|Prime Minister of Sri Lanka |
ශ්රී ලංකා අග්රාමාත්ය
|Seat||Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte|
|Nominator||Parliament of Sri Lanka|
|Appointer||President of Sri Lanka|
|Term length||Five years|
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka|
|Precursor||Leader of the House, State Council of Ceylon|
|Inaugural holder||Don Stephen Senanayake|
|Formation||14 October 1947|
|Succession||First in the|
presidential line of succession
|Salary||LKR 858,000 annually (2016)|
|Website||Prime Minister's Office|
The Prime Minister of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is the deputy head of the government of Sri Lanka, and the most senior member of parliament in the cabinet of ministers. The Cabinet is collectively held accountable to parliament for their policies and actions.
On 21 November 2019, Mahinda Rajapaksa was appointed as the prime minister for a 3rd term, following the resignation of Ranil Wickremesinghe, upon the election victory of his brother, Gotabaya as the president of Sri Lanka.
The president will appoint a member of parliament as Prime Minister, who in the president's opinion, "is most likely to command the confidence of Parliament". The prime minister will continue to hold office throughout the period during which the cabinet of ministers continues to function under the provisions of the constitution unless he/she resigns from the post or ceases to be a member of parliament.
Under the Soulbury Constitution the post of Prime Minister was created in 1947 as the head of government in the Westminster system. In 1978, under the second amendment to the Republican Constitution of 1972 much of the powers of the premiership was transferred to the executive presidency as head of government and head of the cabinet of ministers in addition to being the head of state. As a result, the prime minister became a senior most member cabinet of ministers and successor to the president. The prime minister would serve as the deputy to the president if both are from the same political party. In certain occasions, when the president is not from the majority party in parliament or a national government is formed, the prime minister would be appointed from a party different from the president's. In such a situations the prime minister would serve as the de facto head of government.In 2015, the nineteenth amendment restored certain degree of powers to the premiership.
The prime minister is the second in the order of precedence after the president and head of the cabinet of ministers. The prime minister would be a member of the constitutional council, national security council and the most senior member of the cabinet of ministers.
As head of the cabinet of ministers, the prime minister has the power to:
By the constitution, the prime minister holds formal power to advise the president on:
As per the constitution, if the office of president becomes vacant, the prime minister would "act in the office of President during the period between the occurrence of such vacancy and the assumption of office by the new president and shall appoint one of the other ministers of the Cabinet to act in the office of Prime Minister". In such as situation, the office of Prime Minister is vacant or the prime minister is unable to act, the speaker shall act in the office of President.
The president may appoint the prime minister to exercise, perform and discharge the powers, duties and functions of the office of President for a period during the president is unable to exercise, perform and discharge the powers, duties and functions of his office due to illness, absence from Sri Lanka or any other cause.
The prime minister would receive a salary (as of 2016) of LKR 800,000 annually paid from the Prime Minister's Office.[ citation needed ]
The official residence of the prime minister is the Prime Minister's House most commonly referred to as Temple Trees. The prime minister has the use of the The Lodge as a vacationing residence in the holiday-town of Nuwara Eliya. The Prime Minister's Office is located in the Sirimathipaya on Sir Ernest de Silva Mawatha (formerly known as Flower Road) in Colombo.
In recent years from time to time, Temple Trees has been by some presidents such as Kumaratunga and Rajapaksa. While certain prime ministers such as Wickremesinghe have chosen to stay at his personal residence.
For ground travel, the prime minister uses the prime ministerial car, which is an armored black Mercedes-Benz S-Class (S600) Pullman Guard. For domestic air travel, helicopters from the No. 4 (VVIP/VIP) Helicopter Squadron of the Sri Lanka Air Force are used while for long-distance travel, regular flights of the Sri Lankan Airlines are used.
Traditionally security for the prime minister has been provided by the Sri Lanka Police. After the establishment of the office of Prime Minister in 1948, a sub inspector of the Ceylon Police Force had been assigned for personal protection of the prime minister, until S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike dismissed his personal protection officer. When Bandaranaike was assassinated, only a lone police constable stood guard at the entrance of his residence. Following the Bandaranaike assassination, the successive prime ministers received a police guard headed by a sub inspector. This was supplemented by the Army's Field Security Detachment following the 1962 attempted coup d'état and during the 1971 JVP insurrection.At present the Prime Minister's Security Division is in charge of security of the prime minister.
In the Sri Lankan order of precedence, the prime minister is placed after the president, but before the Speaker of the Parliament.
The post of Prime Minister of Ceylon was created in 1947 prior to independence from Britain and the formation of the Dominion of Ceylon in 1948. United National Party leader D. S. Senanayake became the first prime minister of then Ceylon in 1947 after independence. In 1972 when Sri Lanka became a republic the name of the post changed to Prime Minister of Sri Lanka. With a Westminster-based political system established the prime minister was the head of government therefore held the most powerful political office of the country at the time. This changed with a constitutional change in 1978, when the executive presidency was created, making the president both head of state and head of government. Until 1978, the prime minister was also the minister of defence and external affairs. The prime minister is appointed by the president as a member of the cabinet of ministers. In the event the post president is vacant, the prime minister becomes the acting president until Parliament convenes to elect a successor or new elections could be held to elect a new president. This was the case with H.E. President Dingiri Banda Wijetunge. United National Party leaders Dudley Senanayake and Ranil Wickramasinghe together with Sri Lanka Freedom Party leader Sirimavo Bandaranaike was appointed three times to the position. With the passing of the 19th amendment to the constitution in 2015, the prime minister was granted more powers when appointing ministers and leading the cabinet.
On 26 October 2018, former president Mahinda Rajapaksa was appointed by Maithripala Sirisena as the prime minister dismissing incumbent prime minister Ranil Wickremasinghe. Wickremasinghe refused to accept the dismissal stating that it was unconstitutional, resulting in a constitutional crisis.
On 3 December 2018, a court issued an interim order preventing Mahinda Rajapaksha from functioning in the position.On 16 December 2018, Ranil Wickramasinghe was re-appointed as Prime Minister ending the crisis.
|Alliances and parties||Votes||%||Seats|
|Eelam People's Democratic Party||61,464||0.53%||2||0||2|
|United National Party (Ranil wing)||249,435||2.15%||0||1||1|
Our Power of People's Party
|Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal||67,692||0.58%||1||0||1|
|Sri Lanka Freedom Party||66,579||0.57%||1||0||1|
|Muslim National Alliance||55,981||0.48%||1||0||1|
|All Ceylon Makkal Congress||43,319||0.37%||1||0||1|
|Sri Lanka Muslim Congress||34,428||0.30%||1||0||1|
|United Peace Alliance||31,054||0.27%||0||0||0|
|All Lanka Tamil Mahasabha||30,031||0.26%||0||0||0|
|National Development Front||14,686||0.13%||0||0||0|
|Frontline Socialist Party||14,522||0.13%||0||0||0|
|Social Democratic Party of Tamils||11,464||0.10%||0||0||0|
|Tamil United Liberation Front||9,855||0.08%||0||0||0|
|Socialist Party of Sri Lanka||9,368||0.08%||0||0||0|
|People's Welfare Front||7,361||0.06%||0||0||0|
|Sinhalese National Front||5,056||0.04%||0||0||0|
|New Democratic Front||4,883||0.04%||0||0||0|
|United Left Front||4,879||0.04%||0||0||0|
|Liberal Party of Sri Lanka||4,345||0.04%||0||0||0|
|National People's Party||3,813||0.03%||0||0||0|
|Democratic United National Front||3,611||0.03%||0||0||0|
|National Democratic Front||3,488||0.03%||0||0||0|
|Sri Lanka Labour Party||3,134||0.03%||0||0||0|
|Democratic Left Front||2,964||0.03%||0||0||0|
|New Sinhala Heritage||1,397||0.01%||0||0||0|
|United Socialist Party||1,189||0.01%||0||0||0|
|Motherland People's Party||1,087||0.01%||0||0||0|
|Eelavar Democratic Front||1,035||0.01%||0||0||0|
|Socialist Equality Party||780||0.01%||0||0||0|
|Lanka Sama Samaja Party||737||0.01%||0||0||0|
|All Are Citizens All Are Kings Organization||632||0.01%||0||0||0|
|Democratic Unity Alliance||145||0.00%||0||0||0|
Sri Lanka is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Sri Lanka is both head of state and head of government, and it relies on a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet of Ministers. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament. For decades, the party system was dominated by the socialist Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the conservative United National Party. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The politics of Sri Lanka reflect the historical and political differences between the three main ethnic groups, the Sinhala majority and the Tamil and Muslim minorities, who are concentrated in the north and east of the island.
Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the fifth President of Sri Lanka, from 12 November 1994 to 19 November 2005. The country's only female president to date, she is the daughter of two former prime ministers and was the leader of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) until the end of 2005. In 2015 she was appointed as the chairperson of office for national unity and reconciliation.
The president of Sri Lanka is the head of state and head of government of Sri Lanka. The president is the chief executive of the union government and the commander-in-chief of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces.
Ranil Wickremesinghe is a Sri Lankan politician who served as Prime Minister of Sri Lanka from 1993 to 1994, 2001 to 2004, 2015 to 2018 and 2018 to 2019. He has served as Leader of the Opposition from 1994 to 2001 and from 2004 to 2015. He served as a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1977 to 2020.
The United National Party, often abbreviated as UNP, is a political party in Sri Lanka. The UNP had previously been the governing party or in the governing coalition from 1947 to 1956, from 1965 to 1970, from 1977 to 1994, 2001 to 2004 and 2015 to 2019. In total, the UNP governed Sri Lanka for 38 of 69 years of its independent history. The UNP also had control of the executive presidency from the presidency's formation in 1978 to 1994.
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Rajapakse Mohottige Don Suranimala Rajapaksha was a Sri Lankan politician. Rajapaksha was first elected to the Parliament of Sri Lanka in 1994 and he was the Minister of School Education in Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka in 2001 to 2004. He was a member of the United National Party (UNP) and a member of UNP Working Committee. He was also appointed as the Coordinating secretary to the Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe in 2015. At the time of his death he acted as the special envoy (representative) to the Prime Minister. His younger son Kanishka Rajapaksha was also appointed as the Coordinating Assistant to the Prime Minister after the death of Rajapaksha. Kanishka is an Attorney at Law in his profession.
Parliamentary elections were held in Sri Lanka on 17 August 2015, ten months ahead of schedule, to elect 225 members to Sri Lanka's 15th Parliament.
The 19th Amendment (19A) to the Constitution of Sri Lanka was passed by the 225-member Sri Lankan Parliament with 215 voting in favor, one against, one abstained and seven were absent, on 28 April 2015. The amendment envisages the dilution of many powers of Executive Presidency, which had been in force since 1978. It is the most revolutionary reform ever applied to the Constitution of Sri Lanka since JR Jayawardhane became the first Executive President of Sri Lanka in 1978.
The 15th Parliament of Sri Lanka was the meeting of the Parliament of Sri Lanka with its membership determined by the results of the 2015 parliamentary election, held on 17 August 2015. The parliament met for the first time on 1 September 2015 and was dissolved on 3 March 2020. According to the Constitution of Sri Lanka the maximum legislative term of the parliament is 5 years from the first meeting.
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Parliamentary elections were held in Sri Lanka on 5 August 2020 to elect 225 members to Sri Lanka's 16th Parliament. 16,263,885 people were eligible to vote in the election, 31.95% of whom were young voters.