The Honourable

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The prefix The Honourable or The Honorable (abbreviated to The Hon.,Hon. or formerly The Hon'ble—the last term is still used in South Asia) is an honorific style that is used before the names of certain classes of people.

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International diplomacy

In international diplomatic relations, representatives of foreign states are often addressed as "The Honourable". Deputy chiefs of mission, chargés d'affaires, consuls-general and consuls are always given the style. All heads of consular posts, whether they are honorary or career postholders, are accorded the title according to the State Department of the United States. [1] However, ambassadors and high commissioners are never given the style, with the title "Your Excellency" being used.

Australia

In Australia, the style is generally used for an administrator of a territory, government ministers, members of most state legislative councils (upper houses), and judges of superior courts.

Governors

In May 2013, the style was given approval by the Queen to be granted to the Governor-General of Australia, both retrospectively and for current and future holders of the office, [2] to be used in the form "His/Her Excellency the Honourable" while holding office and as "the Honourable" in retirement.

As of December 2014, the practice of appointing the vice-regal office holder, as well as former living, the style The Honourable for life has been also adopted for the state governors of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Victoria and Tasmania (where it only applied to the current governor and future governors) as well as the Administrator of the Northern Territory.[ citation needed ].

Government ministers

In Australia, all ministers in Commonwealth and state governments and the government of the Northern Territory are entitled to be styled the Honourable. The Australian Capital Territory does not have an executive council and so its ministers are not entitled to the style. In Victoria, the style is granted for life, so it is customary for former ministers to retain the title after leaving office. [3] [4] In New South Wales, Queensland, [5] South Australia and Tasmania the premiers can advise the Queen of Australia to grant former ministers the style for life. In the Northern Territory, the chief minister can request the administrator to make a recommendation to the governor-general who in turn makes a recommendation to the Queen. A minimum five years' service as a member of the executive council and/or as a presiding officer is a prerequisite. In Western Australia, conditional on royal assent, the title may become permanent after three years' service in the ministry. [6] All such awards are published in the Commonwealth Government Gazette. The presiding officers of the parliaments of the Commonwealth, the states and the Northern Territory are also styled the Honourable, but normally only during their tenure of office. Special permission is sometimes given for a former presiding officer to retain the style after leaving office, as is the case in the Northern Territory.

The style "Honourable" is not acquired through membership of either the House of Representatives or the Senate (see Parliament of Australia). A member or senator may have the style if they have acquired it separately, e.g. by being a current or former minister. During proceedings within the chambers, forms such as "the honourable Member for ...", "the honourable the Leader of the Opposition", or "My honourable colleague" are used. This is a parliamentary courtesy and does not imply any right to the style.

Traditionally, members of the legislative councils of the states have been styled the Honourable for the duration of their terms. This practice is still followed in New South Wales, Western Australia, South Australia and Tasmania. In Victoria the practice was abolished in 2003. In New South Wales, Greens NSW members of the Legislative Council, who would have been styled the Honourable style, are refrained from using the style, deeming the style "outdated" and a "colonial trapping". [7]

Judges

Judges of all superior courts are also referred to formally by the style the Honourable, both during and after holding the office.

Bangladesh

In People's Republic of Bangladesh, ministers and members of parliaments are entitled to the style "Honorable". On the other hand, the prime minister and the president are styled "The Honorable" or "His/Her Excellency". [8] [9]

Canada

In Canada, while not enshrined in any legislation, the style of address in common use has some individuals referred to as The Honourable (French: l'honorable). Those who have the honorific for life include: [10] [11] [12]

In addition, some people have the honorific while in office only: [10] [12]

Derivatives include:

The Governor General may grant permission to retain the title after they cease to hold office. Persons eligible to retain the title include the Speaker of the House of Commons (if not made a privy councillor already), territorial commissioners, and judges of certain courts.

It is usual for speakers of the House of Commons to be made privy councillors, in which case they keep the style for life. Also, provincial premiers and federal opposition leaders are sometimes made privy councillors.

Members of the House of Commons of Canada and of provincial legislatures refer to each other during proceedings of the house as "honourable members" (or l'honorable député) but are not permitted by the social custom to have the Honourable as a prefix in front of their name unless they are privy councillors. [14]

Current and former governors general, prime ministers, chief justices and certain other eminent persons generally use the style the Right Honourable for life (or le/la très honorable in French). Originally, this is subject to being summoned to the British Privy Council. Several early prime ministers were not summoned to the British Privy Council and hence were styled "The Honourable", these were Alexander Mackenzie, Sir John Abbott and Sir Mackenzie Bowell.

Since 2009, former members of the Executive Council of Nova Scotia retain "The Honourable" for life.[ citation needed ] By contrast, since 1968, members of the Executive Council of Quebec have not used the title "The Honourable".

The Caribbean

Caricom

Members of the Order of the Caribbean Community are entitled to be styled The Honourable for life. [15]

Barbados

In Barbados, members of the Parliament carry two main titles: members of the House of Assembly are styled "The Honourable", while members of the Senate are styled "Senator". Persons appointed to Her Majesty's Privy Council in London are styled "The Right Honourable". Persons accorded with the Order of Barbados are styled "Sir" (male), or "Dame" (female) as a Knight or Dame of St Andrew; or "The Honourable" as Companion of Honour. Persons made a National Hero of Barbados are styled "The Right Excellent".

Jamaica

In Jamaica, those awarded the Order of Jamaica (considered Jamaica's equivalent to a British knighthood) are styled "The Honourable".

Puerto Rico

In Puerto Rico, much like the continental United States, the term "Honorable" (in Spanish) is used, but not required by law, to address Puerto Rican governors as well as city mayors, members of state and municipal legislatures, judges and property registrars, as well as when formally addressing the President of the United States, of which Puerto Rico is a territory.

The Congo

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the prefix 'Honorable' or 'Hon.' is used for members of both chambers of the Parliament of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Informally, senators are sometimes given the higher title of 'Venerable'.

Germany

A rough equivalent of "The Honourable" would be Hochwohlgeboren ("High Well-born"), which was used until 1918 for all members of properly noble families not having any higher style. Its application to bourgeois dignitaries became common in the 19th century, though it has faded since and was always of doubtful correctness.

A literal equivalent of "The Honourable", Ehrwürdig or Ehrwürden, is used for Catholic clergy and religious with the exceptions of priests and abbesses, who are Hochwürden (Reverend). A subdeacon is "Very Honourable" (Wohlehrwürden); a deacon is "Right Honourable" (Hochehrwürden).

Ghana

The title of Honourable is accorded members of parliament in Ghana.

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the prefix "The Honourable" is used for the following people:

India

In the Republic of India, the President, Vice President, Judges of the Higher Judiciary, i.e., both Supreme Court & High Court, are referred as 'Honorable Mr/Mrs Justice' (written as Hon'ble [16] ). The Members of Parliament of both the Upper and the Lower houses are referred to as Honorable Member. Members of the executive who are also the members of the Legislative, such as the Prime Minister are referred to as The Honorable Member/Minister. Members of assembly and councils in state are also referred to as The Honourable, as well as the chairmen and members of union and state public service commissions while in office.[ citation needed ] Mayors are addressable with the same decorum.[ citation needed ] The title may be abbreviated to The Hon.

Italy

In Italy, the style "The Honourable" (Italian: Onorevole) is customarily used to refer to a member of the Italian Parliament (Chamber of Deputies and Senate of the Republic) and to a member of the Sicilian Regional Assembly or to a member of the Rome City Council. Former MPs can maintain the style.

Macau

In Macau, the prefix "The Honourable" is used occasionally for the following people:

Malaysia

In Malaysia, an elected Member of Parliament or State Legislative Assemblyman will be entitled to be referred to as "Yang Berhormat", which is literally "The Honourable".

Malta

All members of the unicameral Parliament of Malta are entitled to this prefix.

Mauritius

Recipients of the rank of Grand Officer or above of the Order of the Star and Key of the Indian Ocean and persons knighted by Queen Elizabeth II are automatically entitled to prefix The Hon, Hons or The Honourable to their name. Commanders and Officers may request permission from the President to use this prefix. Recipients of the order who are not Mauritian citizens may not use the prefix or post-nominals unless granted permission by the President.

Myanmar

In Myanmar, the Chief Justice and Justices of the Supreme Court of Myanmar are referred as 'The Honorable'. [17]

New Zealand

The style "The Honourable" was first granted in 1854 for use by members of the Executive Council, the Speaker of the Legislative Council, the Members of the Legislative Council, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. [18]

In addition to the standard Commonwealth usage, the Speaker of the House of Representatives was entitled to be referred to as The Honourable until 2010, when it was announced that sitting and future Governors-General, Prime Ministers, Chief Justices, and Speakers of the House of Representatives would be entitled to be referred to as The Right Honourable . [19]

In July 2006 the Governor-General was entitled to use the style "The Honourable" upon assuming office [20] [21] until 2010 when former Governors-General were granted the title of "The Right Honourable" if they did not hold the title already or were a Privy Counsellor. [22]

New Zealand office holders who are "The Honourable" ex-officio can be granted the style for life as a courtesy when they vacate the office; all honours and awards are published in The New Zealand Gazette .

Pakistan

In Pakistan, the judicial officers are addressed as honourable while presiding over in the courts of law. It is a norm to address judges of superior judiciary as honourable judges. Diplomats are addressed as Your Excellency. The head of state and Prime Minister is addressed her/his excellency.

UNESCO an agency of United Nations conferred Confucius Award, title of honourable upon a Pakistani educationist, Dr. Allah Bakhsh Malik in recognition of leadership role and meritorious services, for the promotion of education, adult literacy and vocational skill development. He is the only Pakistani conferred the honorific title of honourable by United Nations's UNESCO.

Philippines

In the Philippines, the style is usually used to give distinction to any elected official ranging from the smallest political unit, the barangay, to the Congress of the Philippines, which consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. For example, a Kagawad (barangay or village council member) named Juan de la Cruz will be referred to as The Honorable Juan de la Cruz. In written form, the style may be shortened to "Hon." (e.g. Hon. Juan de la Cruz).

The Chief Justice, Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines and Court of Appeals, and Trial Court Judges are also addressed in this style. Meanwhile, the President and Vice-President of the Philippines is always given the style His/Her Excellency.

Private and non-profit organisations

Private organisations, non-profits, NGOs and religious movements sometimes style a leader or founder as The Honourable; e.g. "The Honourable Elijah Muhammad". When written, it is sometimes shortened to "The Hon." or simply "Hon." for abbreviation.

Russia & Ex USSR

In Russia and USSR, some noble families and their kinder are given the title of Honourable or The Honourable or Hon. title . They had some privilege of the state, nowadays despite it is not so common the titles of those descendant still remain and is still used. The Honourable title was also given to people who contributes to promote the history , culture and research to develop the country. Also the leaders of Organizations such as Museums , Religious movement are also conferred the title Honourable , The Honourable or Hon. abbreviation.

Singapore

The Chief Justice, Judges of Appeal, and Justices of the Supreme Court, [23] and the Presiding Judge and District Judges of the State Courts [24] are conventionally addressed in formal settings using the honorific "The Honourable".

The use of the honorific "the Honourable" to refer to the Prime Minister, Ministers, and Members of Parliament is not required by the Standing Orders of Parliament, [25] but during a 1988 parliamentary debate the Leader of the House, Wong Kan Seng, said it would be polite for MPs to refer to their colleagues using the terms "Mr.", "Honourable Mr." or "Honourable Minister" depending on their choice. [26]

The honorific is usually also used to address the Attorney-General and Solicitors-General, and the heads of states and leaders of foreign countries on short-term visits to Singapore. [27]

South Africa

All members of the South African parliament are entitled to this prefix.

Spain

In the Spanish Autonomous Community of Catalonia the word Honorable (Catalan: Honorable) is used for current and former members of the cabinet (consellers) of the President of the Catalan Government ( Generalitat de Catalunya ). Former and current Heads of Government or President of the Generalitat are given the name of Molt Honorable ("Right Honorable"). This also applies to former and current heads of government of the Autonomous Communities of Valencia and Balearic Islands. [28]

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, the honorific "the Honourable" is used to refer to the Prime Minister, Ministers, and Members of Parliament. The honorific is usually used to address the Attorney-General and Solicitor-General as well as Judges of the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal and the High Courts. [29]

United Kingdom

Entitlement

In the United Kingdom, all sons and daughters of viscounts and barons (including the holders of life peerages) and the younger sons of earls are styled with this prefix. (The daughters and younger sons of dukes and marquesses and the daughters of earls have the higher style of Lord or Lady before their first names, and the eldest sons of dukes, marquesses and earls are known by one of their father's or mother's subsidiary titles). The style is only a courtesy, however, and on legal documents they may be described as, for instance, John Smith, Esq., commonly called The Honourable John Smith. As the wives of sons of peers share the styles of their husbands, the wives of the sons of viscounts and barons and the younger sons of earls are styled, for example, The Hon. Mrs John Smith. Likewise, the married daughters of viscounts and barons, whose husbands hold no higher title or dignity, are styled, for example, The Hon. Mrs Smith.

In 1912, King George V granted Maids of Honour (royal attendants) the style of The Honourable for life, with precedence next after daughters of barons. [30]

The Honourable is also customarily used as a form of address for most foreign nobility that is not formally recognised by the sovereign (e.g. ambassadors) when in the UK.

Some people are entitled to the prefix by virtue of their offices. Rules exist that allow certain individuals to keep the prefix The Honourable even after retirement.

Several corporate entities have been awarded the style by Royal Warrant, for example:

Usage

The style The Honourable is usually used in addressing envelopes (where it is usually abbreviated to The Hon) and formally elsewhere, in which case Mr or Esquire are omitted. In speech, however, The Honourable John Smith is usually referred to simply as Mr John Smith.

In the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, as in other traditionally lower houses of Parliament and other legislatures, members must as a minimum refer to each other as the honourable member or my honourable friend out of courtesy, but they are not entitled to the style in writing. When members are barristers they may be called the honourable and learnèd member; when, rarely the case today: serving or ex-serving members of the military the honourable and gallant member; when, ordained clergy in the House: the honourable and reverend member. When anyone is entitled to the prefix The Right Honourable this is used instead of The Honourable.

In the Falkland Islands, the style "The Honourable" is given to any serving or former members of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council.

In the Isle of Man, the style The Honourable (often abbreviated to Hon.) is used to refer to a Minister while holding office.

United States

In the United States, the prefix the Honorable has been used to formally address various officials at the federal and state levels, but it is most commonly used for the President, governors and judges and members of Congress when formally addressing them. [31] Modifiers such as the Right Honorable or the Most Honorable are not used. The "t" in "the" is not capitalized in the middle of a sentence. [32]

Under the rules of etiquette, the President, Vice President, members of both houses of Congress, governors of states, members of state legislatures, and mayors are accorded the title. [33] Persons appointed to office nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate are accorded the title; this rule includes members of the Cabinet and sub-Cabinet (such as deputies and undersecretaries), [33] [34] administrators, members, and commissioners of the various independent agencies, councils, commissions, and boards, [34] federal judges, ambassadors of the United States, [35] U.S. Attorneys, [36] U.S. Marshals, [37] the Librarian of Congress and Public Printer of the United States, [34] and presidentially appointed inspectors general. [38]

High state officials other than governor, such as lieutenant governor [39] and state attorneys general [40] are also accorded the title of "the Honorable." State court judges and justices, like federal judges, also are accorded "the Honorable" title. [41] Practices vary on whether appointed state official, such as the heads of state Cabinet-level departments are given the title. [33] [42] There is also no universal rule for whether county or city officials other than the mayor (such as city council, board of aldermen, board of selectmen, planning and zoning commission members, and code enforcement board members, or city manager or police chief or fire chief) are given the title; local practices vary. [43] Certain quasi-judicial positions in local government, such as the Board of Adjustment or Special Master who adjudicates code enforcement, may be referenced with "the Honorable" in front of their name, collective or individual.

Members of the White House staff at the rank of special assistant, deputy assistant, assistant to the president, and Counselor to the President are accorded the title. Officials nominated to high office but not yet confirmed (e.g., commissioner-designate) and interim or acting officials are generally not accorded the title "the Honorable," except for Cabinet-level officials. [31]

Opinions vary on whether the term "the Honorable" is accorded for life. [33] According to the protocols of the U.S. Department of State, all persons who have been in a position that entitled them to "The Honorable" continue to retain that honorific title even after they leave that position. [44] However, The State Department is not an authority on state and local officials such as mayors, members of state legislatures, and high state officials. It should never, however, based on the rules of etiquette, be used for persons who are deceased. [45]

American protocol expert Robert Hickey says, "The courtesy title The Honorable is used when addressing or listing the name of a living person. When the name of a deceased person is listed it is just (Full Name) + Office Held." [46] The 2016 Bloomsbury guide to titles and forms of address states that the title 'honorable' in this context is "held for life or during tenure of office." [47] The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage by Allan M. Siegal (1999), p. 88, advises: "Omit courtesy titles with surnames of historic or pre-eminent figures no longer living."

Some estimate that in the United States there are nearly 100,000 people who are accorded the "Honorable" title, many in the Washington, D.C. region. [33] Although the civilian officials, including the service secretaries (e.g., Secretary of the Army) of the Pentagon receive the title, [34] military officers do not receive this title, although they are confirmed by the Senate.

In the Commonwealth of Kentucky, commissioned Kentucky colonels are considered honorary aides-de-camp to the Governor and members of his/her staff. As such, they are entitled to the style of Honorable as indicated on their commission certificates. The commission and letters patent granted by the governor and secretary of state bestowing the title of Kentucky colonel refers to the honoree as "Honorable First Name Last Name." However, this style is rarely used with most Kentucky colonels preferring to be referred to and addressed as colonel.[ citation needed ]

The style The Honorable is used on envelopes when referring to an individual in the third person. It is never used to refer to oneself. [42]

A spouse of someone with the style of The Honorable receives no additional style, unless personally entitled to the style in his or her own right by virtue of holding, or having held, one of the offices mentioned above.

See also

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References

  1. This is referenced in the Los Angeles Country Protocol Register: "Following the practice of the U.S. Department of State Office of Protocol, all heads of post are accorded the courtesy title of “The Honorable” before their names." http://ceo.lacounty.gov/pdf/LosAngelesConsularCorpsRoster.pdf It is worth noting that Los Angeles has the highest density of consulates and consulates-general of any city in the world. Furthermore, for example, http://phoenix.gov/ECONDEV/consulat.html Archived 22 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine or http://www.oakgov.com/globaloakland/oakland_county/consulates.html Archived 22 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine An authoritative source can be found at http://www.bmeia.gv.at/index.php?id=68719&L=1 where the Austrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs lists all Honorary Consuls with the style of "The Hon."
  2. "The title 'the Honourable' for Governors-General", Australian Government Special Gazette C2013G00681, 8 May 2013.
  3. "Parliament of Victoria - Addressing Members". Parliament.vic.gov.au. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  4. Pitson, John, ed. (1978). Style Manual for authors, editors and printers of Australian Government publications. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. p. 349.
  5. "Frequently asked questions - Education - Queensland Parliament". Parliament.qld.gov.au. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  6. "Parliament of WA - Addressing a Member". Parliament.wa.gov.au. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  7. "Greens put "Honourable" title in history's dustbin". Greens. Lee Rhiannon. 3 April 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  8. "Ministry of Primary and Mass Education" (PDF). Government of The People's Republic of Bangladesh. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  9. "Her Excellency Sheikh Hasina, Prime Minister of the Government of Bangladesh". Columbia University World Leaders Forum. 25 September 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  10. 1 2 "Titles". Canadian Heritage. Government of Canada. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  11. "lieutenant-governor, Lt.-Gov., His/Her Honour, Honourable". Public Works and Government Services Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  12. 1 2 "Table of Titles to be used in Canada". Government of Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  13. "Canadian Heritage – Styles of address – Provincial/territorial dignitaries". Pch.gc.ca. 26 January 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  14. Canadian Heritage – Styles of address – Federal dignitaries
  15. "Agreement Instituting The Order Of The Caribbean Community". Caricom.org. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  16. http://delhihighcourt.nic.in/writereaddata/upload/Roster/RosterFile_52ZNVEJ8.PDF
  17. "2017 Report" (PDF). Supreme Court of Myanmar: 11.
  18. "Untitled" (11 July 1854) 16 New Zealand Gazette 72.
  19. "Rules for the Grant, Use and Retention of the Title “The Right Honourable” in New Zealand" (23 September 2010) 124 New Zealand Gazette 3251 at 3285.
  20. "Rules for the Use and Grant of the Title "The Honourable" in New Zealand" (20 July 2006) 82 New Zealand Gazette 2561 at 2583.
  21. "Changes to rules around use of title". 17 July 2006.
  22. "Rules for the Grant, Use and Retention of the Title “The Honourable” in New Zealand" (23 September 2010) 124 New Zealand Gazette 3251 at 3285.
  23. See, for example, the Supreme Court e-Practice Directions (PDF), Supreme Court of Singapore, 23 February 2017, p. 16 ("Forms of address"), paragraph 18, archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2017: "The Honourable the Chief Justice, on the advice of the Council of Judges, has directed …"; and the Organised Crime Regulations2016( S 236/2016 ), Schedule, Form 2: "To: The Honourable the Justices and Judicial Commissioners of the High Court in Singapore".
  24. See, for example, the Rules of Court( R 5, 2014 Rev. Ed. ), First Schedule, Form 238: "Before the Honourable District Judge".
  25. Standing Orders of Parliament (as amended on 19 October 2004) (PDF), Parliament of Singapore, 19 October 2004, archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2009, retrieved 2 November 2009.
  26. Wong Kan Seng(Leader of the House)," Amendment of Standing Orders (Paper Parl. 4 of 1988) ",Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Official Report (11 August 1988), vol. 51, cols. 524 and 528.
  27. See, for example, S. Iswaran (13 March 2017), Speech by Mr S Iswaran, Minister for Trade and Industry (Industry), at the Official Opening of the Australian Landing Pad in Singapore, on Monday, 13 March 2017, 1040 Hrs, at BASH (79 Ayer Rajah Crescent) (PDF), Government of Singapore : "The Honourable Julie Bishop, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Australia, …".
  28. "Llista de tractaments protocol·laris [in catalan]". Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  29. Gunawardena, Edward. "How honourable are the 'Honourable' few". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  30. "No. 28661". The London Gazette. 8 November 1912. p. 8201.
  31. 1 2 Robert Hickey, How to Use the Honorable (citing Mary Mel French, United States Protocol: The Guide to Official Diplomatic Etiquette).
  32. "How to Use "The Honorable"". www.formsofaddress.info.
  33. 1 2 3 4 5 Mary K. Mewborn, Too Many Honorables?, Washington Life November 1999.
  34. 1 2 3 4 French, Mary Mel Ambassador (16 May 2010). "United States Protocol: The Guide to Official Diplomatic Etiquette". Rowman & Littlefield Publishers via Google Books.
  35. "US Ambassador". www.formsofaddress.info.
  36. "US Attorney". www.formsofaddress.info.
  37. Marshal.
  38. Inspector General.
  39. Robert Hickey, Lieutenant Government
  40. Robert Hickey, Attorney General.
  41. Robert Hickey, U.S. State Officials.
  42. 1 2 Robert Hickey, How to Use "the Honorable".
  43. Robert Hickey, Councilman.
  44. "Protocol Frequently Asked Questions". 2009-2017.state.gov.
  45. Robert Hickey, "How to Address U.S. Officials, Both Current and Former, As The Honorable" online
  46. See Robert Hickey, "How to Address U.S. Officials, Both Current and Former, As The Honorable"
  47. Bloomsbury Publishing (2016). Titles and Forms of Address: A Guide to Correct Use. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 127.