Nepotism

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Nepotism is the granting of favour to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities. The term originated with the assignment of nephews to important positions by Catholic popes and bishops. Trading parliamentary employment for favors is a modern-day example of nepotism.[ citation needed ] Criticism of nepotism, however, can be found in ancient Indian texts such as the Kural literature.

Kinship human relationship term; web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of most humans in most societies; form of social connection

In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life – mating, gestation, parenthood, socialization, siblingship etc." Human society is unique, he argues, in that we are "working with the same raw material as exists in the animal world, but [we] can conceptualize and categorize it to serve social ends." These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of basic economic, political and religious groups.

Business Organization undertaking commercial, industrial, or professional activity

Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products. Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit. It does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."

Politics refers to a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, or an area. It involves making decisions that apply to members of a group.

Contents

Nepotism refers to partiality to family whereas cronyism refers to partiality to a partner or friend. Favoritism, the broadest of the terms, refers to partiality based upon being part of a favored group, rather than job performance. [1]

Cronyism is the practice of partiality in awarding jobs and other advantages to friends or trusted colleagues, especially in politics and between politicians and supportive organizations. For instance, this includes appointing "cronies" to positions of authority, regardless of their qualifications.

In-group favoritism, sometimes known as in-group–out-group bias, in-group bias, or intergroup bias, is a pattern of favoring members of one's in-group over out-group members. This can be expressed in evaluation of others, in allocation of resources, and in many other ways.

Origins

The term comes from the Italian word nepotismo, [2] [3] which is based on the Latin word nepos meaning 'nephew'. [4] Since the Middle Ages and until the late 17th century, some Catholic popes and bishops, who had taken vows of chastity, and therefore usually had no legitimate offspring of their own, gave their nephews such positions of preference as were often accorded by fathers to son. [5]

Middle Ages Period of European history from the 5th to the 15th century

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Pope leader of the Catholic Church

The pope, also known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has also been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.

A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.

Several popes elevated nephews and other relatives to the cardinalate. Often, such appointments were a means of continuing a papal "dynasty". [6] For instance, Pope Callixtus III, head of the Borgia family, made two of his nephews cardinals; one of them, Rodrigo, later used his position as a cardinal as a stepping stone to the papacy, becoming Pope Alexander VI. [7] Alexander then elevated Alessandro Farnese, his mistress's brother, to cardinal; Farnese would later go on to become Pope Paul III. [8]

Cardinal-nephew Nephew or relative of a pope appointed as a cardinal by him

A cardinal-nephew was a cardinal elevated by a pope who was that cardinal's relative. The practice of creating cardinal-nephews originated in the Middle Ages, and reached its apex during the 16th and 17th centuries. The last cardinal-nephew was named in 1689 and the practice was extinguished in 1692. The word nepotism originally referred specifically to this practice, when it appeared in the English language about 1669. From the middle of the Avignon Papacy (1309–1377) until Pope Innocent XII's anti-nepotism bull, Romanum decet pontificem (1692), a pope without a cardinal-nephew was the exception to the rule. Every Renaissance pope who created cardinals appointed a relative to the College of Cardinals, and the nephew was the most common choice, although one of Alexander VI's creations was his own son.

Pope Callixtus III Pope from 1455 to 1458

Pope Callixtus III, also known as Alfonso de Borgia, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 April 1455 to his death in 1458. He is the most recent pope to have taken the pontifical name of "Callixtus" upon his election. A member of the powerful Borgia family, Callixtus III was the uncle of Pope Alexander VI, whom he appointed to the College of Cardinals.

House of Borgia noble family

The House of Borgia was an Italo-Spanish noble family, which rose to prominence during the Italian Renaissance. They were from Aragon, the surname being a toponymic from the town of Borja, then in the Crown of Aragon, in Spain.

Paul III also engaged in nepotism, appointing, for instance, two nephews, aged 14 and 16, as cardinals. The practice was finally limited when Pope Innocent XII issued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem , in 1692. [5] The papal bull prohibited popes in all times from bestowing estates, offices, or revenues on any relative, with the exception that one qualified relative (at most) could be made a cardinal. [9]

Pope Innocent XII 17th-century Catholic pope

Pope Innocent XII, born Antonio Pignatelli, was Pope from 12 July 1691 to his death in 1700.

Papal bull type of letters patent or charter issued by a Pope of the Catholic Church

A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden seal (bulla) that was traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it.

According to the ancient Indian philosopher Valluvar, nepotism is both evil and unwise. [10]

Types

Political

Nepotism is a common accusation in politics when the relative of a powerful figure ascends to similar power seemingly without appropriate qualifications. The British English expression "Bob's your uncle" is thought to have originated when Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, promoted his nephew, Arthur Balfour, to the esteemed post of Chief Secretary for Ireland, which was widely seen as an act of nepotism. [11] One other recent example is the current Portuguese government which counts no less than 50 nominations within family ties. [12]

Organizational

Nepotism can also occur within organizations when a person is employed due to familial ties. It is generally seen as unethical, both on the part of the employer and employee.

In employment

Nepotism at work can mean increased opportunity at a job, attaining the job or being paid more than other similarly situated people. [13] Arguments are made both for and against employment granted due to a family connection, which is most common in small, family run businesses. On one hand, nepotism can provide stability and continuity. Critics cite studies that demonstrate decreased morale and commitment from non-related employees, [14] and a generally negative attitude towards superior positions filled through nepotism. An article from Forbes magazine stated "there is no ladder to climb when the top rung is reserved for people with a certain name." [15] Some businesses forbid nepotism as an ethical matter, considering it too troublesome and disruptive. According to an article published in Journal of Economic impact "Financially strong families can easily influence on the hiring process for obtaining a job. [16]

In entertainment

Outside of national politics, accusations of nepotism are made in instances of prima facie favoritism to relatives, in such cases as:

See also

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References

  1. Judy Nadler and Miriam Schulman. "Favoritism, Cronyism, and Nepotism". Santa Clara University. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  2. "Nepotism." Dictionary.com. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  3. "In Praise of Nepotism: A Natural History". Adam Bellow Booknotes interview transcript. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  4. "Article nepos". CTCWeb Glossary. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  5. 1 2 "Article Nepotism". New Catholic Dictionary. Archived from the original on 24 February 2007. Retrieved 12 July 2007.
  6. Gianvittorio Signorotto; Maria Antonietta Visceglia (21 March 2002). Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 1492–1700. Cambridge University Press. pp. 114–116. ISBN   978-1-139-43141-5 . Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  7. "Article Pope Alexander VI". New Catholic Dictionary. Retrieved 12 July 2007.
  8. "Article Pope Paul III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12 July 2007.
  9. Anura Gurugé (16 February 2010). The Next Pope. Anura Guruge. p. 115. ISBN   978-0-615-35372-2 . Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  10. Sundaram, P. S. (1990). Tiruvalluvar: The Kural (First ed.). Gurgaon: Penguin Books. p. 12. ISBN   978-0-14-400009-8.
  11. Trahair, R. C. S. (1994). From Aristotelian to Reaganomics: A Dictionary of Eponyms With Biographies in the Social Science. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 72. ISBN   9780313279614.
  12. https://www.rtp.pt/noticias/politica/o-nepotismo-e-o-governo-mais-de-duas-dezenas-de-parentescos_v1131035
  13. "Nepotism at Work". Safeworkers.co.uk. 20 April 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  14. "Family Ties: Handling Nepotism Within Your Business – Perspectives – Inside INdiana Business with Gerry Dick". Insideindianabusiness.com. 9 November 2010. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  15. Kneale, Klaus. "Is Nepotism So Bad?". Forbes. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  16. Khaliq, Muhammad Tanveer; Imran, Muhammad Ali; Ullah, Sammi; Bakhsh, Allah; Aslam, Manan; Tahir, Nimra; Yasin, Mudassar (25 March 2019). "The Impact of Nepotism on Employment Status in Public Sector Institutions: An Evidence from Fresh Graduates of Pakistan". Journal of Economic Impact. 1 (1): 07–11.
  17. "Peaches Geldof bags TV reality show as magazine editor". Sunday Mirror . Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  18. "On 'So Notorious,' Tori Spelling Mocks Herself Before You Can". The New York Times . Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  19. "Tori Spelling admits getting Shannon Doherty fired from Beverly Hills 90210 and lending her dress stained with 'virgin blood' for photoshoot – Independent.ie" . Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  20. "EXTRA: Nepotism in the Director's Chair at". Hollywood.com. 21 April 2000. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  21. "Nothing is true, everything is permitted – Coppola nepotism hate". Spiritof1976.livejournal.com. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  22. Brockes, Emma (20 July 2013). "Nicolas Cage: 'People think I'm not in on the joke'". The Guardian . Retrieved 7 May 2018.