as intertestamental books; Amish wedding ceremonies include "the retelling of the marriage of Tobias and Sarah in the Apocrypha". Moreover, the Revised Common Lectionary, in use by most mainline Protestants including Methodists and Moravians, lists readings from the Apocrypha in the liturgical calendar, although alternate Old Testament scripture lessons are provided.

The Old Testament is the first section of the two-part Christian biblical canon; the second section is the New Testament. The Old Testament includes the books of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) or protocanon, and in various Christian denominations also includes deuterocanonical books. Orthodox Christians, Catholics and Protestants use different canons, which differ with respect to the texts that are included in the Old Testament.

The Canon of Trent is the list of books officially considered canonical at the Roman Catholic Council of Trent. A decree, the De Canonicis Scripturis, from the Council's fourth session, issued an anathema on dissenters of the books affirmed in Trent. The Council confirmed an identical list already locally approved in 1442 by the Council of Florence, which had existed in the earliest canonical lists from the synods of Carthage and Rome in the fourth century.

A biblical canon is a set of texts which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as part of the Bible.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Protestant Bible</span> Christian Bible whose translation or revision was produced by Protestants

A Protestant Bible is a Christian Bible whose translation or revision was produced by Protestant Christians. Typically translated into a vernacular language, such Bibles comprise 39 books of the Old Testament and 27 books of the New Testament, for a total of 66 books. Some Protestants use Bibles which also include 14 additional books in a section known as the Apocrypha bringing the total to 80 books. This is in contrast with the 73 books of the Catholic Bible, which includes seven deuterocanonical books as a part of the Old Testament. The division between protocanonical and deuterocanonical books is not accepted by all Protestants who simply view books as being canonical or not and therefore classify books found in the Deuterocanon, along with other books, as part of the Apocrypha. Sometimes the term "Protestant Bible" is simply used as a shorthand for a bible which contains only the 66 books of the Old and New Testaments.


  1. New Catholic Encyclopedia (Vol. 3 ed.). Catholic University of America. 2003. pp. 20, 26. ISBN   9780787640040 . Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  2. "Our Beans: The Vulgate Appendix". 23 July 2018.
  3. "1610 A.D. Douay Old Testament, 1582 A.D. Rheims New Testament".
  4. "Code of Canon Law - Book III - The teaching function of the Church (Cann. 822-833)".
  5. Pope Pius XII. "Divino afflante Spiritu, 20–22". Holy See. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  6. Akin, James. "Uncomfortable Facts About The Douay–Rheims". Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  7. Knox, Ronald Arbuthnott (1949). On Englishing the Bible. Burns, Oates. p. 1.
  8. "Scripturarum Thesarurus, Apostolic Constitution, 25 April 1979, John Paul II". Vatican: The Holy See. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  9. Divino Afflante Spiritu , 16
  10. Divino Afflante Spiritu, 17
  11. "1610 A.D. Douay Old Testament, 1582 A.D. Rheims New Testament" . Retrieved 5 April 2023 via Internet Archive.
  12. 1 2 3 4 Arinze, Francis; Ranjith, Malcolm. "Letter to the Bishops Conferences on The Name of God". Bible Research: Internet Resources for Students of Scripture. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  13. "Launch of the new living translation catholic edition". Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  14. "Bengaluru: Catholic edition of ESV Bible launched".
  15. "First Look: New Catholic Bible (NCB) from Catholic Book Publishing Company – Catholic Bible Talk" . Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  16. "ISBN 9781947070417 - St. Joseph New Catholic Bible". Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  17. "The Revised New Jerusalem Bible: Study Edition". Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  18. "The Message - CatholicEcumenical Edition". The Message - CatholicEcumenical Edition. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  19. "Catholics get 'The Message' in new edition of Bible". National Catholic Reporter. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2020. Griffin said he used the Catholic-approved New Latin Vulgate as the basis for his translations.
  20. Booneau, Normand (1998). The Sunday Lectionary. Liturgical Press. pp. 50–±51. ISBN   9780814624579 . Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  21. 1 2 Gilligan, Michael. "Use of Yahweh in Church Songs". American Catholic Press. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  22. McNamara, Edward. "Which English Translation to Use Abroad". Eternal Word Television Network. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  23. Burnham, Andrew. "The Liturgy of the Ordinariates: Ordinary, Extraordinary, or Tertium Quid? [PDF]" (PDF). Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  24. Roxanne King (15 October 2008). "No 'Yahweh' in liturgies is no problem for the archdiocese, officials say". Denver Catholic Register. Archdiocese of Denver. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  25. Bauman, Michelle. "New American Bible to be revised into single translation". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  26. "NAB New Testament Revision Project". Catholic Biblical Association of America. Archived from the original on 24 January 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  27. King James Version Apocrypha, Reader's Edition. Hendrickson Publishers. 2009. p. viii. ISBN   9781598564648. The version of 1611, following its mandate to revise and standardize the English Bible tradition, included the fourteen (or fifteen) books of the Apocrypha in a section between the Old and New Testaments (see the chart on page vi). Because of the Thirty-Nine Articles, there was no reason for King James' translators to include any comments as to the status of these books, as had the earlier English translators and editors.
  28. Meade, John (7 November 2021). "Why Are Protestant and Catholic Bibles Different?". Text & Canon Institute.
  29. Pietersma, Albert; Wright, Benjamin G. (2007). A New English Translation of the Septuagint. Oxford University Press. pp. v–vi. ISBN   9780199743971 . Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  30. Mihăilă, Alexandru (2018). "The Septuagint and the Masoretic Text in the Orthodox Church(es)". Review of Ecumenical Studies Sibiu. 10: 35. doi: 10.2478/ress-2018-0003 . S2CID   171863532.
  31. McDonald and Sanders' The Canon Debate, Appendix C: Lists and Catalogs of Old Testament Collections, Table C-4: Current Canons of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, page 589=590.
  32. Cowley, R. W. "The Biblical Canon Of The Ethiopian Orthodox Church Today". Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  33. "Fathers". Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL). Archived from the original on 17 September 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2014.