Holy Spirit in Christianity

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The Holy Spirit as a dove in the Heavenly Trinity joined to the Holy Family through the Incarnation of the Son, in The Heavenly and Earthly Trinities by Murillo, c. 1677 Bartolome Esteban Murillo - The Heavenly and Earthly Trinities - 1681-82.jpg
The Holy Spirit as a dove in the Heavenly Trinity joined to the Holy Family through the Incarnation of the Son, in The Heavenly and Earthly Trinities by Murillo, c. 1677

For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit, or Holy Ghost, is believed to be the third person of the Trinity, [1] a Triune God manifested as God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit, each entity itself being God. [2] [3] [4] Nontrinitarian Christians, who reject the doctrine of the Trinity, differ significantly from mainstream Christianity in their beliefs about the Holy Spirit. In Christian theology, pneumatology is the study of the Holy Spirit. Due to Christianity's historical relationship with Judaism, theologians often identify the Holy Spirit with the concept of the Ruach Hakodesh in Jewish scripture, on the theory that Jesus was expanding upon these Jewish concepts. Similar names, and ideas, include the Ruach Elohim (Spirit of God), Ruach YHWH (Spirit of Yahweh), and the Ruach Hakodesh (Holy Spirit). [5] [6] In the New Testament it is identified with the Spirit of Christ, the Spirit of Truth, the Paraclete and the Holy Spirit. [7] [8] [9]

Contents

The New Testament details a close relationship between the Holy Spirit and Jesus during his earthly life and ministry. [10] The Gospels of Matthew and Luke and the Nicene Creed state that Jesus was "conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary". [11] The Holy Spirit descended on Jesus like a dove during his baptism, and in his Farewell Discourse after the Last Supper Jesus promised to send the Holy Spirit to his disciples after his departure. [12] [13]

The Holy Spirit is referred to as "the Lord, the Giver of Life" in the Nicene Creed, which summarises several key beliefs held by many Christian denominations. The participation of the Holy Spirit in the tripartite nature of conversion is apparent in Jesus' final post-resurrection instruction to his disciples at the end of the Gospel of Matthew, [14] "Make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit." [15] Since the first century, Christians have also called upon God with the trinitarian formula "Father, Son and Holy Spirit" in prayer, absolution and benediction. [16] [17] In the book of the Acts of the Apostles the arrival of the Holy Spirit happens fifty days after the resurrection of the Christ, and is celebrated in Christendom with the feast of Pentecost. [18]

Etymology and usage

The Koine Greek word pneûma ( πνεῦμα , pneuma) is found around 385 times in the New Testament, with some scholars differing by three to nine occurrences. [19] Pneuma appears 105 times in the four canonical gospels, 69 times in the Acts of the Apostles, 161 times in the Pauline epistles, and 50 times elsewhere. [19] These usages vary: in 133 cases it refers to "spirit" and in 153 cases to "spiritual". Around 93 times, the reference is to the Holy Spirit, [19] sometimes under the name pneuma and sometimes explicitly as the pneûma tò Hagion ( Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον ). (In a few cases it is also simply used generically to mean wind or life. [19] ) It was generally translated into the Vulgate as Spiritus and Spiritus Sanctus .

The English terms "Holy Ghost" and "Holy Spirit" are complete synonyms: one derives from the Old English gast and the other from the Latin loanword spiritus . Like pneuma, they both refer to the breath, to its animating power, and to the soul. The Old English term is shared by all other Germanic languages (compare, e.g., the German Geist ) and it is older; the King James Bible typically uses "Holy Ghost". Beginning in the 20th century, translations overwhelmingly prefer "Holy Spirit", partly because the general English term "ghost" has increasingly come to refer only to the spirit of a dead person. [20] [21] [22]

Names

Hebrew Bible

Source: [5]

New Testament

Depending on context:

Biblical portrayal

Old Testament

What the Hebrew Bible calls "Spirit of God" and "Spirit of Elohim" is called in the Talmud and Midrash "Holy Spirit" (ruacḥ ha-kodesh). Although the expression "Holy Spirit" occurs in Ps. 51:11 and in Isa. 63:10–11, it had not yet acquired quite the same meaning which was attached to it in rabbinical literature: in the latter it is equivalent to the expression "Spirit of the Lord". In Gen.1:2 God's spirit hovered over the form of lifeless matter, thereby making the Creation possible. [35] [36] Although the ruach ha-kodesh may be named instead of God, it was conceived of as being something distinct; and, like everything earthly that comes from heaven, the ruach ha-kodesh is composed of light and fire. [36] The most characteristic sign of the presence of the ruach ha-kodesh is the gift of prophecy. The use of the word "ruach" (Hebrew: "breath", or "wind") in the phrase ruach ha-kodesh seems to suggest that Judaic authorities believed the Holy Spirit was a kind of communication medium like the wind. The spirit talks sometimes with a masculine and sometimes with a feminine voice; the word ruacḥ is both masculine and feminine. [36]

New Testament

The term Holy Spirit appears at least 90 times in the New Testament. [7] The sacredness of the Holy Spirit to Christians is affirmed in all three Synoptic Gospels, [37] which proclaim that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is the unforgivable sin. [38] The participation of the Holy Spirit in the Trinity is suggested in Jesus' final post-Resurrection instruction to his disciples at the end of the Gospel of Matthew (28:19): [39] "Go ye therefore, and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit". [15]

Synoptic Gospels

The Holy Spirit as a dove in The Annunciation, by Philippe de Champaigne, 1644. Philippe de Champaigne - Annunciation - WGA04705.jpg
The Holy Spirit as a dove in The Annunciation, by Philippe de Champaigne, 1644.

The Holy Spirit is mentioned by all three authors of the synoptic Gospels. Most of the references are by the author of the Gospel of Luke; this emphasis is continued by the same author in the Book of Acts.

The Holy Spirit does not simply appear for the first time at Pentecost after the resurrection of Jesus, but is present in the Gospel of Luke (in 1–2) prior to the birth of Jesus. [7] In Luke 1:15, John the Baptist was said to be "filled with the Holy Spirit" prior to birth, [40] and the Holy Spirit came upon the Virgin Mary in Luke 1:35. [41] [7] In Luke 3:16, [42] John the Baptist stated that Jesus baptized not with water but with the Holy Spirit; and the Holy Spirit descended on Jesus during his baptism in the Jordan River. [7] In Luke 11:13, [43] Jesus provided assurances that God the Father would "give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him". [7]

Mark 13:11 specifically refers to the power of the Holy Spirit to act and speak through the disciples of Jesus in time of need: "Be not anxious beforehand what ye shall speak: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye; for it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Spirit." [44] Matthew 10:20 [45] refers to the same act of speaking through the disciples, but uses the term "Spirit of your Father". [46]

Acts of the Apostles

The Acts of the Apostles has sometimes been called the "Book of the Holy Spirit" or the "Acts of the Holy Spirit". [47] [48] Of the seventy or so occurrences of the word Pneuma in Acts, fifty-five refer to the Holy Spirit. [48]

From the start, in Acts 1:2, [49] the reader is reminded that the ministry of Jesus, while he was on earth, was carried out through the power of the Holy Spirit and that the "acts of the apostles" continue the acts of Jesus and are also facilitated by the Holy Spirit. [48] Acts presents the Holy Spirit as the "life principle" of the early Church and provides five separate and dramatic instances of its outpouring on believers in Acts 2:1–4, [50] 4:28–31, [51] 8:15–17, [52] 10:44, [53] and 19:6. [54] [47]

References to the Holy Spirit appear throughout Acts, for example Acts 1:5 and 8 [55] stating towards the beginning, "For John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit. ...Ye shall receive power, when the Holy Spirit is come upon you", referring to the fulfillment of the prophecy of John the Baptist in Luke 3:16, [42] "he shall baptize you in the Holy Spirit". [56]

Johannine literature

Three separate terms, namely Holy Spirit, Spirit of Truth and Paraclete are used in the Johannine writings. [9] The "Spirit of Truth" is used in John 14:17, [57] 15:26, [58] and 16:13. [59] [7] The First Epistle of John then contrasts this with the "spirit of error" in 1 John 4:6. [60] [7] 1 John 4:1–6 provides the separation between spirits "that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God" and those who in error refuse it – an indication of their being evil spirits. [61]

In John 14:26, [62] Jesus states: "But the Comforter, [even] the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things". The identity of the "Comforter" has been the subject of debate among theologians, who have proposed multiple theories on the matter. [63]

Pauline epistles

Stained glass representation of the Holy Spirit as a dove, c. 1660. Holy Spirit as Dove (detail).jpg
Stained glass representation of the Holy Spirit as a dove, c. 1660.

The Holy Spirit plays a key role in the Pauline epistles; and the Apostle Paul's pneumatology is closely connected to his theology and Christology, to the point of being almost inseparable from them. [8]

The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, which was likely the first of Paul's letters, introduces a characterization of the Holy Spirit in 1 Thessalonians 1:6 [64] and 1 Thessalonians 4:8 [65] which is found throughout his epistles. [66] In 1 Thessalonians 1:6 Paul refers to the imitation of Christ (and himself) and states: "And ye became imitators of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Spirit", whose source is identified in 1 Thessalonians 4:8 as "God, who giveth his Holy Spirit unto you". [66] [67] [68]

These two themes of receiving the Spirit "like Christ" and God being the source of the Spirit persist in Pauline letters as the characterization of the relationship of Christians with God. [66] For Paul the imitation of Christ involves readiness to be shaped by the Holy Spirit, as in Romans 8:4 and 8:11: "But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwelleth in you, he that raised up Christ Jesus from the dead shall give life also to your mortal bodies through his Spirit that dwelleth in you." [69] [67]

The First Epistle to the Thessalonians also refers to the power of the Holy Spirit in 1 Thessalonians 1:5, [70] a theme also found in other Pauline letters. [71]

In the Apocrypha

The view of the Holy Spirit as responsible for Mary's pregnancy, found in the Synoptic Gospels, [72] is different from that found in the apocryphal Gospel of the Hebrews, adopted as canonical by the 4th century Nazarenes, in which Jesus speaks of the Holy Spirit as his mother and thus as female. [73] Some thought femininity incompatible with the idea that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit; according to the apocryphal Gospel of Philip, for example,

Some say, "Mary conceived by the Holy Spirit." They are in error. They do not know what they are saying. When did a woman ever conceive by a woman? [74]

Jesus and the Holy Spirit

In the Farewell Discourse Jesus promised to send the Holy Spirit to his disciples after his departure, depiction from the Maesta by Duccio, 1308-1311. Christ Taking Leave of the Apostles.jpg
In the Farewell Discourse Jesus promised to send the Holy Spirit to his disciples after his departure, depiction from the Maesta by Duccio, 1308–1311.

The New Testament details a close relationship between the Holy Spirit and Jesus during his earthly life and ministry. [10] The Apostles' Creed echoes the statements in the Gospels of Luke and Matthew, stating that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary. [11]

Specific New Testament references to the interaction of Jesus and the Holy Spirit during his earthly life, and the enabling power of the Holy Spirit during his ministry include: [10] [11] [75]

  • "Spirit without measure" having been given to Jesus in John 3:34, referring to the word spoken by Jesus (Rhema) being the words of God. [76]
  • Baptism of Jesus, with the Holy Spirit descending on him as a dove in Matthew 3:13–17, [77] Mark 1:9–11 [78] and Luke 3:21–23. [79]
  • Temptation of Jesus, in Matthew 4:1 the Holy Spirit led Jesus to the desert to be tempted. [80]
  • The Spirit casting out demons in Exorcising the blind and mute man miracle. [81]
  • Rejoice the Spirit in Luke 10:21 where seventy disciples are sent out by Jesus. [82]
  • Acts 1:2 states that until his death and resurrection, Jesus "had given commandment through the Holy Spirit unto the apostles". [49]
  • Referring to the sacrifice of Jesus to be crucified out of obedience to the father, Hebrews 9:14 states that Jesus "through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish unto God". [83]

In his Farewell Discourse to his disciples, Jesus promised that he would "send the Holy Spirit" to them after his departure, in John 15:26 stating: "whom I will send unto you from the Father, [even] the Spirit of truth ... shall bear witness of me". [58] [12] [13]

Mainstream doctrines

Denominational variations

Icon of the Fathers of the Council holding the Nicene Creed. Nicaea icon.jpg
Icon of the Fathers of the Council holding the Nicene Creed.

Christian denominations have doctrinal variations in their beliefs regarding the Holy Spirit. A well-known example is the Filioque controversy regarding the Holy Spirit – one of the key differences between the teachings of the main Western Churches and various Eastern Christian denominations (Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Church of the East). [119] [120]

The Filioque debate centers around whether the Nicene Creed should state that the Spirit "proceeds from the Father" and then have a stop, as the creed was initially adopted in Greek (and followed thereafter by the Eastern Church), or should say "from the Father and the Son" as was later adopted in Latin and followed by the Western Church, filioque being "and from the Son" in Latin. [121]

Towards the end of the 20th century, discussions took place about the removal of Filioque in the Nicene Creed from Anglican prayer books along the lines of the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox approach, but these still have not reached a state of final implementation. [122]

The majority of mainstream Protestantism hold similar views on the theology of the Holy Spirit as the Roman Catholic Church, but there are significant differences in belief between Pentecostalism and the rest of Protestantism. [2] [123] Pentecostalism has a focus on "Baptism with the Spirit", relying on Acts 1:5 which refers to "now you will baptize with the Holy Spirit". [124] The more recent Charismatic movements have a focus on the "gifts of the Spirit" (such as healing, prophecy, etc.) and rely on 1 Corinthians 12 as a scriptural basis, but often differ from Pentecostal movements. [125]

Non-trinitarian views about the Holy Spirit differ significantly from mainstream Christian doctrine.

Catholicism

The Holy Spirit has been a topic in at least two papal encyclicals:

The topic of the Holy Spirit is discussed extensively in the Catechism of the Catholic Church as "I believe in the Holy Spirit" in paragraphs 683 through 747.


Jehovah's Witnesses and Christadelphians

Jehovah's Witnesses and Christadelphians view the Holy Spirit not as an actual person separate from God the Father, but as God's eternal "energy" or "active force", that he uses to accomplish his will in creation and redemption. [126] [127]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) believe that the Holy Ghost is the third member of the Godhead. He is a personage of spirit, without a body of flesh and bones. [128] He is often referred to as the Spirit, the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of God, the Spirit of the Lord, or the Comforter. [129] Latter-day Saints believe in a kind of social trinitarianism and subordinationism, meaning that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are understood as being unified in will and purpose, but not in substance. [130] The Holy Ghost is believed to be subordinate to the Father and the Son and operates under their direction. The Holy Ghost, like all intelligent beings, is believed to be fundamentally eternal, uncreated, and self-existent. [131]

The LDS Church teaches that the influence of the Holy Ghost can be received before baptism, but the gift, or constant companionship, of the Holy Ghost—which comes by the laying-on of hands by a properly ordained priesthood holder with a line of authority traced back to Christ through Peter—is obtained only after baptism when a person is confirmed. [132] Joseph Smith, the founder of the church, taught, "You might as well baptize a bag of sand as a man," he said, "if not done in view of the remission of sins and getting of the Holy Ghost. Baptism by water is but half a baptism, and is good for nothing without the other half — that is, the baptism of the Holy Ghost". [133]

Symbolism and art

Symbolism

The Holy Spirit as a dove on a stamp from Faroe Islands. Faroe stamp 537 jolavisan.jpg
The Holy Spirit as a dove on a stamp from Faroe Islands.

The Holy Spirit is frequently referred to by metaphor and symbol, both doctrinally and biblically. Theologically speaking these symbols are a key to understanding of the Holy Spirit and his actions, and are not mere artistic representations. [85] [134]

Art, literature and architecture

Art

The Holy Spirit as a dove in the Annunciation by Rubens, 1628. Peter Paul Rubens - Annunciation - WGA20250.jpg
The Holy Spirit as a dove in the Annunciation by Rubens, 1628.

The Holy Spirit has been represented in Christian art both in the Eastern and Western Churches using a variety of depictions. [145] [146] [147] The depictions have ranged from nearly identical figures that represent the three persons of the Holy Trinity, to a dove, to a flame.

The Holy Spirit is often depicted as a dove, based on the account of the Holy Spirit descending on Jesus like a dove when he was baptized in the Jordan. [148] In many paintings of the Annunciation, the Holy Spirit is shown in the form of a dove, coming down towards Mary on beams of light, as the Archangel Gabriel announces Jesus Christ's coming to Mary. A dove may also be seen at the ear of Gregory the Great – as recorded by his secretary – or other church father authors, dictating their works to them. The dove also parallels the one that brought the olive branch to Noah after the deluge, as a symbol of peace. [148]

The book of Acts describes the Holy Spirit descending on the apostles at Pentecost in the form of a wind and tongues of fire resting over the apostles' heads. Based on the imagery in that account, the Holy Spirit is sometimes symbolized by a flame of fire. [149]

Ancient Celtic Christians depicted the Holy Spirit as a goose called Ah Geadh-Glas, which means wild goose. [150] A goose was chosen rather than the traditional dove because geese were perceived as more free than their dove counterparts. [151] [152]

Literature

The Holy Spirit has traditionally been a subject matter of strictly theological works focused on proving the central doctrines concerning the Holy Spirit, often as a response to arguments from religious groups who deny these foundational Biblical truths. In recent years, however, the Holy Spirit has made an entrance into the world of (Christian) literature through books such as The Shack published in 2007.

Visual arts

Holy Spirit cathedrals

See also

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  11. 1 2 3 Millard J. Erickson (1992). Introducing Christian Doctrine. Baker Book House. pp. 267–268.
  12. 1 2 John by Andreas J. Köstenberger 2004 ISBN   0-8010-2644-X, page 442
  13. 1 2 3 The Gospel of John: Question by Question by Judith Schubert 2009 ISBN   0-8091-4549-9, pages 112–127
  14. Matthew 28:19
  15. 1 2 Lord, giver of life (Lona) by Jane Barter Moulaison 2006 ISBN   0-88920-501-9 page 5
  16. 1 2 3 4 Vickers, Jason E. Invocation and Assent: The Making and the Remaking of Trinitarian Theology. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2008. ISBN   0-8028-6269-1, pages 2–5
  17. 1 2 3 The Cambridge Companion to the Trinity by Peter C. Phan 2011 ISBN   0-521-70113-9, pages 3–4
  18. "Pentecost". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-06-03. Pentecost... major festival in the Christian church, celebrated on the Sunday that falls on the 50th day after Easter.
  19. 1 2 3 4 Companion Bible–KJV–Large Print by E. W. Bullinger, Kregel Publications, 1999. ISBN   0-8254-2099-7. Page 146.
  20. Robin W. Lovin, Foreword to the English translation of Karl Barth's The Holy Spirit and the Christian Life (1993 ISBN   0-664-25325-3), page xvii
  21. Millard J. Erickson, L. Arnold Hustad, Introducing Christian Doctrine (Baker Academic 2001 ISBN   978-0-8010-2250-0), p. 271
  22. "Norfolk schools told Holy Ghost 'too spooky'". The Guardian. London. 2005-04-11. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
  23. Interlinear Bible on Bible Hub.
  24. Interlinear Bible on Bible Hub.
  25. Interlinear Bible on Bible Hub.
  26. Interlinear Bible on Bible Hub.
  27. 1 2 3 4 Interlinear Bible on Bible Hub.
  28. "Strong's Hebrew: 1847. דָּ֫עַת (daath) – knowledge". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  29. "Matthew 1:18 Greek Text Analysis". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  30. "Matthew 12:28 Greek Text Analysis". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  31. "John 16:7 Greek Text Analysis". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  32. "John 16:13 Greek Text Analysis". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  33. "1 Peter 1:11 Greek Text Analysis". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  34. "John 3:8 Interlinear: the Spirit where he willeth doth blow, and his voice thou dost hear, but thou hast not known whence he cometh, and whither he goeth; thus is every one who hath been born of the Spirit.'". biblehub.com. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  35. See: Darshan, Guy, “Ruaḥ ’Elohim in Genesis 1:2 in Light of Phoenician Cosmogonies: A Tradition’s History,” Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages 45,2 (2019), 51–78.
  36. 1 2 3 "HOLY SPIRIT - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  37. Matthew 12:30–32, Mark 3:28–30 and Luke 12:8–10
  38. Blomberg, Craig L., Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey, 2009 ISBN   0-8054-4482-3, page 280
  39. "Bible Gateway passage: Matthew 28:19 – English Standard Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  40. Luke 1:15
  41. Luke 1:35
  42. 1 2 Luke 3:16
  43. Luke 11:13
  44. Mark 13:11
  45. Matthew 10:20
  46. The Gospel of Luke by Luke Timothy Johnson, Daniel J. Harrington 1992 ISBN   0-8146-5805-9, page 195
  47. 1 2 The Acts of the Apostles by Luke Timothy Johnson, Daniel J. Harrington 1992 ISBN   0-8146-5807-5, pages 14–18
  48. 1 2 3 A Bible Handbook to the Acts of the Apostles by Mal Couch 2004 ISBN   0-8254-2391-0, pages 120–129
  49. 1 2 Acts 1:2
  50. Acts 2:1–4
  51. Acts 4:28–31
  52. Acts 8:15–17
  53. Acts 10:44
  54. Acts 19:6
  55. Acts 1:5 and 8
  56. Reading Acts: A Literary and Theological Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles by Charles H. Talbert 2005 ISBN   1-57312-277-7, pages 24–25
  57. John 14:17
  58. 1 2 John 15:26
  59. John 16:13
  60. 1 John 4:6
  61. 1, 2, and 3 John by John Painter, Daniel J. Harrington 2002 ISBN   0-8146-5812-1, page 324
  62. John 14:26
  63. The anointed community: the Holy Spirit in the Johannine tradition by Gary M. Burge 1987 ISBN   0-8028-0193-5, pages 14–21
  64. 1:6
  65. 4:8
  66. 1 2 3 Theology of Paul the Apostle by James D. G. Dunn 2003 ISBN   0-567-08958-4, pages 418–420
  67. 1 2 A Concise Dictionary of Theology by Gerald O'Collins, Edward G. Farrugia 2004 ISBN   0-567-08354-3 page 115
  68. Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 3 by Phyllis G. Jestice 2004 ISBN   1-57607-355-6, pages 393–394
  69. Romans 8:4
  70. 1:5
  71. 1 & 2 Thessalonians by Jon A. Weatherly 1996 ISBN   0-89900-636-1, pages 42–43
  72. Matthew 1:18 and Luke 1:34 –35
  73. Koch, Glenn Alan (1990), "Hebrews, Gospel of the", in Mills, Watson E.; Bullard, Roger Aubrey (eds.), Mercer Dictionary of the Bible, Mercer University Press, p. 364, ISBN   978-0-86554-373-7
  74. "Gospel of Philip". Translated by Isenberg, Wesley W. 1996.
  75. Karl Barth (1949). Dogmatics in Outline . New York Philosophical Library. p.  95.
  76. The Gospel According to John: An Introduction and Commentary by Colin G. Kruse (Jun 2004) ISBN   0-8028-2771-3, page 123
  77. Matthew 3:13–17
  78. Mark 1:9–11
  79. Luke 3:21–23
  80. Matthew 4:1
  81. Matthew 12:28
  82. Luke 10:21
  83. Hebrews 9:14
  84. 1 2 3 4 The Cambridge Companion to Christian Doctrine by Colin E. Gunton (Jun 28, 1997) ISBN   0-521-47695-X, pages 280–285
  85. 1 2 3 "Catholic Encyclopedia:Holy Spirit".
  86. See discussion in Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Person"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  87. CCC : The Dogma of the Holy trinity.
  88. "Bible Gateway passage: Luke 1:35 – English Standard Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  89. Harrington, Daniel J., SJ. "Jesus Goes Public." America, Jan. 7–14, 2008, p. 38
  90. Mt 3:17 Mk 1:11 Lk 3:21–22
  91. "Bible Gateway passage: John 15:26 – English Standard Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  92. "Bible Gateway passage: John 14:16 – English Standard Version". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  93. Theology for the Community of God by Stanley J. Grenz (Jan 31, 2000) ISBN   0-8028-4755-2 page 380
  94. Baptism in the Early Church: History, Theology, and Liturgy in the First Five Centuries by Everett Ferguson (Mar 29, 2009) ISBN   0-8028-2748-9, page 776
  95. Systematic Theology by Lewis Sperry Chafer 1993 ISBN   0-8254-2340-6, page 25
  96. 1 2 The Wiersbe Bible Commentary: The Complete New Testament by Warren W. Wiersbe 2007 ISBN   978-0-7814-4539-9, page 471
  97. The mystery of the Triune God ... Whatever, therefore, is spoken of God in respect to Himself, is both spoken singly of each person, that is, of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit; and together of the Trinity itself, not plurally but in the singular. by John Joseph O'Donnell 1988 ISBN   0-7220-5760-1 page 75
  98. 1 Corinthians 6:19
  99. "De Trinitate, Book V, chapter 8". newadvent.org. Archived from the original on October 13, 1999.
  100. 1 2 3 Millard J. Erickson (1992). Introducing Christian Doctrine. Baker Book House. pp. 265–270.
  101. Though the term "born again" is most frequently used by evangelical Christians, most denominations do consider that the new Christian is a "new creation" and "born again". See for example the Catholic Encyclopedia
  102. The Holy Spirit and His Gifts. J. Oswald Sanders. Inter-Varsity Press. chapter 5.
  103. T C Hammond, Revised and edited by David F Wright (1968). In Understanding be Men: A Handbook of Christian Doctrine (Sixth ed.). Inter-Varsity Press. p. 134.{{cite book}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  104. John 15:26
  105. Meyendorff 1989.
  106. Martínez-Díez & Rodriguez 1992, p. 79.
  107. Wilhite 2009, pp. 285–302.
  108. Phillips 1995, pp. 60.
  109. 1 2 3 4 5 CCC nos. 1830–32.
  110. 1 2 3 The Epistle to the Galatians (The New International Commentary on the New Testament) by Ronald Y. K. Fung (Jul 22, 1988) Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing ISBN   0-8028-2509-5, pages 262–263
  111. Galatians 5:22–23
  112. 1 Corinthians 12
  113. 12
  114. Ephesians 4
  115. 1 2 3 4 5 Erickson, Millard J. (1992). Introducing Christian Doctrine. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Publishing Group. ISBN   978-0-8010-3215-8. 2nd ed. 2001. Chapter Thirty – "The work of the Holy Spirit" (pp. 275ff.). ISBN   978-0-8010-2250-0.
  116. Tozer, A. W. (1994). I talk back to the devil. Carlisle: OM Pub. ISBN   978-1-85078-148-6. OCLC   31753708.
  117. 11:1–2
  118. 1 2 3 Shaw, Russell; Stravinskas, Peter M. J. (1998). Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Encyclopedia. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing. p.  457. ISBN   978-0-87973-669-9.
  119. Kasper, Walter (2006). The Petrine ministry. Catholics and Orthodox in Dialogue: Academic Symposium Neld at the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. Paulist Press. p. 188. ISBN   978-0-8091-4334-4.
  120. Kinnamon, Michael; Cope, Brian E. (1997). The Ecumenical Movement: An Anthology of Key Texts and Voices. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 172. ISBN   978-0-8028-4263-3.
  121. The Holy Spirit: Classic and Contemporary Readings by Eugene F. Rogers Jr. (May 19, 2009) Wiley ISBN   1-4051-3623-5, page 81
  122. Introduction to Theology by Owen C. Thomas and Ellen K. Wondra (Jul 1, 2002) ISBN   0-8192-1897-9, page 221
  123. David Watson (1973). One in the Spirit. Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 39–64.
  124. Encyclopedia of Protestantism by J. Gordon Melton 2008 ISBN   0-8160-7746-0, page 69
  125. Encyclopedia of Protestantism by J. Gordon Melton 2008 ISBN   0-8160-7746-0, page 134
  126. "Is the Holy Spirit a Person?". Awake!: 14–15. July 2006. In the Bible, God's Holy Spirit is identified as God's power in action. Hence, an accurate translation of the Bible's Hebrew text refers to God's spirit as "God's active force."
  127. "Doctrines to be rejected". Doctrines to be Rejected. We reject the doctrine – that the Holy Spirit is a person distinct from the Father
  128. "Doctrine and Covenants 130". www.churchofjesuschrist.org. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  129. "True to the Faith", p. 81.
  130. "For Youth". www.churchofjesuschrist.org. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  131. "Doctrine and Covenants 93". www.churchofjesuschrist.org. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  132. "Holy Ghost - the Encyclopedia of Mormonism". Archived from the original on 2018-04-02. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  133. TPJS , p. 314.
  134. 1 2 3 4 5 6 David Watson (1973). One in the Spirit. Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 20–25.
  135. 1Cor 12:13
  136. Jn 19:34 1 Jn 5:8
  137. 1 2 3 4 5 CCC: Symbols of the Holy Spirit (nos. 694–701).
  138. Revelation 21:6 and Revelation 22:1
  139. "Catechism of the Catholic Church – Celebrating the Church's liturgy". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 2020-08-10.
  140. 2Cor 1:21
  141. Lk 9:34–35
  142. Mt 3:16
  143. Jn 3:8
  144. Acts 2:24
  145. Renaissance Art: A Topical Dictionary by Irene Earls 1987 ISBN   0-313-24658-0, page 70
  146. Gardner's Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective by Fred S. Kleiner ISBN   0-495-57355-8, page 349
  147. Vladimir Lossky, 1999 The Meaning of Icons ISBN   0-913836-99-0, page 17
  148. 1 2 We Believe in the Holy Spirit (Ancient Christian Doctrine, No. 4) by Joel C. Elowsky (Jul 13, 2009) InterVarsity ISBN   0-8308-2534-7, page 14
  149. The Holy Spirit: Classic and Contemporary Readings by Eugene F. Rogers Jr. (May 19, 2009) Wiley ISBN   1-4051-3623-5, pages 121–123
  150. "Ah Geadh-Glas Archives". Today, if you hear his voice. Retrieved 2020-03-11.
  151. "Christians on a Wild Goose Chase". CBN.com – The Christian Broadcasting Network. 2013-09-25. Retrieved 2020-03-11.
  152. Downs, Annie (2018). Remember God. B&H Publishing Group. But did you also know that Celtic Christians call the Holy Spirit Ah Geadh-Glas, which means "Wild Goose"? Don't you love that? Because if you've ever tried to follow the leading of the Holy Spirit, for sure it can feel like a wild goose chase.

Sources

Further reading