|Anthem: "God Save the King"|
|Unofficial anthem: "Song of the Falklands"|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|British rule reasserted||3 January 1833|
|Falklands War||2 April to|
14 June 1982
|Current constitution||1 January 2009|
and largest settlement
| Stanley |
|Demonym(s)||Falkland Islander, Falklander|
|Government||Devolved parliamentary dependency under a constitutional monarchy|
|Government of the United Kingdom|
|12,173 km2 (4,700 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
|Highest elevation||705 m (2,313 ft)|
• 2016 census
|3,398 (not ranked)|
|0.28/km2 (0.7/sq mi)(not ranked)|
|GDP (PPP)||2013 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2015)|| 36.0 |
|HDI (2010)||0.874 |
very high · 20th
|Currency||Falkland Islands pound (£) (FKP)|
|Time zone||UTC-03:00 (FKST)|
|ISO 3166 code||FK|
The Falkland Islands ( /, -, -/ ; Spanish: Islas Malvinas ) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 300 mi (480 km) east of South America's southern Patagonian coast and about 752 mi (1,210 km) from Cape Dubouzet at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, at a latitude of about 52°S. The archipelago, with an area of 4,700 sq mi (12,000 km2), comprises East Falkland, West Falkland, and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory, the Falklands have internal self-governance, but the United Kingdom takes responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs. The capital and largest settlement is Stanley on East Falkland.
Controversy exists over the Falklands' discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans. At various times, the islands have had French, British, Spanish, and Argentine settlements. Britain reasserted its rule in 1833, but Argentina maintains its claim to the islands. In April 1982, Argentine military forces invaded the islands. British administration was restored two months later at the end of the Falklands War. In a 2013 sovereignty referendum, almost all Falklanders voted in favour of the archipelago remaining a UK overseas territory. The territory's sovereignty status is part of an ongoing dispute between Argentina and the United Kingdom.
The population (3,398 inhabitants in 2016)consists primarily of native-born Falkland Islanders, the majority of British descent. Other ethnicities include French, Gibraltarian, and Scandinavian. Immigration from the United Kingdom, the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena, and Chile has reversed a population decline. The predominant (and official) language is English. Under the British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act 1983, Falkland Islanders are British citizens.
The islands lie on the boundary of the subantarctic oceanic and tundra climate zones, and both major islands have mountain ranges reaching 2,300 ft (700 m). They are home to large bird populations, although many no longer breed on the main islands due to predation by introduced species. Major economic activities include fishing, tourism and sheep farming, with an emphasis on high-quality wool exports. Oil exploration, licensed by the Falkland Islands Government, remains controversial as a result of maritime disputes with Argentina.
The name "Falkland Islands" comes from Falkland Sound, the strait that separates the two main islands. lann), but it could less plausibly be from the Anglo-Saxon term "folkland" (land held by folk-right). The name "Falklands" was not applied to the islands until 1765, when British captain John Byron of the Royal Navy claimed them for King George III as "Falkland's Islands". The term "Falklands" is a standard abbreviation used to refer to the islands.The name "Falkland" was applied to the channel by John Strong, captain of an English expedition that landed on the islands in 1690. Strong named the strait in honour of Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount Falkland, the Treasurer of the Navy who sponsored his journey. The Viscount's title originates from the town of Falkland, Scotland—the town's name probably comes from a Gaelic term referring to an "enclosure" (
The common Spanish name for the archipelago, Islas Malvinas, derives from the French Îles Malouines—the name given to the islands by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville in 1764.Bougainville, who founded the islands' first settlement, named the area after the port of Saint-Malo (the point of departure for his ships and colonists). The port, located in the Brittany region of western France, was named after St. Malo (or Maclou), the Christian evangelist who founded the city.
At the twentieth session of the United Nations General Assembly, the Fourth Committee determined that, in all languages other than Spanish, all UN documentation would designate the territory as Falkland Islands (Malvinas). In Spanish, the territory was designated as Islas Malvinas (Falkland Islands).The nomenclature used by the United Nations for statistical processing purposes is Falkland Islands (Malvinas).
Although Fuegians from Patagonia may have visited the Falkland Islands in prehistoric times,the islands were uninhabited when Europeans first explored them. European claims of discovery date back to the 16th century, but no consensus exists on whether early explorers sighted the Falklands or other islands in the South Atlantic. The first undisputed landing on the islands is attributed to English captain John Strong, who, en route to Peru and Chile's littoral in 1690, explored the Falkland Sound and noted the islands' water and game.
The Falklands remained uninhabited until the 1764 establishment of Port Louis on East Falkland by French captain Louis Antoine de Bougainville and the 1766 foundation of Port Egmont on Saunders Island by British captain John MacBride.Whether or not the settlements were aware of each other's existence is debated by historians. In 1766, France surrendered its claim on the Falklands to Spain, which renamed the French colony Puerto Soledad the following year. Problems began when Spain detected and captured Port Egmont in 1770. War was narrowly avoided by its restitution to Britain in 1771.
The British and Spanish settlements coexisted in the archipelago until 1774, when Britain's new economic and strategic considerations led it to voluntarily withdraw from the islands, leaving a plaque claiming the Falklands for King George III.Spain's Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata became the only governmental presence in the territory. West Falkland was left abandoned, and Puerto Soledad became mostly a prison camp. Amid the British invasions of the Río de la Plata during the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, the islands' governor evacuated the archipelago in 1806; Spain's remaining colonial garrison followed suit in 1811, except for gauchos and fishermen who remained voluntarily.
Thereafter, the archipelago was visited only by fishing ships; its political status was undisputed until 1820, when Colonel David Jewett, an American privateer working for the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, informed anchored ships about Buenos Aires' 1816 claim to Spain's territories in the South Atlantic.Since the islands had no permanent inhabitants, in 1823 Buenos Aires granted German-born merchant Luis Vernet permission to conduct fishing activities and exploit feral cattle in the archipelago. Vernet settled at the ruins of Puerto Soledad in 1826, and accumulated resources on the islands until the venture was secure enough to bring settlers and form a permanent colony. Buenos Aires named Vernet military and civil commander of the islands in 1829, and he attempted to regulate sealing to stop the activities of foreign whalers and sealers. Vernet's venture lasted until a dispute over fishing and hunting rights led to a raid by the American warship USS Lexington in 1831, when United States Navy commander Silas Duncan declared the dissolution of the island's government.
Buenos Aires attempted to retain influence over the settlement by installing a garrison, but a mutiny in 1832 was followed the next year by the arrival of British forces who reasserted Britain's rule.The Argentine Confederation (headed by Buenos Aires Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas) protested against Britain's actions, and Argentine governments have continued since then to register official protests against Britain. The British troops departed after completing their mission, leaving the area without formal government. Vernet's deputy, the Scotsman Matthew Brisbane, returned to the islands that year to restore the business, but his efforts ended after, amid unrest at Port Louis, gaucho Antonio Rivero led a group of dissatisfied individuals to murder Brisbane and the settlement's senior leaders; survivors hid in a cave on a nearby island until the British returned and restored order. In 1840, the Falklands became a Crown colony and Scottish settlers subsequently established an official pastoral community. Four years later, nearly everyone relocated to Port Jackson, considered a better location for government, and merchant Samuel Lafone began a venture to encourage British colonisation.
Stanley, as Port Jackson was soon renamed, officially became the seat of government in 1845.Early in its history, Stanley had a negative reputation due to cargo-shipping losses; only in emergencies would ships rounding Cape Horn stop at the port. Nevertheless, the Falklands' geographic location proved ideal for ship repairs and the "Wrecking Trade", the business of selling and buying shipwrecks and their cargoes. Aside from this trade, commercial interest in the archipelago was minimal due to the low-value hides of the feral cattle roaming the pastures. Economic growth began only after the Falkland Islands Company, which bought out Lafone's failing enterprise in 1851, successfully introduced Cheviot sheep for wool farming, spurring other farms to follow suit. The high cost of importing materials, combined with the shortage of labour and consequent high wages, meant the ship repair trade became uncompetitive. After 1870, it declined as the replacement of sail ships by steamships was accelerated by the low cost of coal in South America; by 1914, with the opening of the Panama Canal, the trade effectively ended. In 1881, the Falkland Islands became financially independent of Britain. For more than a century, the Falkland Islands Company dominated the trade and employment of the archipelago; in addition, it owned most housing in Stanley, which greatly benefited from the wool trade with the UK.
In the first half of the 20th century, the Falklands served an important role in Britain's territorial claims to subantarctic islands and a section of Antarctica. The Falklands governed these territories as the Falkland Islands Dependencies starting in 1908, and retained them until their dissolution in 1985.The Falklands also played a minor role in the two world wars as a military base aiding control of the South Atlantic. In the First World War Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, a Royal Navy fleet defeated an Imperial German squadron. In the Second World War, following the December 1939 Battle of the River Plate, the battle-damaged HMS Exeter steamed to the Falklands for repairs. In 1942, a battalion en route to India was redeployed to the Falklands as a garrison amid fears of a Japanese seizure of the archipelago. After the war ended, the Falklands economy was affected by declining wool prices and the political uncertainty resulting from the revived sovereignty dispute between the United Kingdom and Argentina.
Simmering tensions between the UK and Argentina increased during the second half of the century, when Argentine President Juan Perón asserted sovereignty over the archipelago.The sovereignty dispute intensified during the 1960s, shortly after the United Nations passed a resolution on decolonisation which Argentina interpreted as favourable to its position. In 1965, the UN General Assembly passed Resolution 2065, calling for both states to conduct bilateral negotiations to reach a peaceful settlement of the dispute. From 1966 until 1968, the UK confidentially discussed with Argentina the transfer of the Falklands, assuming its judgement would be accepted by the islanders. An agreement on trade ties between the archipelago and the mainland was reached in 1971 and, consequently, Argentina built a temporary airfield at Stanley in 1972. Nonetheless, Falklander dissent, as expressed by their strong lobby in the UK Parliament, and tensions between the UK and Argentina effectively limited sovereignty negotiations until 1977.
Concerned at the expense of maintaining the Falkland Islands in an era of budget cuts, the UK again considered transferring sovereignty to Argentina in the early Thatcher government.Substantive sovereignty talks again ended by 1981, and the dispute escalated with passing time. In April 1982, the Falklands War began when Argentine military forces invaded the Falklands and other British territories in the South Atlantic, briefly occupying them until a UK expeditionary force retook the territories in June. After the war, the United Kingdom expanded its military presence, building RAF Mount Pleasant and increasing the size of its garrison. The war also left some 117 minefields containing nearly 20,000 mines of various types, including anti-vehicle and anti-personnel mines. Due to the large number of deminer casualties, initial attempts to clear the mines ceased in 1983. Demining operations recommenced in 2009 and were completed in October 2020.
Based on Lord Shackleton's recommendations, the Falklands diversified from a sheep-based monoculture into an economy of tourism and, with the establishment of the Falklands Exclusive Economic Zone, fisheries.The road network was also made more extensive, and the construction of RAF Mount Pleasant allowed access to long haul flights. Oil exploration also began in the 2010s, with indications of possible commercially exploitable deposits in the Falklands basin. Landmine clearance work restarted in 2009, in accordance with the UK's obligations under the Ottawa Treaty, and Sapper Hill Corral was cleared of mines in 2012, allowing access to an important historical landmark for the first time in 30 years. Argentina and the UK re-established diplomatic relations in 1990, but neither has agreed on the terms of future sovereignty discussions.
The Falkland Islands are a self-governing British Overseas Territory.Under the 2009 Constitution, the islands have full internal self-government; the UK is responsible for foreign affairs, retaining the power "to protect UK interests and to ensure the overall good governance of the territory". The Monarch of the United Kingdom is the head of state, and executive authority is exercised on the monarch's behalf by the governor, who appoints the islands' chief executive on the advice of members of the Legislative Assembly. Both the governor and the chief executive serve as the head of government.
Governor Alison Blake was appointed in July 2022and Chief Executive Barry Rowland was appointed in October 2016. The UK minister responsible for the Falkland Islands since 2019, Christopher Pincher, administers British foreign policy regarding the islands.
The governor acts on the advice of the islands' Executive Council, composed of the chief executive, the Director of Finance and three elected members of the Legislative Assembly (with the governor as chairman).The Legislative Assembly, a unicameral legislature, consists of the chief executive, the director of finance and eight members (five from Stanley and three from Camp) elected to four-year terms by universal suffrage. All politicians in the Falkland Islands are independent; no political parties exist on the islands. Since the 2013 general election, members of the Legislative Assembly have received a salary and are expected to work full-time and give up all previously held jobs or business interests.
As a territory of the United Kingdom, the Falklands were part of the overseas countries and territories of the European Union until 2020.The islands' judicial system, overseen by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, is largely based on English law, and the constitution binds the territory to the principles of the European Convention on Human Rights. Residents have the right of appeal to the European Court of Human Rights and the Privy Council. Law enforcement is the responsibility of the Royal Falkland Islands Police (RFIP).
Defence of the islands is provided by the United Kingdom. 200 nmi (370 km) from its coastal baselines, based on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; this zone overlaps with the EEZ of Argentina.A British military garrison is stationed on the islands, and the Falkland Islands government funds an additional company-sized light infantry Falkland Islands Defence Force. The Falklands claim an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) extending
The United Kingdom and Argentina both assert sovereignty over the Falkland Islands. The UK bases its position on its continuous administration of the islands since 1833 and the islanders' "right to self-determination as set out in the UN Charter".Argentina claims that, when it achieved independence in 1816, it acquired the Falklands from Spain. The incident of 1833 is particularly contentious; Argentina considers it proof of "Britain's usurpation" whereas the UK discounts it as a mere reassertion of its claim.
In 2009, the British prime minister, Gordon Brown, had a meeting with the Argentine president, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, and said that there would be no further talks over the sovereignty of the Falklands.In March 2013, the Falkland Islands held a referendum on its political status: 99.8% of votes cast favoured remaining a British overseas territory. Argentina does not recognise the Falkland Islanders as a partner in negotiations.
The Falkland Islands have a land area of 4,700 sq mi (12,000 km2) and a coastline estimated at 800 mi (1,300 km). The archipelago consists of two main islands, West Falkland and East Falkland, and 776 smaller islands. The islands are predominantly mountainous and hilly, with the major exception being the depressed plains of Lafonia (a peninsula forming the southern part of East Falkland). The Falklands consists of continental crust fragments resulting from the break-up of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic that began 130 million years ago. The islands are located in the South Atlantic Ocean, on the Patagonian Shelf, about 300 mi (480 km) east of Patagonia in southern Argentina.
The Falklands' approximate location is latitude 51°40′ – 53°00′ S and longitude 57°40′ – 62°00′ W. The archipelago's two main islands are separated by the Falkland Sound, and its deep coastal indentations form natural harbours. East Falkland houses Stanley (the capital and largest settlement), the UK military base at RAF Mount Pleasant, and the archipelago's highest point: Mount Usborne, at 2,313 ft (705 m). Outside of these significant settlements is the area colloquially known as "Camp", which is derived from the Spanish term for countryside (Campo).
The climate of the islands is cold, windy and humid maritime. 610 mm (24 in) in Stanley, and sporadic light snowfall occurs nearly all year. The temperature has historically stayed between 21.1 and −11.1 °C (70.0 and 12.0 °F) in Stanley, with mean monthly temperatures varying from 9 °C (48 °F) early in the year to −1 °C (30 °F) in July. Strong westerly winds and cloudy skies are common. Although numerous storms are recorded each month, conditions are normally calm.Variability of daily weather is typical throughout the archipelago. Rainfall is common over half of the year, averaging
The Falkland Islands are biogeographically part of the Antarctic zone,with strong connections to the flora and fauna of Patagonia in mainland South America. Land birds make up most of the Falklands' avifauna; 63 species breed on the islands, including 16 endemic species. There is also abundant arthropod diversity on the islands. The Falklands' flora consists of 163 native vascular species. More than 400 species of lichens and lichen-dwelling fungi have been recorded. The islands' only native terrestrial mammal, the warrah, was hunted to extinction by European settlers.
The islands are frequented by marine mammals, such as the southern elephant seal and the South American fur seal, and various types of cetaceans; offshore islands house the rare striated caracara. There are also five different penguin species and a few of the largest albatross colonies on the planet.Endemic fish around the islands are primarily from the genus Galaxias . The Falklands are treeless and have a wind-resistant vegetation predominantly composed of a variety of dwarf shrubs.
Virtually the entire land area of the islands is used as pasture for sheep.Introduced species include reindeer, hares, rabbits, Patagonian foxes, brown rats and cats. Several of these species have harmed native flora and fauna, so the government has tried to contain, remove or exterminate foxes, rabbits and rats. Endemic land animals have been the most affected by introduced species, and several bird species have been extirpated from the larger islands. The extent of human impact on the Falklands is unclear, since there is little long-term data on habitat change.
The economy of the Falkland Islands is ranked the 222nd largest out of 229 in the world by GDP (PPP), but ranks 5th worldwide by GDP (PPP) per capita. The unemployment rate was 1% in 2016, and inflation was calculated at 1.4% in 2014. Based on 2010 data, the islands have a high Human Development Index of 0.874 and a moderate Gini coefficient for income inequality of 34.17. The local currency is the Falkland Islands pound, which is pegged to the British pound sterling.
Economic development was advanced by ship resupplying and sheep farming for high-quality wool.The main sheep breeds in the Falkland Islands are Polwarth and Corriedale. During the 1980s, although ranch under-investment and the use of synthetic fibres damaged the sheep-farming sector, the government secured a major revenue stream by the establishment of an exclusive economic zone and the sale of fishing licences to "anybody wishing to fish within this zone". Since the end of the Falklands War in 1982, the islands' economic activity increasingly focused on oil field exploration and tourism. All large settlements are now connected by road and, since 2008, a ferry links West and East Falkland. The islands' major exports include wool, hides, venison, fish and squid; its main imports include fuel, building materials and clothing.
The port settlement of Stanley has regained the islands' economic focus, with an increase in population as workers migrate from Camp.Fear of dependence on fishing licences and threats from overfishing, illegal fishing and fish market price fluctuations led to increased interest in oil drilling as an alternative source of revenue; as of 2001 exploration efforts had yet to find "exploitable reserves". Development projects in education and sports have been funded by the Falklands government, without aid from the United Kingdom.
The primary sector of the economy accounts for most of the Falkland Islands' gross domestic product, with the fishing industry alone contributing between 50% and 60% of annual GDP; agriculture also contributes significantly to GDP and employs about a tenth of the population.A little over a quarter of the workforce serves the Falkland Islands government, making it the archipelago's largest employer. Tourism, part of the service economy, has been spurred by increased interest in Antarctic exploration and the creation of direct air links with the United Kingdom and South America. Tourists, mostly cruise ship passengers, are attracted by the archipelago's wildlife and environment, as well as activities such as fishing and wreck diving; the majority find accommodation in Stanley. The main international airport, located at RAF Mount Pleasant on East Falkland, provides flights to RAF Brize Norton in the UK and mainland South America. Port Stanley Airport provides internal flights. Despite COVID-19 pandemic restrictions causing suspensions of flights from Santiago and São Paulo and prohibited cruise ship tourism, the economy of the islands remains stable and healthy.
The Falkland Islands population is homogeneous, mostly descended from Scottish and Welsh immigrants who settled in the territory after 1833.The Falkland-born population are also descended from English and French people, Gibraltarians, Scandinavians and South Americans. The 2016 census indicated that 43% of residents were born on the archipelago, with foreign-born residents assimilated into local culture. The legal term for the right of residence is "belonging to the islands". In 1983, full British citizenship was given to Falkland Islanders under the British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act.
A significant population decline affected the archipelago in the 20th century, with many young islanders moving overseas in search of education, a modern lifestyle, and better job opportunities,particularly to the British city of Southampton, which came to be known in the islands as "Stanley North". In recent years, the islands' population decline has reduced, thanks to immigrants from the United Kingdom, Saint Helena, and Chile. In the 2012 census, a majority of residents listed their nationality as Falkland Islander (59 per cent), followed by British (29 per cent), Saint Helenian (9.8 per cent), and Chilean (5.4 per cent). A small number of Argentines also live on the islands.
The Falkland Islands have a low population density. (20–60). Males outnumber females (53 to 47 per cent), and this discrepancy is most prominent in the 20–60 age group.According to the 2012 census, the average daily population of the Falklands was 2,932, excluding military personnel serving in the archipelago and their dependents. A 2012 report counted 1,300 uniformed personnel and 50 British Ministry of Defence civil servants present in the Falklands. Stanley (with 2,121 residents) is the most-populous location on the archipelago, followed by Mount Pleasant (369 residents, primarily air-base contractors) and Camp (351 residents). The islands' age distribution is skewed towards working age
In the 2012 census, most islanders identified themselves as Christian (66 per cent), followed by those with no religious affiliation (32 per cent). The remaining 2 per cent identified as adherents of other religions, including the Baháʼí Faith,Buddhism, and Islam. The main Christian denominations are Anglicanism and other Protestantism, and Roman Catholicism.
Education in the Falkland Islands, which follows England's system, is free and compulsory for residents aged between 5 and 16 years.Primary education is available at Stanley, RAF Mount Pleasant (for children of service personnel) and a number of rural settlements. Secondary education is only available in Stanley, which offers boarding facilities and 12 subjects to General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) level. Students aged 16 or older may study at colleges in England for their GCE Advanced Level or vocational qualifications. The Falkland Islands government pays for older students to attend institutions of higher education, usually in the United Kingdom.
Falklands culture is based on the cultural traditions of its British settlers but has also been influenced by Hispanic South America.Falklanders still use some terms and place names from the former Gaucho inhabitants. The Falklands' predominant and official language is English, with the foremost dialect being British English; nonetheless, some inhabitants also speak Spanish. According to naturalist Will Wagstaff, "the Falkland Islands are a very social place, and stopping for a chat is a way of life".
The islands have one weekly newspaper The Penguin News ,and television and radio broadcasts generally feature programming from the United Kingdom. Wagstaff describes local cuisine as "very British in character with much use made of the homegrown vegetables, local lamb, mutton, beef, and fish". Common between meals are "home made cakes and biscuits with tea or coffee". Social activities are, according to Wagstaff, "typical of that of a small British town with a variety of clubs and organisations covering many aspects of community life".
The history of the Falkland Islands goes back at least five hundred years, with active exploration and colonisation only taking place in the 18th century. Nonetheless, the Falkland Islands have been a matter of controversy, as they have been claimed by the French, British, Spaniards and Argentines at various points.
The Falklands War was a ten-week undeclared war between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1982 over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and its territorial dependency, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
East Falkland is the largest island of the Falklands in the South Atlantic, having an area of 6,605 km2 or 54% of the total area of the Falklands. The island consists of two main land masses, of which the more southerly is known as Lafonia; it is joined by a narrow isthmus where the settlement of Goose Green is located, and it was the scene of the Battle of Goose Green during the Falklands War.
In December 1832, two naval vessels were sent by the United Kingdom to re-assert British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, after the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata ignored British diplomatic protests over the appointment of Luis Vernet as governor of the Falkland Islands and a dispute over fishing rights.
Sovereignty over the Falkland Islands is disputed by Argentina and the United Kingdom. The British claim to sovereignty dates from 1690, when they made the first recorded landing on the islands, and the United Kingdom has exercised de facto sovereignty over the archipelago almost continuously since 1833. Argentina has long disputed this claim, having been in control of the islands for a few years prior to 1833. The dispute escalated in 1982, when Argentina invaded the islands, precipitating the Falklands War.
Luis Vernet was a merchant from Hamburg of Huguenot descent. Vernet established a settlement on East Falkland in 1828, after first seeking approval from both the British and Argentine authorities. As such, Vernet is a controversial figure in the history of the Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute.
There were many events leading to the 1982 Falklands War between the United Kingdom and Argentina over possession of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia.
Falkland Islanders derive from various origins. Earliest among these are the numerically small but internationally diverse early 19th century inhabitants of the Falkland Islands, comprising and descended in part from settlers brought by Luis Vernet, and English and American sealers; South American gauchos who settled in the 1840s and 1850s; and since the late 1830s, settlers largely from Britain with a minority from other European countries. There has also been significant recent contributions from Saint Helena and Chile.
The Falkland Islands have a complex history stretching over five hundred years. Active exploration and colonisation began in the 18th century but a self-supporting colony was not established till the latter part of the 19th century. Nonetheless, the islands have been a matter of controversy, as due to their strategic position in the 18th century their sovereignty was claimed by the French, Spaniards, British and Argentines at various points.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Falkland Islands:
British sovereignty of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is disputed by Argentina. The United Kingdom claimed South Georgia in 1775, annexed the islands in 1908, and has exercised de facto control with the exception of a brief period during the Falklands War in 1982, when the islands were partially controlled by Argentina. The dispute started in 1927 when Argentina claimed sovereignty over South Georgia, and subsequently expanded in scope with Argentina claiming the South Sandwich Islands in 1938. The islands have no indigenous population, and currently only have about 30 inhabitants.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 502 was a resolution adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 3 April 1982. After expressing its concern at the invasion of the Falkland Islands by the armed forces of Argentina, the council demanded an immediate cessation of hostilities between Argentina and the United Kingdom and a complete withdrawal by Argentine forces. The council also called on the governments of Argentina and the United Kingdom to seek a diplomatic solution to the situation and refrain from further military action.
Antonio "El Gaucho" Rivero was a gaucho known for his leading role in the Port Louis Murders of 26 August 1833, in which five prominent members of the settlement of Port Louis on the Falkland Islands were murdered. In Argentine revisionist historiography and public consciousness, Rivero is viewed as a patriotic hero who rebelled against British authority. However, academic historians both in Argentina and abroad agree that Rivero's actions were not motivated by patriotism, but by disputes over pay and working conditions with the representatives of Louis Vernet, the former Argentine Political and Military Commander of the islands.
The occupation of the Falkland Islands and of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands was the short-lived Argentine occupation of a group of British islands in the South Atlantic whose sovereignty has long been disputed by Argentina. Until their invasion on 2 April 1982 by the Argentine military junta, they had been governed by the United Kingdom since it re-established control over them in 1833.
A referendum on political status was held in the Falkland Islands on 10–11 March 2013. The Falkland Islanders were asked whether or not they supported the continuation of their status as an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom in view of Argentina's call for negotiations on the islands' sovereignty.
The Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation Between Argentina and the United Kingdom was an 1825 treaty between the United Provinces of the River Plate and the United Kingdom). With this treaty, the United Kingdom accepted the 1816 Argentine Declaration of Independence. As the United Kingdom was the most powerful world power of the time, and the United States had announced the Monroe Doctrine, this treaty limited the chances of Spain to reconquer its former colony.
Alejandro Jacobo Betts was a Falklands-born Argentine air-traffic controller and activist who worked with the Argentine government as a technical advisor on the Tierra del Fuego Malvinas Question Provincial Observatory Advisory Council. Betts supported Argentina's claim to the Falkland Islands and was a controversial figure in the Falklands as a result. Betts also was the older brother of Terry Betts, who served as a member of the Falkland Islands Legislative Council and assisted British forces in the Falklands War. His younger brother Peter served in the British Task Force.
The hijacking of Aerolíneas Argentinas Flight 648 occurred on 28 and 29 September 1966 when a group of Argentine nationalists hijacked a civilian Aerolíneas Argentinas aircraft en route from Buenos Aires to Río Gallegos and forced the captain at gunpoint to land in the Falkland Islands in protest to the UK's presence on the islands. After landing, the hijackers raised the Argentine flag, took several islanders hostage and demanded the Governor of the Falkland Islands recognise Argentine sovereignty over the islands. On 29 September 1966, after negotiating through a Catholic priest, the hijackers surrendered and were returned to Argentina for trial.
María Sáez Pérez de Vernet was the wife of Luis Vernet. She wrote a personal diary during her residence in Port Louis, Falkland Islands, which was preserved together with other documents and letters in the Argentine National Archive when her husband's papers were donated to the Argentine National Archive.
The ocean’s fecundity also draws globally important seabird populations to the archipelago; the Falkland Islands host some of the world’s largest albatross colonies and five penguin species.