Ethnic cleansing

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Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic, racial and/or religious groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous. [1] [ page needed ] The forces applied may be various forms of forced migration (deportation, population transfer), intimidation, as well as genocide and genocidal rape.

Ethnic group Socially defined category of people who identify with each other

An ethnic group or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation. Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art or physical appearance.

Deportation expulsion of people from a place or country

Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. The term expulsion is often used as a synonym for deportation, though expulsion is more often used in the context of international law, while deportation is more used in national (municipal) law.

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Ethnic cleansing is usually accompanied with efforts to remove physical and cultural evidence of the targeted group in the territory through the destruction of homes, social centers, farms, and infrastructure, and by the desecration of monuments, cemeteries, and places of worship.

Initially used by the perpetrators during the Yugoslav Wars and cited in this context as a euphemism akin to that of Nazi Germany's "Final Solution", by the 1990s, the term gained widespread acceptance due to journalism and the media's heightened use of the term in its generic meaning. [2]

Yugoslav Wars ethnic conflicts fought from 1991 to 2001 on the territory of former Yugoslavia

The Yugoslav Wars were a series of separate but related ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought in the former Yugoslavia from 1991 to 2001, which led to the breakup of the Yugoslav state. Its constituent republics declared independence, despite unresolved tensions between ethnic minorities in the new countries, fueling the wars.

Final Solution Nazi plan for the genocide of the Jews

The Final Solution or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question was a Nazi plan for the genocide of Jews during World War II. The "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" was the official code name for the murder of all Jews within reach, which was not restricted to the European continent. This policy of deliberate and systematic genocide starting across German-occupied Europe was formulated in procedural and geopolitical terms by Nazi leadership in January 1942 at the Wannsee Conference held near Berlin, and culminated in the Holocaust, which saw the killing of 90% of Polish Jews, and two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.

Etymology

An antecedent to the term is the Greek word andrapodismos (Greek : ανδραποδισμός; lit. "enslavement"), which was used in ancient texts to describe atrocities that accompanied Alexander the Great's conquest of Thebes in 335 BC. [3] In the early 1900s, regional variants of the term could be found among the Czechs (očista), the Poles (czystki etniczne), the French (épuration) and the Germans (Säuberung). [4] [ page needed ] A 1913 Carnegie Endowment report condemning the actions of all participants in the Balkan Wars contained various new terms to describe brutalities committed toward ethnic groups. [5]

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Alexander the Great King of Macedon

Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.

Thebes, Egypt Ancient Egyptian city

Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 kilometers (500 mi) south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor. Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome and was the capital of Egypt mainly during the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. It was close to Nubia and the Eastern Desert, with its valuable mineral resources and trade routes. It was a cult center and the most venerated city of ancient Egypt during its heyday. The site of Thebes includes areas on both the eastern bank of the Nile, where the temples of Karnak and Luxor stand and the city proper was situated; and the western bank, where a necropolis of large private and royal cemeteries and funerary complexes can be found.

Massacres of Poles in Volhynia in 1943. Most Poles of Volhynia (now in Ukraine) had either been murdered or had fled the area. Lipniki massacre.jpg
Massacres of Poles in Volhynia in 1943. Most Poles of Volhynia (now in Ukraine) had either been murdered or had fled the area.

During World War II, the euphemism čišćenje terena ("cleansing the terrain") was used by the Croatian Ustaše to describe military actions in which non-Croats were purposely killed or otherwise uprooted from their homes. [6] Viktor Gutić, a senior Ustaše leader, was one of the first Croatian nationalists on record to use the term as a euphemism for committing atrocities against Serbs. [7] The term was later used in the internal memorandums of Serbian Chetniks in reference to a number of retaliatory massacres they committed against Bosniaks and Croats between 1941 and 1945. [8] The Russian phrase очистка границ (ochistka granits; lit. "cleansing of borders") was used in Soviet documents of the early 1930s to refer to the forced resettlement of Polish people from the 22-kilometre (14 mi) border zone in the Byelorussian and Ukrainian SSRs. This process was repeated on an even larger scale in 1939–41, involving many other groups suspected of disloyalty towards the Soviet Union. [9] During The Holocaust, Nazi Germany pursued a policy of ensuring that Europe was "cleansed of Jews" (Judenrein). [10]

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Viktor Gutić was the Ustaše commissioner for Banja Luka and the Grand Prefect of Pokuplje in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II. He was responsible for the persecution of Serbs, Jews and Roma in the Bosanska Krajina region of Bosnia between 1941 and 1945, and reported to the principal commissioner for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Jure Francetić.

Serbs Ethnic group

The Serbs are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans. The majority of Serbs inhabit the nation state of Serbia, as well as the disputed territory of Kosovo, and the neighboring countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro. They form significant minorities in North Macedonia and Slovenia. There is a large Serb diaspora in Western Europe, and outside Europe there are significant communities in North America and Australia.

In its complete form, the term appeared for the first time in the Romanian language (purificare etnică) in an address by Vice Prime Minister Mihai Antonescu to cabinet members in July 1941. After the beginning of the invasion of the USSR,[ clarification needed ] he concluded: “I do not know when the Romanians will have such chance for ethnic cleansing." [11] In the 1980s, the Soviets used the term "ethnic cleansing" to describe the inter-ethnic violence in Nagorno-Karabakh. [3] At around the same time, the Yugoslav media used it to describe what they alleged was an Albanian nationalist plot to force all Serbs to leave Kosovo. It was widely popularized by the Western media during the Bosnian War (1992–95). The first recorded mention of its use in the Western media can be traced back to an article in The New York Times dated 15 April 1992, in a quote by an anonymous Western diplomat. [6]

Mihai Antonescu Romanian politician

Mihai Antonescu was a Romanian politician who served as Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister during World War II.

Nagorno-Karabakh Disputed territory in Transcaucasia

Nagorno-Karabakh, also known as Artsakh, is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur, and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains. The region is mostly mountainous and forested.

Synonyms include ethnic purification. [12]

Definitions

Rwandan Genocide Murambi bodies Rwandan Genocide Murambi bodies.jpg
Rwandan Genocide Murambi bodies

The Final Report of the Commission of Experts established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780 defined ethnic cleansing as "a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas". [13] In its previous, first interim report it noted, "[b]ased on the many reports describing the policy and practices conducted in the former Yugoslavia, [that] 'ethnic cleansing' has been carried out by means of murder, torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, extra-judicial executions, rape and sexual assaults, confinement of civilian population in ghetto areas, forcible removal, displacement and deportation of civilian population, deliberate military attacks or threats of attacks on civilians and civilian areas, and wanton destruction of property. Those practices constitute crimes against humanity and can be assimilated to specific war crimes. Furthermore, such acts could also fall within the meaning of the Genocide Convention." [14]

Yugoslavia 1918–1992 country in Southeastern and Central Europe

Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, and constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign. The kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929.

Crimes against humanity deliberate attack against civilians

Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials. Crimes against humanity have since been prosecuted by other international courts as well as in domestic prosecutions. The law of crimes against humanity has primarily developed through the evolution of customary international law. Crimes against humanity are not codified in an international convention, although there is currently an international effort to establish such a treaty, led by the Crimes Against Humanity Initiative.

War crime Serious violation of the laws of war

A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility. Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, torturing, destroying civilian property, taking hostages, performing a perfidy, raping, using child soldiers, pillaging, declaring that no quarter will be given, and seriously violating the principles of distinction and proportionality, such as strategic bombing of civilian populations.

The official United Nations definition of ethnic cleansing is "rendering an area ethnically homogeneous by using force or intimidation to remove from a given area persons of another ethnic or religious group". [15]

As a category, ethnic cleansing encompasses a continuum or spectrum of policies. In the words of Andrew Bell-Fialkoff:

[E]thnic cleansing [...] defies easy definition. At one end it is virtually indistinguishable from forced emigration and population exchange while at the other it merges with deportation and genocide. At the most general level, however, ethnic cleansing can be understood as the expulsion of a population from a given territory. [16]

Terry Martin has defined ethnic cleansing as "the forcible removal of an ethnically defined population from a given territory" and as "occupying the central part of a continuum between genocide on one end and nonviolent pressured ethnic emigration on the other end". [9]

In reviewing the International Court of Justice (ICJ) Bosnian Genocide Case in the judgement of Jorgic v. Germany on July 12, 2007 the European Court of Human Rights quoted from the ICJ ruling on the Bosnian Genocide Case to draw a distinction between ethnic cleansing and genocide:

The term 'ethnic cleansing' has frequently been employed to refer to the events in Bosnia and Herzegovina which are the subject of this case ... [UN] General Assembly resolution 47/121 referred in its Preamble to 'the abhorrent policy of "ethnic cleansing", which is a form of genocide', as being carried on in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... It [i.e., ethnic cleansing] can only be a form of genocide within the meaning of the [Genocide] Convention, if it corresponds to or falls within one of the categories of acts prohibited by Article II of the Convention. Neither the intent, as a matter of policy, to render an area "ethnically homogeneous", nor the operations that may be carried out to implement such policy, can as such be designated as genocide: the intent that characterizes genocide is "to destroy, in whole or in part" a particular group, and deportation or displacement of the members of a group, even if effected by force, is not necessarily equivalent to destruction of that group, nor is such destruction an automatic consequence of the displacement. This is not to say that acts described as 'ethnic cleansing' may never constitute genocide, if they are such as to be characterized as, for example, 'deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part', contrary to Article II, paragraph (c), of the Convention, provided such action is carried out with the necessary specific intent (dolus specialis), that is to say with a view to the destruction of the group, as distinct from its removal from the region. As the ICTY has observed, while 'there are obvious similarities between a genocidal policy and the policy commonly known as 'ethnic cleansing' (Krstić, IT-98-33-T, Trial Chamber Judgment, 2 August 2001, para. 562), yet '[a] clear distinction must be drawn between physical destruction and mere dissolution of a group. The expulsion of a group or part of a group does not in itself suffice for genocide.'

ECHR quoting the ICJ. [17]

As a crime under international law

There is no international treaty that specifies a specific crime of ethnic cleansing. [18] However, ethnic cleansing in the broad sense—the forcible deportation of a population—is defined as a crime against humanity under the statutes of both International Criminal Court (ICC) and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). [19] The gross human-rights violations integral to stricter definitions of ethnic cleansing are treated as separate crimes falling under public international law of crimes against humanity and in certain circumstances genocide. [20]

There are however situations, such as the expulsion of Germans after World War II, where ethnic cleansing has taken place without legal redress (see Preussische Treuhand v. Poland). Timothy V. Waters argues therefore that similar ethnic cleansing could go unpunished in the future. [21]

Genocide

Armenian Genocide victims Armenianvictimsassault.jpg
Armenian Genocide victims

Academic discourse considers both genocide and ethnic cleansing to exist in a spectrum of assaults on nations or religio-ethnic groups. Ethnic cleansing is similar to forced deportation or population transfer whereas genocide is the intentional murder of part or all of a particular ethnic, racial, religious, or national group. While ethnic cleansing and genocide may share the same goal and the acts used to perpetrate both crimes may often resemble each other, ethnic cleansing is intended to displace a persecuted population from a given territory, while genocide is intended to destroy a population. [22]

Some academics consider genocide as a subset of "murderous ethnic cleansing". [23] Thus, these concepts are different, but related, as Norman Naimark writes: "literally and figuratively, ethnic cleansing bleeds into genocide, as mass murder is committed in order to rid the land of a people". [24] William Schabas adds, "Ethnic cleansing is also a warning sign of genocide to come. Genocide is the last resort of the frustrated ethnic cleanser." [22]

As a military, political and economic tactic

The 12th anniversary exhibition of ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia, which was held in Tbilisi in 2005. Abkhazia genocide anniversary 2005.jpg
The 12th anniversary exhibition of ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia, which was held in Tbilisi in 2005.

In 1946 Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad. The survivors of the German population were forcibly expelled and the city was repopulated with Soviet citizens.

In the 1990s Bosnian war, ethnic cleansing was a common phenomenon. It typically entailed intimidation, forced expulsion and/or killing of the undesired ethnic group, as well as the destruction or removal of key physical and cultural elements. These included places of worship, cemeteries, works of art and historic buildings. According to numerous ICTY verdicts, both Serb [25] and Croat [26] forces performed ethnic cleansing of their intended territories in order to create ethnically pure states (Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia). Serb forces were also judged to have committed genocide in Srebrenica and Zepa at the end of the war. [27]

Mass expulsion of Poles in 1939 as part of the German ethnic cleansing of western Poland annexed to the Reich. Bundesarchiv R 49 Bild-0131, Aussiedlung von Polen im Wartheland.jpg
Mass expulsion of Poles in 1939 as part of the German ethnic cleansing of western Poland annexed to the Reich.

Based on the evidence of numerous attacks by Croat forces against Bosnian Muslims (Bosniaks), the ICTY Trial Chamber concluded in the Kordić and Čerkez case that by April 1993, the Croat leadership from Bosnia and Herzegovina had a designated plan to ethnically cleanse Bosniaks from the Lašva Valley in Central Bosnia. Dario Kordić, the local political leader, was found to be the instigator of this plan. [28]

In the same year (1993), ethnic cleansing was also occurring in another country. During the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict, the armed Abkhaz separatist insurgency implemented a campaign of ethnic cleansing against the large population of ethnic Georgians.[ citation needed ] This was actually a case of trying to drive out a majority, rather than a minority, since Georgians were the single largest ethnic group in pre-war Abkhazia, with a 45.7% plurality as of 1989. [29] As a result of this deliberate campaign by the Abkhaz separatists, more than 250,000 ethnic Georgians were forced to flee, and approximately 30,000 people were killed during separate incidents involving massacres and expulsions (see Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia). [30] [ page needed ] [31] [ page needed ] This was recognized as ethnic cleansing by Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe conventions, and was also mentioned in UN General Assembly Resolution GA/10708. [32]

As a tactic, ethnic cleansing has a number of systemic impacts. It enables a force to eliminate civilian support for resistance by eliminating the civilians—recognizing Mao Zedong's dictum that guerrillas among a civilian population are fish in water, it removes the fish by draining the water[ citation needed ]. When enforced as part of a political settlement, as happened with the forced resettlement of ethnic Germans to the new Germany after 1945, it can contribute to long-term stability. [33] [ page needed ] Some individuals of the large German population in Czechoslovakia and prewar Poland had encouraged Nazi jingoism before the Second World War, but this was forcibly resolved. [34] [ page needed ] It thus establishes "facts on the ground"—radical demographic changes which can be very hard to reverse.

A ceremony marking the 16th anniversary of Operation Storm, which resulted in the expulsion of more than 200,000 ethnic Serbs from Croatia. 16 obljetnica vojnoredarstvene operacije Oluja 05082011 355.jpg
A ceremony marking the 16th anniversary of Operation Storm, which resulted in the expulsion of more than 200,000 ethnic Serbs from Croatia.

Silent ethnic cleansing is a term coined in the mid-1990s by some observers of the Yugoslav Wars. Apparently concerned with Western media representations of atrocities committed in the conflict—which generally focused on those perpetrated by the Serbs—atrocities committed against Serbs were dubbed "silent" on the grounds that they did not receive adequate coverage. [36]

Some incidents in Northern Ireland and during the Troubles between Protestants and Catholics were considered to be "ethnic cleansing". [37] [38] This included events after the Holy Cross dispute in 2001 when Protestant paramilitaries were accused of carrying out ethnic cleansing of Catholics in north Belfast. [39] [40]

Instances

Rohingya refugees from Myanmar, March 2017 Kutupalong Refugee Camp (John Owens-VOA).jpg
Rohingya refugees from Myanmar, March 2017

In many cases where accusations of ethnic cleansing have circulated, partisans have fiercely disputed such an interpretation and the details of the events which have been described as ethnic cleansing by academic or legal experts. This often leads to the promotion of vastly different versions of the event in question. [41]

Armenia, 1914-1923

During the beginning of World War I in 1914, following defeats from the Russian army due to a lack of proper leadership and preparation, the Ottoman Empire banished all Armenian soldiers in desperation with the belief that they were the ones to blame for the defeats. [42] What began as a military tactic, eventually lead to a brutal genocide of the ethnic Armenian people living in Turkey beginning with the execution of male Armenians and eventually the forced deportation Armenian women and children. [43] It is estimated around 800,000 to 1 million ethnic Armenians living in Turkey were either executed or forcibly deported during World War 1. [42] The Armenian Genocide has been recognized as a genocide by most scholars and nations due to its deliberate targeting of ethnic Armenians and the brutal fashion in which it was implemented and has been viewed as a form of Ethnic Cleansing due to the Ottoman Empire's desire to rid a specific ethnicity from their territory. [44]

Germany, 1933-1945

Recognized as one of the most extreme cases of ethnic cleansing, the Holocaust was the Nazi Regime's mass murder of about 6 million Jews during World War II. [45] Accomplished in stages, the Holocaust began with legislation to remove Jews from society before World War II. Concentration and extermination camps were then created to execute the millions of Jews living in Germany either through shootings, gas chambers, or being worked to death. [45] Killing approximately 90 percent of the Jews living in Poland and 87 percent of the Jews living in Germany and Austria, the Nazi Regime's motives, the horrific fashion of execution, and the number of ethnic Jews murdered make the Holocaust one of the clearest and undisputed cases of ethnic cleansing in history. [46]

Eastern Europe, 1944-1949

Following World War II, from 1944 to 1949, approximately 14 million Germans were forcibly removed from Central and Eastern Europe, primarily German citizens who had settled in territories captured by the Nazi Regime during World War II in areas such as Poland, the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. [47] Although the conflict consisting primarily of forced migration, approximately 2 million Germans were killed during the migration from either starvation, poor weather conditions, or beatings and murder at the hands of troops and mobs consisting of Russians, Poles, Czechs or other locals. [48] The ethnic cleansing of Germans in Eastern an Central Europe can be explained by the hatred and negative sentiment towards Germans following the Nazi Regime's inhumane acts during the course of World War II and also by the desire of European countries to create a more ethnically homogenous nation-state. [48]

Bosnia & Herzegovina, 1990-1993

During the Bosnian War from 1992-1995, many civilians fell victim to the ethnic cleansing that took part between Bosnian Serbs, Bosnian Croats, and Bosnian Muslims. All three of the ethnic groups sought for ethnically homogenous territories within Bosnia and Herzegovina displacing about 2,700,000 people within the country. [49] The methods used during the Bosnian ethnic cleansing campaigns included "murder, torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, extra-judicial executions, rape and sexual assaults, confinement of civilian population in ghetto areas, forcible removal, displacement and deportation of civilian population, deliberate military attacks or threats of attacks on civilians and civilian areas, and wanton destruction of property". [50] Creating the largest flow of internally displaced citizens since World War II, the ethnic cleansing that occurred in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the 1990s is still apparent in the ethnically homogeneous regions of Bosnian Serbs, Croats, and Muslims that exist in modern day Bosnia with politicians attempting to obstruct the undoing of the ethnic cleansing that took place during the war. [51]

Myanmar, 2010s

Since 2016, Myanmar's military dominated government has forced the removal of over 620,000 ethnic Rohingya living in the Rakhine state of northwest Myanmar to neighboring Bangladesh. [52] The Rohingya are a group of about 1 million muslims living in the Rakhine state who have faced persecution and discrimination from the government of Myanmar and Buddhist nationalists by being restricted access to citizenship and treated as illegal immigrants. [53] The Myanmar government has cracked down on the Rohingya people and forced them migrate to Bangladesh through violent action, with rape, arson and murder being reported. [54] UN human rights chief Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein has stated in regard to the situation that “The situation seems a textbook example of ethnic cleansing” while governments across the world have called on Myanmar's government to take control of the situation and stop the ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya people. [55]

Criticism of the term

Gregory Stanton, the founder of Genocide Watch, has criticised the rise of the term and its use for events that he feels should be called "genocide": as "ethnic cleansing" has no legal definition, its media use can detract attention from events that should be prosecuted as genocide. [56] [57] Because of widespread acceptance after media influence, it has become a word used legally, but carries no legal repercussions. [58]

In 1992, the German equivalent of "ethnic cleansing" (German : Ethnische Säuberung) was named German Un-Word of the Year by the Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache due to its euphemistic, inappropriate nature. [59]

See also

Notes

  1. Rubenstein, James M. (2008). The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography. Pearson. ISBN   9780131346819.
  2. Thum, Gregor (2006–2007). "Ethnic Cleansing in Eastern Europe after 1945". Contemporary European History. 19 (1): 75–81. doi:10.1017/S0960777309990257.
  3. 1 2 Booth, Ken (2012). The Kosovo Tragedy: The Human Rights Dimensions. London: Routledge. p. 48. ISBN   978-1-13633-476-4.
  4. Ther, Philip (2004). "The Spell of the Homogeneous Nation State: Structural Factors and Agents of Ethnic Cleansing". In Rainer Munz; Rainer Ohliger (eds.). Diasporas and Ethnic Migrants: Germany, Israel and Russia in Comparative Perspective. London: Routledge. ISBN   978-1-13575-938-4.
  5. Akhund, Nadine (December 31, 2012). "The Two Carnegie Reports: From the Balkan Expedition of 1913 to the Albanian Trip of 1921". Balkanologie. Revue d'études pluridisciplinaires (Vol. XIV, n° 1-2) via balkanologie.revues.org.
  6. 1 2 Toal, Gerard; Dahlman, Carl T. (2011). Bosnia Remade: Ethnic Cleansing and Its Reversal. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN   978-0-19-973036-0.
  7. West, Richard (1994). Tito and the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia. New York: Carroll & Graf. p. 93. ISBN   978-0-7867-0332-6.
  8. Becirevic, Edina (2014). Genocide on the River Drina. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN   978-0-3001-9258-2.
  9. 1 2 Martin, Terry (1998). "The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing". The Journal of Modern History 70 (4), 813–861. pg. 822
  10. Fulbrooke, Mary (2004). A Concise History of Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 197. ISBN   978-0-52154-071-1.
  11. Petrovic, Vladimir (2017). Ethnopolitical Temptations Reach Southeastern Europe: Wartime Policy Papers of Vasa Čubrilović and Sabin Manuilă. CEU Press.
  12. Petrovic, Drazen (1994). "Ethnic Cleansing – An Attempt at Methodology" (PDF). European Journal of International Law. 5 (3): 343. Retrieved May 20, 2006. In English, reference is also made to 'ethnic purification'.
  13. "Final Report of the Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 780 (1992)" (PDF). United Nations Security Council. May 27, 1994. p. 33. Upon examination of reported information, specific studies and investigations, the Commission confirms its earlier view that 'ethnic cleansing' is a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas. To a large extent, it is carried out in the name of misguided nationalism, historic grievances and a powerful driving sense of revenge. This purpose appears to be the occupation of territory to the exclusion of the purged group or groups. This policy and the practices of warring factions are described separately in the following paragraphs. Paragraph 130.
  14. "Final Report of the Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 780 (1992)" (PDF). United Nations Security Council. May 27, 1994. p. 33. Paragraph 129
  15. Hayden, Robert M. (1996) "Schindler's Fate: Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, and Population Transfers". Slavic Review 55 (4), 727-48.
  16. Andrew Bell-Fialkoff, "A Brief History of Ethnic Cleansing" Archived February 3, 2004, at the Wayback Machine , Foreign Affairs 72 (3): 110, Summer 1993. Retrieved May 20, 2006.
  17. ECHR Jorgic v. Germany §45 citing Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro ("Case concerning application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide"), the International Court of Justice (ICJ) found under the heading of “intent and ‘ethnic cleansing’” (at § 190)
  18. Ferdinandusse, Ward (2004). The Interaction of National and International Approaches in the Repression of International Crimes (PDF). The European Journal of International Law. 15. p. 1042, note 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 5, 2008.
  19. "Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court" Archived January 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine , Article 7; Updated Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Article 5.
  20. Shraga, Daphna; Zacklin, Ralph (2004). "The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia". The European Journal of International Law. 15 (3). Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  21. Timothy V. Waters, "On the Legal Construction of Ethnic Cleansing", Paper 951, 2006, University of Mississippi School of Law. Retrieved on 2006, 12–13
  22. 1 2 Schabas, William (2000). Genocide in International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 199–201. ISBN   9780521787901.
  23. Mann, Michael (2005). The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN   9780521538541.
  24. Naimark, Norman (November 4, 2007). "Theoretical Paper: Ethnic Cleansing". Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016.
  25. "ICTY: Radoslav Brđanin judgement". Archived from the original on April 14, 2009.
  26. "ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict". Archived from the original on June 27, 2009.
  27. ICTY; "Address by ICTY President Theodor Meron, at Potočari Memorial Cemetery" The Hague, June 23, 2004 Archived April 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  28. "ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict – IV. Attacks on towns and villages: killings – C. The April 1993 Conflagration in Vitez and the Lašva Valley – 3. The Attack on Ahmići (Paragraph 642)". Archived from the original on June 26, 2009.
  29. US State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, Abkhazia case.
  30. Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna (1994). Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow. Gothic Image Publications. ASIN   B0029XE6WO.
  31. US State Department,Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, February 1994, Chapter 17.
  32. ""General Assembly Adopts Resolution Recognizing Right Of Return By Refugees, Internally Displaced Persons To Abkhazia, Georgia"".
  33. Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 Penguin Press, 2005
  34. Tony Judt Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 Penguin Press, 2005.
  35. "Evicted Serbs remember Storm ". BBC News. 5 August 2005.
  36. Krauthammer, Charles: "When Serbs Are 'Cleansed,' Moralists Stay Silent", International Herald Tribune, August 12, 1995.
  37. Chrisafis, Angelique (January 10, 2004). "Racist war of the loyalist street gangs". the Guardian.
  38. "Unionists react angrily to IRA 'ethnic cleansing' border plan". The Irish News.
  39. "Fresh trouble in Belfast". May 8, 2002 via news.bbc.co.uk.
  40. Cowan, Rosie (September 9, 2002). "'Ethnic cleansing' claim over Ulster attacks". the Guardian.
  41. "Governments are using Trump's fake news claim to hide 'ethnic cleansing'" . Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  42. 1 2 Suny, R. (2005). Ethnic cleansing: Armenia. In M. J. Gibney, & R. Hansen (Eds.), Immigration and asylum from 1900 to present (). Santa Barbara, CA, USA: ABC-CLIO. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/abcmigrate/ethnic_cleansing_armenia/0
  43. Jones, A. (2010). The armenian genocide. Genocide: A comprehensive introduction (). London, UK: Routledge. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/routgenocide/the_armenian_genocide/0
  44. Frey, R. J. (2009). Genocide and international justice. New York: Facts On File. Retrieved from http://bvbr.bib-bvb.de:8991/F?func=service&doc_library=BVB01&local_base=BVB01&doc_number=022300460&sequence=000001&line_number=0001&func_code=DB_RECORDS&service_type=MEDIA
  45. 1 2 Berenbaum, M. (2006). Theœ world must know (second edition ed.). Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  46. Dawidowicz, L. S. (1986). Theœ war against the jews (10. anniversary ed. ed.). Toronto u.a: Bantam Books. Retrieved from http://bvbr.bib-bvb.de:8991/F?func=service&doc_library=BVB01&local_base=BVB01&doc_number=000321857&sequence=000002&line_number=0001&func_code=DB_RECORDS&service_type=MEDIA
  47. Hansen, R., & Ohliger, R. (2005). Ethnic cleansing: Germans from central and eastern europe. In M. J. Gibney, & R. Hansen (Eds.), Immigration and asylum from 1900 to present (). Santa Barbara, CA, USA: ABC-CLIO. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/abcmigrate/ethnic_cleansing_germans_from_central_and_eastern_europe/0
  48. 1 2 Prauser, S. (2004). Theœ expulsion of the "german" communities from eastern europe at the end of the second world war. Badia Fiesolana, San Domenico (FI): European University Institute, Florence, Department of History and Civilization.
  49. "Bosnia: Dayton Accords". www.nytimes.com.
  50. Report of the Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 780 (1992), 27 May 1994 (S/1994/674), English page=33, Paragraph 129
  51. Nielsen, C. (2005a). Ethnic cleansing: Bosnia-herzegovina. In M. J. Gibney, & R. Hansen (Eds.), Immigration and asylum from 1900 to present (). Santa Barbara, CA, USA: ABC-CLIO. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/abcmigrate/ethnic_cleansing_bosnia_herzegovina/0
  52. Rohingya ethnic cleansing. (2018). In Helicon (Ed.), The hutchinson unabridged encyclopedia with atlas and weather guide (). Abington, UK: Helicon. Retrieved from https://proxy.library.georgetown.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/heliconhe/rohingya_ethnic_cleansing/0
  53. "Myanmar seeking ethnic cleansing, says UN official as Rohingya flee persecution". The Guardian. 24 November 2016. Archived from the original on 10 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  54. Matt Broomfield (10 December 2016). "UN calls on Burma's Aung San Suu Kyi to halt 'ethnic cleansing' of Rohingya Muslims". The Independent . Archived from the original on 11 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  55. Stephanie Nebehay and Simon Lewis. "U.N. brands Myanmar violence a 'textbook' example of ethnic cleansing". Reuters. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  56. Blum, Rony; Stanton, Gregory H.; Sagi, Shira; Richter, Elihu D. (2007). "'Ethnic cleansing' bleaches the atrocities of genocide". European Journal of Public Health. 18 (2): 204–209. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckm011. PMID   17513346.
  57. See also "Ethnic Cleansing and Genocidal Intent: A Failure of Judicial Interpretation?", Genocide Studies and Prevention 5, 1 (April 2010), Douglas Singleterry
  58. "Ethnic Cleansing Law and Legal Definition | USLegal, Inc". definitions.uslegal.com. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  59. Gunkel, Christoph (October 31, 2010). "Ein Jahr, ein (Un-)Wort!" [One year, one (un)word!] (in German). Spiegel Online.

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References

Further reading