Inquisition

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A 19th-century depiction of Galileo before the Holy Office, by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury Galileo before the Holy Office - Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, 1847.png
A 19th-century depiction of Galileo before the Holy Office, by Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury

The Inquisition was a judicial procedure and a group of institutions within the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy, conducting trials of suspected heretics. Studies of the records have found that the overwhelming majority of sentences consisted of penances, but convictions of unrepentant heresy were handed over to the secular courts, which generally resulted in execution or life imprisonment. [1] [2] [3] The Inquisition had its start in the 12th-century Kingdom of France, with the aim of combating religious deviation (e.g. apostasy or heresy), particularly among the Cathars and the Waldensians. The inquisitorial courts from this time until the mid-15th century are together known as the Medieval Inquisition. Other groups investigated during the Medieval Inquisition, which primarily took place in France and Italy, include the Spiritual Franciscans, the Hussites, and the Beguines. Beginning in the 1250s, inquisitors were generally chosen from members of the Dominican Order, replacing the earlier practice of using local clergy as judges. [4]

Contents

During the Late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance, the scope of the Inquisition grew significantly in response to the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation. During this period, the Inquisition conducted by the Holy See was known as the Roman Inquisition. The Inquisition also expanded to other European countries, [5] resulting in the Spanish Inquisition and the Portuguese Inquisition. The Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions were instead focused particularly on the New Christians or Conversos, as the former Jews who converted to Christianity to avoid antisemitic regulations and persecution were called, the anusim (people who were forced to abandon Judaism against their will by violence and threats of expulsion) and on Muslim converts to Catholicism. The scale of the persecution of converted Muslims and converted Jews in Spain and Portugal was the result of suspicions that they had secretly reverted to their previous religions, although both religious minority groups were also more numerous on the Iberian Peninsula than in other parts of Europe, as well as the fear of possible rebellions and armed uprisings, as had occurred in previous times.

During this time, Spain and Portugal operated inquisitorial courts not only in Europe, but also throughout their empires in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. This resulted in the Goa Inquisition, the Peruvian Inquisition, and the Mexican Inquisition, among others. [6]

With the exception of the Papal States, the institution of the Inquisition was abolished in the early 19th century, after the Napoleonic Wars in Europe and the Spanish American wars of independence in the Americas. The institution survived as part of the Roman Curia, but in 1908 it was renamed the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office. In 1965, it became the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. [7] In 2022, this office was renamed the Dicastery for the Doctrine of the Faith.

Definition and goals

Tribunal at the Inquisitor's Palace in Birgu, Malta Inquisitor Palace Birgu 2012 n27.jpg
Tribunal at the Inquisitor's Palace in Birgu, Malta

The term "Inquisition" comes from the Medieval Latin word inquisitio, which described any court process based on Roman law, which had gradually come back into use during the Late Middle Ages. [8] Today, the English term "Inquisition" can apply to any one of several institutions that worked against heretics or other offenders against the canon law of the Catholic Church. Although the term "Inquisition" is usually applied to ecclesiastical courts of the Catholic Church, it refers to a judicial process, not an organization. Inquisitors '...were called such because they applied a judicial technique known as inquisitio, which could be translated as "inquiry" or "inquest".' In this process, which was already widely used by secular rulers (Henry II used it extensively in England in the 12th century), an official inquirer called for information on a specific subject from anyone who felt he or she had something to offer." [9]

The Inquisition, as a church-court, had no jurisdiction over Muslims and Jews as such. [10] Generally, the Inquisition was concerned only with the heretical behaviour of Catholic adherents or converts. [11]

The overwhelming majority of sentences seem to have consisted of penances like wearing a cross sewn on one's clothes or going on pilgrimage. [1] When a suspect was convicted of major, willful, unrepentant heresy, canon law required the inquisitorial tribunal to hand the person over to secular authorities for final sentencing. A secular magistrate, the "secular arm", would then determine the penalty based on local law. [12] [13] Those local laws included proscriptions against certain religious crimes, and the punishments included death by burning, although the penalty was more usually banishment or imprisonment for life, which was generally commuted after a few years. Thus the inquisitors generally knew the expected fate of anyone so remanded. [14]

The 1578 edition of the Directorium Inquisitorum (a standard Inquisitorial manual) spelled out the purpose of inquisitorial penalties: ... quoniam punitio non refertur primo & per se in correctionem & bonum eius qui punitur, sed in bonum publicum ut alij terreantur, & a malis committendis avocentur (translation: "... for punishment does not take place primarily and per se for the correction and good of the person punished, but for the public good in order that others may become terrified and weaned away from the evils they would commit"). [15]

Origin

Before the 12th century, the Catholic Church suppressed what they believed to be heresy, usually through a system of ecclesiastical proscription or imprisonment, but without using torture, [5] and seldom resorting to executions. [16] [17] Such punishments were opposed by a number of clergymen and theologians, although some countries punished heresy with the death penalty. [18] [19] Pope Siricius, Ambrose of Milan, and Martin of Tours protested against the execution of Priscillian, largely as an undue interference in ecclesiastical discipline by a civil tribunal. Though widely viewed as a heretic, Priscillian was executed as a sorcerer. Ambrose refused to give any recognition to Ithacius of Ossonuba, "not wishing to have anything to do with bishops who had sent heretics to their death". [20]

In the 12th century, to counter the spread of Catharism, prosecution of heretics became more frequent. The Church charged councils composed of bishops and archbishops with establishing inquisitions (the Episcopal Inquisition). The first Inquisition was temporarily established in Languedoc (south of France) in 1184. The murder of Pope Innocent's papal legate Pierre de Castelnau in 1208 sparked the Albigensian Crusade (1209–1229). The Inquisition was permanently established in 1229 (Council of Toulouse), run largely by the Dominicans [21] in Rome and later at Carcassonne in Languedoc.

Medieval Inquisition

Historians use the term "Medieval Inquisition" to describe the various inquisitions that started around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition (1184–1230s) and later the Papal Inquisition (1230s). These inquisitions responded to large popular movements throughout Europe considered apostate or heretical to Christianity, in particular the Cathars in southern France and the Waldensians in both southern France and northern Italy. Other Inquisitions followed after these first inquisition movements. The legal basis for some inquisitorial activity came from Pope Innocent IV's papal bull Ad extirpanda of 1252, which authorized the use of a single session of certain tortures in certain circumstances by the Inquisition for eliciting confessions from heretics. [22] However, Nicholas Eymerich, the inquisitor who wrote the "Directorium Inquisitorum", stated: 'Quaestiones sunt fallaces et ineficaces' ("interrogations via torture are misleading and futile"). By 1256 inquisitors were given absolution if they used instruments of torture. [23]

In the 13th century, Pope Gregory IX (reigned 1227–1241) assigned the duty of carrying out inquisitions to the Dominican Order and Franciscan Order. By the end of the Middle Ages, England and Castile were the only large western nations without a papal inquisition. Most inquisitors were friars who taught theology and/or law in the universities. They used inquisitorial procedures, a common legal practice adapted from the earlier Ancient Roman court procedures. [24] They judged heresy along with bishops and groups of "assessors" (clergy serving in a role that was roughly analogous to a jury or legal advisers), using the local authorities to establish a tribunal and to prosecute heretics. After 1200, a Grand Inquisitor headed each Inquisition. Grand Inquisitions persisted until the mid 19th century. [25]

Inquisition in Italy

Only fragmentary data is available for the period before the Roman Inquisition of 1542. In 1276, some 170 Cathars were captured in Sirmione, who were then imprisoned in Verona, and there, after a two-year trial, on February 13 from 1278, more than a hundred of them were burned. [26] In Orvieto, at the end of 1268/1269, 85 heretics were sentenced, none of whom were executed, but in 18 cases the sentence concerned people who had already died. [27] In Tuscany, the inquisitor Ruggiero burned at least 11 people in about a year (1244/1245). [28] Excluding the executions of the heretics at Sirmione in 1278, 36 Inquisition executions are documented in the March of Treviso between 1260 and 1308. [29] Ten people were executed in Bologna between 1291 and 1310. [30] In Piedmont, 22 heretics (mainly Waldensians) were burned in the years 1312-1395 out of 213 convicted. [30] 22 Waldensians were burned in Cuneo around 1440 and another five in the Marquisate of Saluzzo in 1510. [31] There are also fragmentary records of a good number of executions of people suspected of witchcraft in northern Italy in the 15th and early 16th centuries. [32] Wolfgang Behringer estimates that there could have been as many as two thousand executions. [33] This large number of witches executed was probably because some inquisitors took the view that the crime of witchcraft was exceptional, which meant that the usual rules for heresy trials did not apply to its perpetrators. Many alleged witches were executed even though they were first tried and pleaded guilty, which under normal rules would have meant only canonical sanctions, not death sentences. [34] The episcopal inquisition was also active in suppressing alleged witches: in 1518, judges delegated by the Bishop of Brescia, Paolo Zane, sent some 70 witches from Val Camonica to the stake. [35]

Inquisition in France

France has the best preserved archives of the medieval inquisition (13th-14th centuries), although they are still very incomplete. The activity of the inquisition in this country was very diverse, both in terms of time and territory. In the first period (1233 to c. 1330), the courts of Languedoc (Toulouse, Carcassonne) are the most active. After 1330 the center of the persecution of heretics shifted to the Alpine regions, while in Languedoc they ceased almost entirely. In northern France, the activity of the Inquisition was irregular throughout this period and, except for the first few years, it was not very intense. [36]

France's first Dominican inquisitor, Robert le Bougre, working in the years 1233-1244, earned a particularly grim reputation. In 1236, Robert burned about 50 people in the area of Champagne and Flanders, and on May 13, 1239, in Montwimer, he burned 183 Cathars. [37] Following Robert's removal from office, Inquisition activity in northern France remained very low. One of the largest trials in the area took place in 1459-1460 at Arras; 34 people were then accused of witchcraft and satanism, 12 of them were burned at the stake. [38]

The main center of the medieval inquisition was undoubtedly the Languedoc. The first inquisitors were appointed there in 1233, but due to strong resistance from local communities in the early years, most sentences concerned dead heretics, whose bodies were exhumed and burned. Actual executions occurred sporadically and, until the fall of the fortress of Montsegur (1244), probably accounted for no more than 1% of all sentences. [39] In addition to the cremation of the remains of the dead, a large percentage were also sentences in absentia and penances imposed on heretics who voluntarily confessed their faults (for example, in the years 1241-1242 the inquisitor Pierre Ceila reconciled 724 heretics with the Church). [40] Inquisitor Ferrier of Catalonia, investigating Montauban between 1242 and 1244, questioned about 800 people, of whom he sentenced 6 to death and 20 to prison. [41] Between 1243 and 1245, Bernard de Caux handed down 25 sentences of imprisonment and confiscation of property in Agen and Cahors. [42] After the fall of Montsegur and the seizure of power in Toulouse by Count Alfonso de Poitiers, the percentage of death sentences increased to around 7% and remained at this level until the end of the Languedoc Inquisition around from 1330. [43] Between 1245 and 1246, the inquisitor Bernard de Caux carried out a large-scale investigation in the area of Lauragais and Lavaur. He covered 39 villages, and probably all the adult inhabitants (5,471 people) were questioned, of whom 207 were found guilty of heresy. Of these 207, no one was sentenced to death, 23 were sentenced to prison and 184 to penance. [44] Between 1246 and 1248, the inquisitors Bernard de Caux and Jean de Saint-Pierre handed down 192 sentences in Toulouse, of which 43 were sentences in absentia and 149 were prison sentences. [45] In Pamiers in 1246/1247 there were 7 prison sentences [201] and in Limoux in the county of Foix 156 people were sentenced to carry crosses. [46] Between 1249 and 1257, in Toulouse, the Inquisition handed down 306 sentences, without counting the penitential sentences imposed during "times of grace". 21 people were sentenced to death, 239 to prison, in addition, 30 people were sentenced in absentia and 11 posthumously; In another five cases the type of sanction is unknown, but since they all involve repeat offenders, only prison or burning is at stake. [47] Between 1237 and 1279, at least 507 convictions were passed in Toulouse (most in absentia or posthumously) resulting in the confiscation of property; in Albi between 1240 and 1252 there were 60 sentences of this type. [48]

The activities of Bernard Gui, inquisitor of Toulouse from 1307 to 1323, are better documented, as a complete record of his trials has been preserved. During the entire period of his inquisitorial activity, he handed down 633 sentences against 602 people (31 repeat offenders), including:

In addition, Bernard Gui issued 274 more sentences involving the mitigation of sentences already served to convicted heretics; in 139 cases he exchanged prison for carrying crosses, and in 135 cases, carrying crosses for pilgrimage. To the full statistics, there are 22 orders to demolish houses used by heretics as meeting places and one condemnation and burning of Jewish writings (including commentaries on the Torah). [49]

The episcopal inquisition was also active in Languedoc. In the years 1232–1234, the Bishop of Toulouse, Raymond, sentenced several dozen Cathars to death. In turn, Bishop Jacques Fournier of Pamiers in the years 1318-1325 conducted an investigation against 89 people, of whom 64 were found guilty and 5 were sentenced to death. [50]

After 1330, the center of activity of the French Inquisition moved east, to the Alpine regions, where there were numerous Waldensian communities. The repression against them was not continuous and was very ineffective. Data on sentences issued by inquisitors are fragmentary. In 1348, 12 Waldensians were burned in Embrun, and in 1353/1354 as many as 168 received penances. [51] In general, however, few Waldensians fell into the hands of the Inquisition, for they took refuge in hard-to-reach mountainous regions, where they formed close-knit communities. Inquisitors operating in this region, in order to be able to conduct trials, often had to resort to the armed assistance of local secular authorities (e.g. military expeditions in 1338–1339 and 1366). In the years 1375–1393 (with some breaks), the Dauphiné was the scene of the activities of the inquisitor Francois Borel, who gained an extremely gloomy reputation among the locals. It is known that on July 1, 1380, he pronounced death sentences in absentia against 169 people, including 108 from the Valpute valley, 32 from Argentiere and 29 from Freyssiniere. It is not known how many of them were actually carried out, only six people captured in 1382 are confirmed to be executed. [52]

In the 15th and 16th centuries, major trials took place only sporadically, e.g. against the Waldensians in Delphinate in 1430–1432 (no numerical data) and 1532–1533 (7 executed out of about 150 tried) or the aforementioned trial in Arras 1459–1460 . In the 16th century, the jurisdiction of the Inquisition in the kingdom of France was effectively limited to clergymen, while local parliaments took over the jurisdiction of the laity. Between 1500 and 1560, 62 people were burned for heresy in the Languedoc, all of whom were convicted by the Parliament of Toulouse. [53]

Between 1657 and 1659, twenty-two alleged witches were burned on the orders of the inquisitor Pierre Symard in the province of Franche-Comte, then part of the Empire. [54]

The inquisitorial tribunal in papal Avignon, established in 1541, passed 855 death sentences, almost all of them (818) in the years 1566–1574, but the vast majority of them were pronounced in absentia. [55]

Inquisition in Germany

The Rhineland and Thuringia in the years 1231-1233 were the field of activity of the notorious inquisitor Konrad of Marburg. Unfortunately, the documentation of his trials has not been preserved, making it impossible to determine the number of his victims. The chronicles only mention "many" heretics that he burned. The only concrete information is about the burning of four people in Erfurt in May 1232. [56]

After the murder of Konrad of Marburg, burning at the stake in Germany was virtually unknown for the next 80 years. It was not until the early fourteenth century that stronger measures were taken against heretics, largely at the initiative of bishops. In the years 1311-1315, numerous trials were held against the Waldensians in Austria, resulting in the burning of at least 39 people, according to incomplete records. [57] In 1336, in Angermünde, in the diocese of Brandenburg, another 14 heretics were burned. [58]

The number of those convicted by the papal inquisitors was smaller. [59] Walter Kerlinger burned 10 begards in Erfurt and Nordhausen in 1368-1369. In turn, Eylard Schöneveld burned a total of four people in various Baltic cities in 1402-1403. [60]

In the last decade of the 14th century, episcopal inquisitors carried out large-scale operations against heretics in eastern Germany, Pomerania, Austria, and Hungary. In Pomerania, of 443 sentenced in the years 1392-1394 by the inquisitor Peter Zwicker, the provincial of the Celestinians, none went to the stake, because they all submitted to the Church. Bloodier were the trials of the Waldensians in Austria in 1397, where more than a hundred Waldensians were burned at the stake. However, it seems that in these trials the death sentences represented only a small percentage of all the sentences, because according to the account of one of the inquisitors involved in these repressions, the number of heretics reconciled with the Church from Thuringia to Hungary amounted to about 2,000. [61]

In 1414, the inquisitor Heinrich von Schöneveld arrested 84 flagellants in Sangerhausen, of whom he burned 3 leaders, and imposed penitential sentences on the rest. However, since this sect was associated with the peasant revolts in Thuringia from 1412, after the departure of the inquisitor, the local authorities organized a mass hunt for flagellants and, regardless of their previous verdicts, sent at least 168 to the stake (possibly up to 300) people. [62] Inquisitor Friedrich Müller (d. 1460) sentenced to death 12 of the 13 heretics he had tried in 1446 at Nordhausen. In 1453 the same inquisitor burned 2 heretics in Göttingen. [63]

Inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, author of the Malleus Maleficarum, in his own words, sentenced 48 people to the stake in five years (1481-1486). [64] [65] Jacob Hoogstraten, inquisitor of Cologne from 1508 to 1527, sentenced four people to be burned at the stake. [66]

A duke of Brunswick in German was so shocked by the methods used by Inquisitors in his realm that he asked two famous Jesuit scholars to supervise. After careful study, the two 'told the Duke, "The Inquisitors are doing their duty. They are arresting only people who have been implicated by the confession of other witches."' The Duke then led the Jesuits to a woman being stretched on the rack and asked her, "You are a confessed witch. I suspect these two men of being warlocks. What do you say? Another turn of the rack, executioners." “No, no!” screamed the woman. “You are quite right. I have often seen .. . They can turn themselves into goats, wolves, and other animals. ... Several witches have had children by them. ... The children had heads like toads and legs like spiders." The Duke then asked the Jesuits. "Shall I put you to the torture until you confess, my friends?" One of the Jesuits was Friedrich Spee, who thanked God he had been led to this insight by a friend, not an enemy. [67]

Inquisition in Hungary and the Balkans

Very little is known about the activities of the inquisition in Hungary and the countries under its influence (Bosnia, Croatia), as there are few sources about this activity. [68] Numerous conversions and executions of Bosnian Cathars are known to have taken place around 1239/40, and in 1268 the Dominican inquisitor Andrew reconciled many heretics with the Church in the town of Skradin, but precise figures are unknown. [69] The border areas with Bohemia and Austria were under major inquisitorial action against the Waldensians in the early 15th century. In addition, in the years 1436-1440 in the Kingdom of Hungary, the Franciscan Jacobo de la Marcha acted as an inquisitor... his mission was mixed, preaching and inquisitorial. The correspondence preserved between James, his collaborators, the Hungarian bishops and Pope Eugene IV shows that he reconciled up to 25,000 people with the Church. This correspondence also shows that he punished recalcitrant heretics with death, and in 1437 numerous executions were carried out in the diocese of Sirmium, although the number of those executed is also unknown. [70]

Inquisition in the Czech Republic and Poland

In Bohemia and Poland, the inquisition was established permanently in 1318, although anti-heretical repressions were carried out as early as 1315 in the episcopal inquisition, when more than 50 Waldensians were burned in various Silesian cities. [71] The fragmentary surviving protocols of the investigations carried out by the Prague inquisitor Gallus de Neuhaus in the years 1335 to around 1353 mention 14 heretics burned out of almost 300 interrogated, but it is estimated that the actual number executed could have been even more than 200. , and the entire process was covered to varying degrees by some 4,400 people. [72]

In the lands belonging to the Kingdom of Poland little is known of the activities of the Inquisition until the appearance of the Hussite heresy in the 15th century. Polish courts of the inquisition in the fight against this heresy issued at least 8 death sentences for some 200 trials carried out. [73]

There are 558 court cases finished with conviction researched in Poland from XV to XVIII centuries. [74]

Early modern European history

With the sharpening of debate and of conflict between the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation, Protestant societies came to see/use the Inquisition as a terrifying "Other", [75] while staunch Catholics regarded the Holy Office as a necessary bulwark against the spread of reprehensible heresies.

Witch-trials

Emblem of the Spanish Inquisition (1571) Inquisicion espanola.svg
Emblem of the Spanish Inquisition (1571)

While belief in witchcraft, and persecutions directed at or excused by it, were widespread in pre-Christian Europe, and reflected in Germanic law, the influence of the Church in the early medieval era resulted in the revocation of these laws in many places, bringing an end to traditional pagan witch hunts. [76] Throughout the medieval era, mainstream Christian teaching had denied the existence of witches and witchcraft, condemning it as pagan superstition. [77] However, Christian influence on popular beliefs in witches and maleficium (harm committed by magic) failed to entirely eradicate folk belief in witches.

The fierce denunciation and persecution of supposed sorceresses that characterized the cruel witchhunts of a later age were not generally found in the first thirteen hundred years of the Christian era. [78] The medieval Church distinguished between "white" and "black" magic.[ citation needed ] Local folk practice often mixed chants, incantations, and prayers to the appropriate patron saint to ward off storms, to protect cattle, or ensure a good harvest. Bonfires on Midsummer's Eve were intended to deflect natural catastrophes or the influence of fairies, ghosts, and witches. Plants, often harvested under particular conditions, were deemed effective in healing. [79]

Black magic was that which was used for a malevolent purpose. This was generally dealt with through confession, repentance, and charitable work assigned as penance. [80] Early Irish canons treated sorcery as a crime to be visited with excommunication until adequate penance had been performed. In 1258, Pope Alexander IV ruled that inquisitors should limit their involvement to those cases in which there was some clear presumption of heretical belief.

The prosecution of witchcraft generally became more prominent in the late medieval and Renaissance era, perhaps driven partly by the upheavals of the era – the Black Death, the Hundred Years War, and a gradual cooling of the climate that modern scientists call the Little Ice Age (between about the 15th and 19th centuries). Witches were sometimes blamed. [81] [82] Since the years of most intense witch-hunting largely coincide with the age of the Reformation, some historians point to the influence of the Reformation on the European witch-hunt. [83]

Dominican priest Heinrich Kramer was assistant to the Archbishop of Salzburg. In 1484 Kramer requested that Pope Innocent VIII clarify his authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany, where he had been refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities. They maintained that Kramer could not legally function in their areas. [84]

The papal bull Summis desiderantes affectibus sought to remedy this jurisdictional dispute by specifically identifying the dioceses of Mainz, Köln, Trier, Salzburg, and Bremen. [85] Some scholars view the bull as "clearly political". [86] The bull failed to ensure that Kramer obtained the support he had hoped for. In fact he was subsequently expelled from the city of Innsbruck by the local bishop, George Golzer, who ordered Kramer to stop making false accusations. Golzer described Kramer as senile in letters written shortly after the incident. This rebuke led Kramer to write a justification of his views on witchcraft in his 1486 book Malleus Maleficarum ("Hammer against witches"). In the book, Kramer stated his view that witchcraft was to blame for bad weather. The book is also noted for its animus against women. [78] Despite Kramer's claim that the book gained acceptance from the clergy at the University of Cologne, it was in fact condemned by the clergy at Cologne for advocating views that violated Catholic doctrine and standard inquisitorial procedure. In 1538 the Spanish Inquisition cautioned its members not to believe everything the Malleus said. [87]

Spanish Inquisition

Pedro Berruguete, Saint Dominic Guzman presiding over an Auto da fe (c. 1495). Many artistic representations falsely depict torture and burning at the stake during the auto-da-fe (Portuguese for "Act of Faith"). Pedro Berruguete Saint Dominic Presiding over an Auto-da-fe 1495.jpg
Pedro Berruguete, Saint Dominic Guzmán presiding over an Auto da fe (c. 1495). Many artistic representations falsely depict torture and burning at the stake during the auto-da-fé (Portuguese for "Act of Faith").

Portugal and Spain in the late Middle Ages consisted largely of multicultural territories of Muslim and Jewish influence, reconquered from Islamic control, and the new Christian authorities could not assume that all their subjects would suddenly become and remain orthodox Catholics. So the Inquisition in Iberia, in the lands of the Reconquista counties and kingdoms like León, Castile, and Aragon, had a special socio-political basis as well as more fundamental religious motives. [89]

In some parts of Spain towards the end of the 14th century, there was a wave of violent anti-Judaism, encouraged by the preaching of Ferrand Martínez, Archdeacon of Écija. In the pogroms of June 1391 in Seville, hundreds of Jews were killed, and the synagogue was completely destroyed. The number of people killed was also high in other cities, such as Córdoba, Valencia, and Barcelona. [90]

One of the consequences of these pogroms was the mass conversion of thousands of surviving Jews. Forced baptism was contrary to the law of the Catholic Church, and theoretically anybody who had been forcibly baptized could legally return to Judaism. However, this was very narrowly interpreted. Legal definitions of the time theoretically acknowledged that a forced baptism was not a valid sacrament, but confined this to cases where it was literally administered by physical force. A person who had consented to baptism under threat of death or serious injury was still regarded as a voluntary convert, and accordingly forbidden to revert to Judaism. [91] After the public violence, many of the converted "felt it safer to remain in their new religion". [92] Thus, after 1391, a new social group appeared and were referred to as conversos or New Christians.

King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile established the Spanish Inquisition in 1478. In contrast to the previous inquisitions, it operated completely under royal Christian authority, though staffed by clergy and orders, and independently of the Holy See. It operated in Spain and in most [93] Spanish colonies and territories, which included the Canary Islands, the Kingdom of Sicily, [94] and all Spanish possessions in North, Central, and South America. It primarily focused upon forced converts from Islam (Moriscos, Conversos , and "secret Moors") and from Judaism (Conversos, Crypto-Jews, and Marranos)—both groups still resided in Spain after the end of the Islamic control of Spain—who came under suspicion of either continuing to adhere to their old religion or of having fallen back into it.

All Jews who had not converted were expelled from Spain in 1492, and all Muslims ordered to convert in different stages starting in 1501. [95] Those who converted or simply remained after the relevant edict became nominally and legally Catholics, and thus subject to the Inquisition.

Inquisition in the Spanish overseas empire

In 1569, King Philip II of Spain set up three tribunals in the Americas (each formally titled Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición): one in Mexico, one in Cartagena de Indias (in modern-day Colombia), and one in Peru. The Mexican office administered Mexico (central and southeastern Mexico), Nueva Galicia (northern and western Mexico), the Audiencias of Guatemala (Guatemala, Chiapas, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica), and the Spanish East Indies. The Peruvian Inquisition, based in Lima, administered all the Spanish territories in South America and Panama.[ citation needed ]

Portuguese Inquisition

A copper engraving from 1685: "Die Inquisition in Portugall" 1685 - Inquisicao Portugal.jpg
A copper engraving from 1685: "Die Inquisition in Portugall"

The Portuguese Inquisition formally started in Portugal in 1536 at the request of King João III. Manuel I had asked Pope Leo X for the installation of the Inquisition in 1515, but only after his death in 1521 did Pope Paul III acquiesce. At its head stood a Grande Inquisidor, or General Inquisitor, named by the Pope but selected by the Crown, and always from within the royal family.[ citation needed ] The Portuguese Inquisition principally focused upon the Sephardi Jews, whom the state forced to convert to Christianity. Spain had expelled its Sephardi population in 1492; many of these Spanish Jews left Spain for Portugal but eventually were subject to inquisition there as well.

The Portuguese Inquisition held its first auto-da-fé in 1540. The Portuguese inquisitors mostly focused upon the Jewish New Christians (i.e. conversos or marranos ). The Portuguese Inquisition expanded its scope of operations from Portugal to its colonial possessions, including Brazil, Cape Verde, and Goa. In the colonies, it continued as a religious court, investigating and trying cases of breaches of the tenets of orthodox Catholicism until 1821. King João III (reigned 1521–57) extended the activity of the courts to cover censorship, divination, witchcraft, and bigamy. Originally oriented for a religious action, the Inquisition exerted an influence over almost every aspect of Portuguese society: political, cultural, and social.

According to Henry Charles Lea, between 1540 and 1794, tribunals in Lisbon, Porto, Coimbra, and Évora resulted in the burning of 1,175 persons, the burning of another 633 in effigy, and the penancing of 29,590. [96] But documentation of 15 out of 689 autos-da-fé has disappeared, so these numbers may slightly understate the activity. [97]

Inquisition in the Portuguese overseas empire

Goa Inquisition

The Goa Inquisition began in 1560 at the order of John III of Portugal. It had originally been requested in a letter in the 1540s by Jesuit priest Francis Xavier, because of the New Christians who had arrived in Goa and then reverted to Judaism. The Goa Inquisition also focused upon Catholic converts from Hinduism or Islam who were thought to have returned to their original ways. In addition, this inquisition prosecuted non-converts who broke prohibitions against the public observance of Hindu or Muslim rites or interfered with Portuguese attempts to convert non-Christians to Catholicism. [98] Aleixo Dias Falcão and Francisco Marques set it up in the palace of the Sabaio Adil Khan.

Brazilian Inquisition

The inquisition was active in colonial Brazil. The religious mystic and formerly enslaved prostitute, Rosa Egipcíaca was arrested, interrogated and imprisoned, both in the colony and in Lisbon. Egipcíaca was the first black woman in Brazil to write a book - this work detailed her visions and was entitled Sagrada Teologia do Amor Divino das Almas Peregrinas. [99]

Roman Inquisition

With the Protestant Reformation, Catholic authorities became much more ready to suspect heresy in any new ideas, [100] including those of Renaissance humanism, [101] previously strongly supported by many at the top of the Church hierarchy. The extirpation of heretics became a much broader and more complex enterprise, complicated by the politics of territorial Protestant powers, especially in northern Europe. The Catholic Church could no longer exercise direct influence in the politics and justice-systems of lands that officially adopted Protestantism. Thus war (the French Wars of Religion, the Thirty Years' War), massacre (the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre) and the missional [102] and propaganda work (by the Sacra congregatio de propaganda fide ) [103] of the Counter-Reformation came to play larger roles in these circumstances, and the Roman law type of a "judicial" approach to heresy represented by the Inquisition became less important overall. In 1542 Pope Paul III established the Congregation of the Holy Office of the Inquisition as a permanent congregation staffed with cardinals and other officials. It had the tasks of maintaining and defending the integrity of the faith and of examining and proscribing errors and false doctrines; it thus became the supervisory body of local Inquisitions. [104] A famous case tried by the Roman Inquisition was that of Galileo Galilei in 1633.

The penances and sentences for those who confessed or were found guilty were pronounced together in a public ceremony at the end of all the processes. This was the sermo generalis or auto-da-fé . [105] Penances (not matters for the civil authorities) might consist of a pilgrimage, a public scourging, a fine, or the wearing of a cross. The wearing of two tongues of red or other brightly colored cloth, sewn onto an outer garment in an "X" pattern, marked those who were under investigation. The penalties in serious cases were confiscation of property by the Inquisition or imprisonment. This led to the possibility of false charges to enable confiscation being made against those over a certain income, particularly rich marranos . Following the French invasion of 1798, the new authorities sent 3,000 chests containing over 100,000 Inquisition documents to France from Rome.

Ending of the Inquisition in the 19th and 20th centuries

By decree of Napoleon's government in 1797, the Inquisition in Venice was abolished in 1806. [106]

In Portugal, in the wake of the Liberal Revolution of 1820, the "General Extraordinary and Constituent Courts of the Portuguese Nation" abolished the Portuguese Inquisition in 1821.

The wars of independence of the former Spanish colonies in the Americas concluded with the abolition of the Inquisition in every quarter of Hispanic America between 1813 and 1825.

The last execution of the Inquisition was in Spain in 1826. [107] This was the execution by garroting of the Catalan school teacher Gaietà Ripoll for purportedly teaching Deism in his school. [107] In Spain the practices of the Inquisition were finally outlawed in 1834. [108]

In Italy, the restoration of the Pope as the ruler of the Papal States in 1814 brought back the Inquisition to the Papal States. It remained active there until the late-19th century, notably in the well-publicised Mortara affair (1858–1870). In 1908 the name of the Congregation became "The Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office", which in 1965 further changed to "Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith", as retained to the present day.

Methods of torture used

Defendants were commonly interrogated under torture and finally punished if found guilty, with their property being requisitioned in the process to defray legal costs and prison costs. They could also repent of their accusation and receive reconciliation with the Church. The execution of the tortures was attended by the inquisitor, the doctor, the secretary and the executioner, applying them (except in the case of women) on the completely naked prisoner. In the year 1252, the bull Ad extirpanda allowed torture, but always with a doctor involved to avoid endangering life, and limited its use to three methods (not one of which was bloody):

According to the Catholic Church, the method of torture (which was socially accepted in the context of the time) was adopted only in exceptional cases. The inquisitorial procedure was meticulously regulated in interrogation practices. [110]

Not all civilly accepted methods of torture were endorsed by the Catholic Church, and for a defendant to be sent to torture, he must be prosecuted for a crime considered serious, and the court must also have well-founded suspicions of his guilt. None of these were originated by the Holy Office; rather they were used by civil authorities.

Despite the use of torture, the inquisitorial procedure represents a breakthrough in the history of legislation. On the one hand, it definitely ruled out the use of the ordeal, a Germanic tradition long condemned by the hierarchy, without taking disciplinary measures against it, as a means of obtaining evidence, replacing it with the principle of testimonial evidence, which is still in force in current laws. On the other hand, the principle of the State as prosecutor or accusing party is restored. Until that time, it was the victim who had to prove the guilt of his aggressor, even in the most serious criminal proceedings, this was often very difficult when the victim was weak and the criminal powerful. But in the Inquisition, the victim is no more than a simple witness, as happens in countries where an inquisitive system is applied. It was the ecclesiastical authority who now had the burden of proof.[ citation needed ]. The summary of the Directorium Inquisitorum, by Nicolás Aymerich, made by Marchena, notes a comment by the Aragonese inquisitor: Quaestiones sunt fallaces et inefficaces ("The interrogations are misleading and useless").

Fake instruments of torture

Despite what is popularly believed, the cases in which torture was used during the inquisitorial processes were rare, since it was considered to be ineffective in obtaining evidence. In addition, in the vast majority of cases, display of torture instruments mainly had the purpose of intimidation of the accused, their use being more the exception than the norm. [110] [111]

In the words of historian Helen Mary Carrel: "the common view of the medieval justice system as cruel and based on torture and execution is often unfair and inaccurate." As the historian Nigel Townson wrote: "The sinister torture chambers equipped with cogwheels, bone crushing contraptions, shackles, and other terrifying mechanisms only existed in the imagination of their detractors." [112]

Presumed instruments of torture of the inquisition, of which there is no evidence of their use in inquisitorial processes Diverse torture instruments.jpg
Presumed instruments of torture of the inquisition, of which there is no evidence of their use in inquisitorial processes

Some instruments of torture awarded to the Inquisition, actually originated in the Protestant churches, or were and/or used by civil authorities, such as those presented in the Constitutio Criminalis Theresiana (of the Habsburg Monarchy) or the Ordonnance de Blois (of the Parlement of Paris). These were modern, not medieval, inventions that were not related to the Inquisition.

Many were designed by late 18th and early 19th century pranksters, entertainers, and con artists who wanted to profit from people's morbid interest in the Dark Age myth by charging them to witness such instruments in Victorian-era circuses. [113] [114]

However, several torture instruments are accurately described in Foxe's Book of Martyrs , including but not limited to the dry pan.

Some of the instruments that the Inquisition never used, but that are erroneously registered in various inquisition museums: [115]

Statistics

Beginning in the 19th century, historians have gradually compiled statistics drawn from the surviving court records, from which estimates have been calculated by adjusting the recorded number of convictions by the average rate of document loss for each time period. Gustav Henningsen and Jaime Contreras studied the records of the Spanish Inquisition, which list 44,674 cases of which 826 resulted in executions in person and 778 in effigy (i.e. a straw dummy was burned in place of the person). [122] William Monter estimated there were 1000 executions between 1530–1630 and 250 between 1630 and 1730. [123] Jean-Pierre Dedieu studied the records of Toledo's tribunal, which put 12,000 people on trial. [124] For the period prior to 1530, Henry Kamen estimated there were about 2,000 executions in all of Spain's tribunals. [125] Italian Renaissance history professor and Inquisition expert Carlo Ginzburg had his doubts about using statistics to reach a judgment about the period. "In many cases, we don't have the evidence, the evidence has been lost," said Ginzburg. [126]

See also

Documents and works

Notable inquisitors

Notable cases

Repentance

Related Research Articles

Catharism was a Christian dualist or Gnostic movement between the 12th and 14th centuries which thrived in Southern Europe, particularly in northern Italy and southern France. Followers were described as Cathars and referred to themselves as Good Christians; in modern times, they are mainly remembered for a prolonged period of mutual conflict and religious persecution – sometimes regarded as genocide – by the Catholic Church which deemed Catharism a heretical sect.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medieval Inquisition</span> System of tribunals enforcing Catholic orthodoxy

The Medieval Inquisition was a series of Inquisitions from around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition (1184–1230s) and later the Papal Inquisition (1230s). The Medieval Inquisition was established in response to movements considered apostate or heretical to Roman Catholicism, in particular Catharism and Waldensians in Southern France and Northern Italy. These were the first movements of many inquisitions that would follow.

<i>Malleus Maleficarum</i> Treatise on the prosecution of witches

The Malleus Maleficarum, usually translated as the Hammer of Witches, is the best known treatise purporting to be about witchcraft. It was written by the German Catholic clergyman Heinrich Kramer and first published in the German city of Speyer in 1486. Some describe it as the compendium of literature in demonology of the 15th century. Kramer blamed women for his own lust, and presented his views as the Church's position. The book was condemned by top theologians of the Inquisition at the Faculty of Cologne for recommending unethical and illegal procedures, and for being inconsistent with Catholic doctrines of demonology.

The Roman Inquisition, formally Suprema Congregatio Sanctae Romanae et Universalis Inquisitionis, was a system of partisan tribunals developed by the Holy See of the Catholic Church, during the second half of the 16th century, responsible for prosecuting individuals accused of a wide array of crimes according to Catholic law and doctrine, relating to Catholic religious life or alternative religious or secular beliefs. It was established in 1542 by the leader of the Catholic Church, Pope Paul III. In the period after the Medieval Inquisition, it was one of three different manifestations of the wider Catholic Inquisition, the other two being the Spanish Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Witches' Sabbath</span> Gathering of those believed to practice witchcraft

A Witches' Sabbath is a purported gathering of those believed to practice witchcraft and other rituals. The phrase became especially popular in the 20th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bernard Gui</span> French Roman Catholic bishop (1260s–1331)

Bernard Gui, also known as Bernardo Gui or Bernardus Guidonis, was a Limousin Dominican friar, Bishop of Lodève, and a papal inquisitor during the later stages of the Medieval Inquisition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Portuguese Inquisition</span> System of tribunals enforcing Catholic orthodoxy

The Portuguese Inquisition, officially known as the General Council of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Portugal, was formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of its king, John III. Although Manuel I had asked for the installation of the Inquisition in 1515 to fulfill the commitment of his marriage with Maria of Aragon, it was only after his death that Pope Paul III acquiesced. In the period after the Medieval Inquisition, it was one of three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition, along with the Spanish Inquisition and Roman Inquisition. The Goa Inquisition was an extension of the Portuguese Inquisition in colonial-era Portuguese India.

<i>Directorium Inquisitorum</i> 1376 book by Nicholas Eymerich

The Directorium Inquisitorum is Nicholas Eymerich's most prominent and enduring work, written in Latin and consisting of approximately 800 pages, which he had composed as early as 1376. Eymerich had written an earlier treatise on sorcery, perhaps as early as 1359, which he extensively reworked into the Directorium Inqusitorum. In compiling the book, Eymerich used many of the magic texts he had previously confiscated from accused sorcerers. It can also be considered as an assessment of a century and a half of official Inquisition in the "albigensian" country.

The historical revision of the Inquisition is a historiographical process that started to emerge in the 1970s, with the opening of formerly closed archives, the development of new historical methodologies, and, in Spain, the death of the ruling dictator Francisco Franco in 1975. New works of historical revisionism changed our knowledge of the history of the Roman and Spanish Inquisitions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spanish Inquisition</span> System of tribunals enforcing Catholic doctrine

The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition, was established in 1478 by the Catholic Monarchs, King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. It began toward the end of the Reconquista and was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition, which was under papal control. It became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Catholic Inquisition, along with the Roman Inquisition and the Portuguese Inquisition. The "Spanish Inquisition" may be defined broadly as operating in Spain and in all Spanish colonies and territories, which included the Canary Islands, the Kingdom of Naples, and all Spanish possessions in North America and South America. According to modern estimates, around 150,000 people were prosecuted for various offences during the three-century duration of the Spanish Inquisition, of whom between 3,000 and 5,000 were executed, approximately 2.7 percent of all cases. The Inquisition, however, since the creation of the American courts, has never had jurisdiction over the indigenous. The King of Spain ordered "that the inquisitors should never proceed against the Indians, but against the old Christians and their descendants and other persons against whom in these kingdoms of Spain it is customary to proceed".

Ecclesiastical prisons were penal institutions maintained by the Catholic Church. At various times, they were used for the incarceration both of clergy accused of various crimes, and of laity accused of specifically ecclesiastical crimes; prisoners were sometimes held in custody while awaiting trial, sometimes as part of an imposed sentence. The use of ecclesiastical prisons began as early as the third or fourth century AD, and remained common through the early modern era.

Ad abolendam was a decretal and bull of Pope Lucius III, written at Verona and issued 4 November 1184. It was issued after the Council of Verona settled some jurisdictional differences between the Papacy and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. The document prescribes measures to uproot heresy and sparked the efforts which culminated in the Albigensian Crusade and the Inquisitions. Its chief aim was the complete abolition of Christian heresy.

In the early modern period, from about 1400 to 1775, about 100,000 people were prosecuted for witchcraft in Europe and British America. Between 40,000 and 60,000 were executed. The witch-hunts were particularly severe in parts of the Holy Roman Empire. Prosecutions for witchcraft reached a high point from 1560 to 1630, during the Counter-Reformation and the European wars of religion. Among the lower classes, accusations of witchcraft were usually made by neighbors, and women made formal accusations as much as men did. Magical healers or 'cunning folk' were sometimes prosecuted for witchcraft, but seem to have made up a minority of the accused. Roughly 80% of those convicted were women, most of them over the age of 40. In some regions, convicted witches were burnt at the stake.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Heresy</span> Belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established belief or customs

Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, particularly the accepted beliefs or religious law of a religious organization. A heretic is a proponent of heresy.

The Synod of Verona was held November 1184 under the auspices of Pope Lucius III and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.

The Black Legend of the Spanish Inquisition is the hypothesis of the existence of a series of myths and fabrications about the Spanish Inquisition used as propaganda against the Spanish Empire in a time of strong military, commercial and political rivalry between European powers, starting in the 16th century. According to its advocates, Protestant propaganda depicted inquisitions of Catholic monarchs as the epitome of human barbarity with fantastic scenes of tortures, witch hunting and evil friars. Proponents of the theory see it as part of the Spanish Black Legend propaganda, as well as of anti-Catholic propaganda, and one of the most recurrent black legend themes.

Vox in Rama is a decretal sent by Pope Gregory IX in June 1233 condemning the heresy of Luciferianism said to be rife in Germany, and authorizing the preaching of a crusade against it. Copies of the letter were sent to Emperor Frederick II, King Henry (VII) of Germany, Archbishop Siegfried III of Mainz, his suffragans, Bishop Conrad II of Hildesheim and the preacher Konrad von Marburg. The copies are dated to 11, 13 and 14 June.

The Witch trials in Portugal were perhaps the fewest in all of Europe. Similar to the Spanish Inquisition in neighboring Spain, the Portuguese Inquisition preferred to focus on the persecution of heresy and did not consider witchcraft to be a priority. In contrast to the Spanish Inquisition, however, the Portuguese Inquisition was much more efficient in preventing secular courts from conducting witch trials, and therefore almost managed to keep Portugal free from witch trials. Only seven people are known to have been executed for sorcery in Portugal.

The Witch trials in the Italian states of present-day Italy are a complicated issue. Witch trials could be managed by a number of different secular courts as well as by the Roman Inquisition, and documentation has been only partially preserved in either case. A further complication is the fact that Italy was politically split between a number of different states during the time period in which the witch trials occurred; and that historiography has traditionally separated the history of Northern Italy and Southern Italy. All of these issues complicate the research of witch trials in present-day Italy, and the estimations of the intensity and number of executions has varied between hundreds to thousands of victims.

The Venetian Inquisition, formally the Holy Office, was the tribunal established jointly by the Venetian government and the Catholic Church to repress heresy throughout the Republic of Venice. The inquisition also intervened in cases of sacrilege, apostasy, prohibited books, superstition, and witchcraft. It was established in the 16th-century and was abolished in 1797.

References

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  2. Peters, Edwards. "Inquisition", p. 67.
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  5. 1 2 Lea, Henry Charles (1888). "Chapter VII. The Inquisition Founded". A History of the Inquisition In The Middle Ages. Vol. 1. ISBN   1-152-29621-3. The judicial use of torture was as yet happily unknown...
  6. Murphy, Cullen (2012). God's Jury. New York: Mariner Books – Houghton, Mifflin, Harcourt. p. 150.
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  11. Salomon, H. P. and Sassoon, I. S. D., in Saraiva, Antonio Jose. The Marrano Factory. The Portuguese Inquisition and Its New Christians, 1536–1765 (Brill, 2001), Introduction pp. XXX.
  12. Peters writes: "When faced with a convicted heretic who refused to recant, or who relapsed into heresy, the inquisitors were to turn him over to the temporal authorities – the "secular arm" – for animadversio debita, the punishment decreed by local law, usually burning to death." (Peters, Edwards. "Inquisition", p. 67.)
  13. Lea, Henry Charles. "Chapter VII. The Inquisition Founded". A History of the Inquisition In The Middle Ages. Vol. 1. ISBN   1-152-29621-3. Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2009-10-07. Obstinate heretics, refusing to abjure and return to the Church with due penance, and those who after abjuration relapsed, were to be abandoned to the secular arm for fitting punishment.
  14. Kirsch, Jonathan (9 September 2008). The Grand Inquisitors Manual: A History of Terror in the Name of God . HarperOne. ISBN   978-0-06-081699-5.
  15. Directorium Inquisitorum , edition of 1578, Book 3, pg. 137, column 1. Online in the Cornell University Collection; retrieved 2008-05-16.
  16. Foxe, John. "Chapter monkey" (PDF). Foxe's Book of Martyrs . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-26. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
  17. Blötzer, J. (1910). "Inquisition". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Ava Rojas Company. Archived from the original on 2007-10-26. Retrieved 2012-08-26. ... in this period the more influential ecclesiastical authorities declared that the death penalty was contrary to the spirit of the Gospel, and they themselves opposed its execution. For centuries this was the ecclesiastical attitude both in theory and in practice. Thus, in keeping with the civil law, some Manichæans were executed at Ravenna in 556. On the other hand, Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel, the chiefs of Adoptionism and Predestinationism, were condemned by councils, but were otherwise left unmolested. We may note, however, that the monk Gothescalch, after the condemnation of his false doctrine that Christ had not died for all mankind, was by the Synods of Mainz in 848 and Quiercy in 849 sentenced to flogging and imprisonment, punishments then common in monasteries for various infractions of the rule.
  18. Blötzer, J. (1910). "Inquisition". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. Archived from the original on 2007-10-26. Retrieved 2012-08-26. [...] the occasional executions of heretics during this period must be ascribed partly to the arbitrary action of individual rulers, partly to the fanatic outbreaks of the overzealous populace, and in no wise to ecclesiastical law or the ecclesiastical authorities.
  19. Lea, Henry Charles. "Chapter VII. The Inquisition Founded". A History of the Inquisition In The Middle Ages. Vol. 1. ISBN   1-152-29621-3.
  20. Hughes, Philip (1979). History of the Church Volume 2: The Church In The World The Church Created: Augustine To Aquinas. A&C Black. pp.27-28, ISBN   978-0-7220-7982-9
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  22. Bishop, Jordan (2006). "Aquinas on Torture". New Blackfriars. 87 (1009): 229–237. doi: 10.1111/j.0028-4289.2006.00142.x .
  23. Larissa Tracy, Torture and Brutality in Medieval Literature: Negotiations of National Identity, (Boydell and Brewer Ltd, 2012), 22; "In 1252 Innocent IV licensed the use of torture to obtain evidence from suspects, and by 1256 inquisitors were allowed to absolve each other if they used instruments of torture themselves, rather than relying on lay agents for the purpose...".
  24. Peters, Edwards. "Inquisition", p. 12.
  25. Lea, Henry Charles . A History of the Inquisition of Spain Archived 2012-02-08 at the Wayback Machine , vol. 1, appendix 2
  26. Kras, Paweł. Ad abolendam diversarum haeresium pravitatem. System inkwizycyjny w średniowiecznej Europie. KUL 2006, p. 411. Del Col, Andrea. Inquisizione in Italia, p. 3.
  27. Lansing, Carol. Power and Purity: Cathar Heresy in Medieval Italy, 2001, p. 138.
  28. Prudlo, Donald. The martyred inquisitor. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2008. p. 42.
  29. Del Col, p. 96–98. Already in 1233 in Verona, 60 Cathars were burnt on the order of the Dominican Giovanni da Vicenza, but formally he issued this sentence as the podesta of this city, and not the inquisitor, which he became only in 1247. Cf. Lea, Henry Charles. A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages. New York: Russell & Russell (1958). Vol. II, p. 204 and 206.
  30. 1 2 Paweł Kras: Ad abolendam diversarum haeresium pravitatem. System inkwizycyjny w średniowiecznej Europie, KUL 2006, p. 413.
  31. Lea, vol. II, pp. 264, 267.
  32. Tavuzzi, Michael M. Renaissance inquisitors: Dominican inquisitors and inquisitorial districts in Northern Italy, 1474-1527. Leiden & Boston: Brill (2007). p. 197, 253–258; Del Col, p. 196–211.
  33. Behringer, W. Witches and Witch-Hunts: A Global History. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press Ltd (2004). p. 130
  34. Lea, vol. III, p. 515; cf. Tavuzzi, p. 150–151, 184–185.
  35. Tavuzzi, p. 188–192; Del Col, p. 199–200, 204–209.
  36. The characteristics of the activities of the Inquisition in France in the XIII-XV centuries are presented by H.Ch. Lea, History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, volume 2, 1888, pages 113–161.
  37. Robert's activities are described by H.Ch. Lea: History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, volume II, 1888, pages 114–116; P. Kras, Ad abolendam..., pp. 163–165; and M. Lambert, The Cathars, pp. 122–125.
  38. Richard Kieckhefer: Magia w średniowieczu, Cracovia 2001, págs. 278–279.
  39. P. Kras, Ad abolendam... , p.412.
  40. H.Ch. Lea, History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages vol. 2, 1888, s. 30.
  41. Wakefield, s. 184; M. Barber, Katarzy, p. 126.
  42. M.D. Costen, The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade, Manchester University Press, 1997, p. 170.
  43. P. Kras: Ad abolendam..., p. 412–413.
  44. Malcolm Lambert: Średniowieczne herezje, Wyd. Marabut Gdańsk-Warszawa 2002, p. 195–196.
  45. H.Ch. Lea: History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, vol. I, s. 485.
  46. M.D. Costen: The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade, Manchester University Press, 1997, p. 171
  47. Wakefield, p. 184.
  48. M.D. Costen: The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade, Manchester University Press, 1997, p. 171.
  49. List of judgments from: James Given: Inquisition and Medieval Society, Cornell University Press, 2001, s. 69–70.
  50. P. Kras: Ad abolendam..., p. 413.
  51. Jean Guiraud: Medieval Inquisition, Kessinger Publishing 2003, p. 137.
  52. Marx: L'inquisition en Dauphine, 1914, p. 128 note. 1, pp. 134–135, and Tanon, pp. 105–106. Jean Paul Perrin: History of the ancient Christians inhabiting the valleys of the Alps, Philadelphia 1847, p. 64, gives figures of over 150 convicts from the Valpute valley and 80 from the other two, but cites the same document as Marx and Tanon.
  53. Raymond Mentzer: Heresy Proceedings in Languedoc, 1500–1560, American Philosophical Society, 2007, s. 122.
  54. William E. Burns (red.): Witch hunts in Europe and America: an encyclopedia, Greenwood Publishing Group 2003, s. 104.
  55. Andrea Del Col: Inquisizione in Italia, p. 434, 780.
  56. H.Ch. Lea, History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages vol. 2, 1888, p. 332, 346.
  57. P. Kras: Ad abolendam..., s. 414.
  58. H.Ch. Lea, History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages. Vol. 2, 1888, p. 375.
  59. "Urkundliche Mittheilungen über die Beghinen- und Begharden-Häuser zu Rostock". mvdok.lbmv.de. Retrieved 2023-06-23.
  60. H.Ch. Lea: History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages. Vol. 2, 1888, p. 390.
  61. The description of these persecutions is published by: H.Ch. Lea: History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages. Vol. 2, 1888, p. 395–400; and R. Kieckhefer: Repression of heresy, p. 55.
  62. Manfred Wilde, Die Zauberei- und Hexenprozesse in Kursachsen, Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar, 2003, p. 100–101; K.B. Springer: Dominican Inquisition in the archidiocese of Mainz 1348–1520, w: Praedicatores, Inquisitores, Vol. 1: The Dominicans and the Medieval Inquisition. Acts of the 1st International Seminar on the Dominicans and the Inquisition, 23–25 February 2002, red. Arturo Bernal Palacios, Rzym 2004, p. 378–379; R. Kieckhefer: Repression of heresy, p. 96–97. H.Ch. Lea: History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages. Vol. 2, 1888, p. 408. mentions at least 135 executions in 1414 and another 300 two years later, but most likely the sources he cites speak of the same repressive action, with different dates (Springer: p. 378 note 276; Kieckhefer: p. 378, note 276; : pp. 97 and 147).
  63. K.B. Springer: Dominican Inquisition in the archidiocese of Mainz 1348–1520, w: Praedicatores, Inquisitores, Vol. 1: The Dominicans and the Medieval Inquisition. Acts of the 1st International Seminar on the Dominicans and the Inquisition, 23–25 February 2002, red. Arturo Bernal Palacios, Rzym 2004, p. 381. The mass executions of flagellants in Thuringia in 1454 were the work of secular authorities, see Kieckhefer, Repression of heresy, p. 147; Manfred Wilde, Die Zauberei- und Hexenprozesse in Kursachsen, Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar, 2003, p. 106–107.
  64. Institoris, Heinrich; Sprenger, Jakob; Sprenger, James (2000). The Malleus Maleficarum of Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger. Book Tree. ISBN   978-1-58509-098-3.
  65. cf. H.Ch. Leah: History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, volume 3, 1888, page 540.
  66. BBKL: Jacob von Hoogstraaten
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