Endemism

Last updated
The orange-breasted sunbird (Nectarinia violacea) is exclusively found in South Africa Orange-breasted Sunbird (Nectarinia violacea).jpg
The orange-breasted sunbird (Nectarinia violacea) is exclusively found in South Africa
Bicolored frog (Clinotarsus curtipes) is endemic to the Western Ghats of India Bicolored Frog ( Clinotarsus curtipes ).jpg
Bicolored frog (Clinotarsus curtipes) is endemic to the Western Ghats of India
Montezuma Well in the Verde Valley of Arizona contains at least five endemic species found exclusively in the sinkhole. Montezuma well - panoramio.jpg
Montezuma Well in the Verde Valley of Arizona contains at least five endemic species found exclusively in the sinkhole.

Endemism is the state of a species being native to a single defined geographic location, such as an island, state, nation, country or other defined zone; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. [1] For example, the Cape sugarbird is found exclusively in southwestern South Africa and is therefore said to be endemic to that particular part of the world. [2]

Contents

The subject of the phenomenon of endemism, that is the endemic species, is usually termed by extension as an endemism as well; however, it can be also referred with a proper noun in scientific literature as an endemite. For example Cytisus aeolicus is an endemite of the Italian flora. [3] Adzharia renschi was once believed to be an endemite of the Caucasus, but it was later discovered to be a non-indigenous species from South America belonging to a different genus. [4]

The extreme opposite of an endemic species is one with a cosmopolitan distribution, having a global or widespread range. [1]

A rare alternative term for a species that is endemic is "precinctive", which applies to species (and other taxonomic levels) that are restricted to a defined geographical area. [5] Other terms that sometimes are used interchangeably, but less often, include autochthonal, autochthonic, and indigenous, however these terms do not reflect the status of a species that specifically belongs only to a determined place.

Etymology

History of the concept

The word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ἔνδημος, éndēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", and dēmos meaning "the people". [6] The word entered the English language as a loan word from French endémique, and originally seems to have been used in the sense of diseases which occur at a constant amount in a country, as opposed to epidemic diseases, which are exploding in cases. The word was used in biology in 1872 to mean a species restricted to a specific location by Charles Darwin. [7]

The more uncommon term 'precinctive' has been used by some entomologists as the equivalent of 'endemic'. [5] [7] [8] Precinctive was coined in 1900 by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian insects, as he was uncomfortable with the fact that the word 'endemic' is often associated with diseases. [9] 'Precinctive' was first used in botany by Vaughan MacCaughey in Hawaii in 1917. [10]

Overview

Chorus cicada (Amphipsalta zelandica), a species endemic to New Zealand Chorus cicada.jpg
Chorus cicada ( Amphipsalta zelandica ), a species endemic to New Zealand

Endemism in general excludes examples kept by humans in botanical gardens or zoological parks, as well as populations introduced outside of their native ranges.[ citation needed ] Juan J. Morrone states that a species may be endemic to any particular geographic region, regardless of size, thus the cougar is endemic to the Americas, [1] however, endemism is normally used only where there is a considerable restriction in the area of distribution. All species are not endemics, some species may be cosmopolitan. All endemics are not necessarily rare -some might be common where they occur. All rare species are not necessarily endemics, some may have a large range but be rare throughout this range. [11]

Endemism is caused by historical and ecological factors. Vicariant events caused by drifting continents, dispersal and extinction are some possible historical factors. Ecological factors can explain the present limits on a distribution. [1] Endemic species are especially likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, including Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands and Socotra, [12] because of the potential for isolation and therefore evolution through allopatric speciation. Darwin's finches in the Galápagos archipelago are examples of species endemic to islands.[ citation needed ] Similarly, isolated mountainous regions like the Ethiopian Highlands, [13] or large bodies of water far from other lakes, like Lake Baikal, can also have high rates of endemism. [14]

The stability of a region's climate and habitat through time may also contribute to high rates of endemism (especially paleoendemism), acting as refuges for species during times of climate change like Ice Ages. These changes may have caused species to repeatedly restrict their ranges into these refuges, leading to regions with many small-ranged species. [15] In many cases biological factors, such as low rates of dispersal or returning to the spawning area (philopatry), can cause a particular group of organisms to have high speciation rates and thus many endemic species. for example, cichlids in the East African Rift Lakes have diversified into many more endemic species than the other fish families in the same lakes, possibly due to such factors. [14] Plants which become endemic on isolated islands are often those which have a high rate of dispersal, and are able to reach such islands by being dispersed by birds. [16] While birds are less likely to be endemic to a region based on their ability to disperse via flight, there are over 2,500 species which are considered endemic, meaning that the species is restricted to an area less than 5 million hectares. [17]

Microorganisms were traditionally not believed to form endemics. The hypothesis 'everything is everywhere', first stated in Dutch by Lourens G.M. Baas Becking in 1934, describes the theory that the distribution of organisms smaller than 2mm is cosmopolitan where habitats occur that support their growth. [18]

Subtypes

The first subcategories were first introduced by Claude P. E. Favager and Juliette Contandriopoulis in 1961: schizoendemics, apoendemics and patroendemics. [11] [19] Using this work, Ledyard Stebbins and Jack Major then introduced the concepts of neoendemics and paleoendemics in 1965 to describe the endemics of California. [20] Endemic taxa can also be classified into autochthonous, allochtonous, taxonomic relicts and biogeographic relicts. [1]

Paleoendemism refers to species that were formerly widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have recently arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation [14] or through hybridization [ citation needed ] and polyploidy in plants, [21] and have not dispersed beyond a limited range. [14]

Paleoendemism is more or less synonymous with the concept of a 'relict species': a population or taxon of organisms that was more widespread or more diverse in the past. A 'relictual population' is a population that currently occurs in a restricted area, but whose original range was far wider during a previous geologic epoch. Similarly, a 'relictual taxon' is a taxon (e.g. species or other lineage) that is the sole surviving representative of a formerly diverse group. [22]

Schizoendemics, apoendemics and patroendemics can all be classified as types of neoendemics. Schizoendemics arise from a wider distributed taxon which has become reproductively isolated without becoming (potentially) genetically isolated – a schizoendemic has the same chromosome count as the parent taxon it evolved from. An apoendemic is a polyploid of the parent taxon (or taxa in the case of allopolyploids), whereas a patroendemic has a lower, diploid chromosome count than the related, more widely distributed polyploid taxon. [16] [21] Mikio Ono coined the term 'aneuendemics' in 1991 for species which have more or less chromosomes than their relatives due to aneuploidy. [16]

Pseudoendemics are taxa which have possibly recently evolved from a mutation. Holoendemics is a concept introduced by Richardson 1978 to describe taxa which have remained endemic to a restricted distribution for a very long time. [11]

In a 2000 paper, Myers and de Grave further attempted to redefine the concept. In their view, everything is endemic, even cosmopolitan species are endemic to Earth, and earlier definitions restricting endemics to specific locations are wrong. Thus the subdivisions neoendemics and paleoendemics are without merit regarding the study of distributions, because these concepts consider that an endemic has a distribution limited to one place. Instead, they propose four different categories: holoendemics, euryendemics, stenoendemics and rhoendemics. In their scheme cryptoendemics and euendemics are further subdivisions of rhoendemics. In their view, a holoendemic is a cosmopolitan species. Stenoendemics, also known as local endemics, [11] have a reduced distribution and are synonymous with the word 'endemics' in the traditional sense, whereas euryendemics have a larger distribution -both these have distributions which are more or less continuous. A rhoendemic has a disjunct distribution. Where this disjunct distribution is caused by vicariance, in a euendemic the vicariance was geologic in nature, such as the movement of tectonic plates, but in a cryptoendemic the disjunct distribution was due to extinction of the intervening populations. There is yet another possible situation which can cause a disjunct distribution, where a species is able to colonize new territories by crossing over areas of unsuitable habitat, such as plants colonizing an island – this situation they dismiss as extremely rare and do not devise a name for. Traditionally, none of Myers and de Grave's categories would be considered endemics except stenoendemics. [18] [23]

Soil

Red Hills near Tuolumne County, California: a serpentine grassland Red Hills (42598108362).jpg
Red Hills near Tuolumne County, California: a serpentine grassland

Serpentine soils act as 'edaphic islands' of low fertility and these soils lead to high rates of endemism. [24] [25] These soils are found in the Balkan Peninsula, Turkey, Alps, Cuba, New Caledonia, the North American Appalachians, and a scattered distribution in California, Oregon, and Washington and elsewhere [26] For example, Mayer and Soltis considered the widespread subspecies Steptanthus glandulosus subsp. glandulosus which grows on normal soils, to be a paleoendemic, whereas closely related endemic forms of S. glandulosus occurring on serpentine soil patches are neoendemics which recently evolved from subsp. glandulosus. [25]

Islands

Isolated islands commonly develop a number of endemics. [16] [27] Many species and other higher taxonomic groups exist in very small terrestrial or aquatic islands, which restrict their distribution. The Devil's Hole pupfish, Cyprinodon diabolis, has its whole native population restricted to a spring that is 20 x 3 meters, in Nevada's Mojave Desert. [28] This 'aquatic island' is connected to an underground basin; however, the population present in the pool remains isolated.

Other areas very similar to the Galapagos Islands of the Pacific Ocean exist and foster high rates of endemism. The Socotra Archipelago of Yemen, located in the Indian Ocean, has seen a new endemic species of parasitic leech, Myxobdella socotrensis sp. nov., appear. [29] This species is restricted to freshwater springs, where it may attach to and feed upon native crabs.

Mountains

Mountains can be seen as 'sky islands': refugia of endemics because species that live in the cool climates of mountain peaks are geographically isolated. For example, in the Alpes-Maritimes department of France, Saxifraga florulenta is an endemic plant that may have evolved in the Late Miocene and could have once been widespread across the Mediterranean Basin. [30]

Cinder cones and vegetation of Kula Volcano, in Turkey. Kula tump.jpg
Cinder cones and vegetation of Kula Volcano, in Turkey.

Volcanoes also tend to harbor a number of endemic species. Plant life on volcanoes tend to fill a specialized ecological niche with a very restrictive range due to the unique environmental characteristics present. The Kula Volcano, which is one of the fourteen volcanoes present in Turkey, is home to 13 endemic species of plants. [31]

Conservation

Endemics might more easily become endangered or extinct because they are already restricted in distribution. [32] Some scientists claim that the presence of endemic species in an area is a good method to find geographical regions which can be considered priorities for conservation. [1] [33] Endemism can thus be studied as a proxy for measuring biodiversity of a region. [34]

The concept of finding endemic species which occur in the same region to designate 'endemism hotspots' was first proposed by Paul Müller in a 1973 book. According to him, this is only possible where 1.) the taxonomy of the species in question is not in dispute; 2.) the species distribution is accurately known; and 3.) the species have relatively small distributional ranges. [35] [36]

In a 2000 article, Myers et al. used the standard of having more than 0.5% of the world's plant species being endemics of the region to designate 25 geographical areas of the world as 'biodiversity hotspots'. [33]

Aplastodiscus arlidae, a species of frog which is endemic to Brazil. Aplastodiscus arildae no Parque Estadual de Caparao por Lucas Rosado (03).jpg
Aplastodiscus arlidae , a species of frog which is endemic to Brazil.

In response to the above, the World Wildlife fund has split the world into a few hundred geographical 'ecoregions'. These have been designed to include as many species as possible which only occur in a single ecoregion, and these species are thus 'endemics' to these ecoregions. [14] Since plenty of these ecoregions have a high prevalence of endemics existing within them, many National Parks have been formed around or within them to further promote conservation. The Caparaó National Park was formed in the Atlantic forest, a biodiversity hotspot located in Brazil, in order to help protect valuable and vulnerable species. [37]

Other scientists have argued that endemism is not an appropriate measure of biodiversity, because the levels of threat or biodiversity are not actually correlated to areas of high endemism. When using bird species as an example, it was found that only 2.5% of biodiversity hotspots correlate with endemism and the threatened nature of a geographic region. [1] [38] A similar pattern had been found before regarding mammals, Lasioglossum bees, Plusiinae moths, and swallowtail butterflies in North America: these different groups of taxa did not correlate geographically with each other regarding endemism and species richness. Especially using mammals as flagship species proved to be a poor system of identifying and protecting areas of high invertebrate biodiversity. [39] In response to this, other scientists again defended the concept by using WWF ecoregions and reptiles, finding that most reptile endemics occur in WWF ecoregions with high biodiversity. [34]

Other conservation efforts for endemics include keeping captive and semi-captive populations in zoological parks and botanical gardens. These methods are ex situ ("off site") conservation methods. The use of such methods may not only offer refuge and protection for individuals of declining or vulnerable populations, but it may also allow biologists valuable opportunities to research them as well.

Related Research Articles

Western Ghats Mountain range along the western coast of India

The Western Ghats, is a mountain range that covers an area of 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi) in a stretch of 1,600 km (990 mi) parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, traversing the states of Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight hotspots of biological diversity in the world. It is sometimes called the Great Escarpment of India. It contains a very large proportion of the country's flora and fauna, many of which are only found in India and nowhere else in the world. According to UNESCO, the Western Ghats are older than the Himalayas. They influence Indian monsoon weather patterns by intercepting the rain-laden monsoon winds that sweep in from the south-west during late summer. The range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain, called Konkan, along the Arabian Sea. A total of thirty-nine areas in the Western Ghats, including national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests, were designated as world heritage sites in 2012 – twenty in Kerala, ten in Karnataka, six in Tamil Nadu and four in Maharashtra.

Atlantic Forest South American forest

The Atlantic Forest is a South American forest that extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the northeast to Rio Grande do Sul state in the south and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina, where the region is known as Selva Misionera.

A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened by human habitation.

Biodiversity of New Caledonia Variety of life in the New Caledonia archipelago and its seas

The biodiversity of New Caledonia is of exceptional biological and paleoecological interest. It is frequently referred to as a biodiversity hotspot. The country is a large South Pacific archipelago with a total land area of more than 18,000 square kilometres (6,900 sq mi). The terrain includes a variety of reefs, atolls, small islands, and a variety of topographical and edaphic regions on the largest island, all of which promote the development of unusually concentrated biodiversity. The region's climate is oceanic and tropical.

Refugium (population biology)

In biology, a refugium is a location which supports an isolated or relict population of a once more widespread species. This isolation (allopatry) can be due to climatic changes, geography, or human activities such as deforestation and overhunting.

California Floristic Province Region of uniform plant variety in the western United States and Mexico

The California Floristic Province (CFP) is a floristic province with a Mediterranean-type climate located on the Pacific Coast of North America with a distinctive flora similar to other regions with a winter rainfall and summer drought climate like the Mediterranean Basin. This biodiversity hotspot is known for being the home of the Sierran giant sequoia tree and its close relative the coast redwood. In 1996, the Province was designated as a biodiversity hotspot allowing it to join ranks among 33 other areas in the world with many endemic species. To be named a biodiversity hotspot, an area has to contain species and plant life that cannot be found anywhere else in the world. The California Floristic Province is home to over 3,000 species of vascular plants, 60% of which are endemic to the province.

Sri Lanka montane rain forests Ecoregion in Sri Lanka

The Sri Lanka montane rain forests is an ecoregion found above 1,000 m in the central highlands of Sri Lanka. Owing to their rich biodiversity, this region considered a super-hotspot within the endemism hotspot of global importance. These forests are cooler than lowland forests and therefore they have ideal conditions for growth of cloud forests. These forests classifications tropical sub montane forest, tropical sub-montane and tropical upper montane. Half of Sri Lanka's endemic flowering plants and 51 percent of the endemic vertebrates are restricted to these forests. More than 34 percent of Sri Lanka's endemic trees, shrubs, and herbs can only be found in this ecoregion. Twisted, stunted trees are a common sight in these forests, together with many varieties of orchids, mosses and ferns. The trees of montane rain forests grow to a height 10–15 meters, shorter than the lowland rain forest trees. These high altitude forests are the catchment area for most of Sri Lanka's major rivers.

Tropical Andes

The Tropical Andes is northern of the three climate-delineated parts of the Andes, the others being the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes. The Tropical Andes' area spans 1,542,644 km2 (595,618 sq mi).

Succulent Karoo Desert ecoregion of South Africa and Namibia

The Succulent Karoo is a ecoregion defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature to include regions of desert in South Africa and Namibia, and a biodiversity hotspot. The geographic area chosen by the WWF for what they call 'Succulent Karoo' does not correspond to the actual Karoo.

<i>Campos rupestres</i>

The campo rupestre is a discontinuous montane subtropical ecoregion occurring across three different biomes in Brazil: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Caatinga. Originally, campo rupestre was used to characterize the montane vegetation of the Espinhaço Range, but recently this term has been broadly applied by the scientific community to define high altitudinal fire-prone areas dominated by grasslands and rocky outcrops.

Eastern Arc Mountains

The Eastern Arc Mountains is a chain of mountains found in Kenya and Tanzania. The chain runs from northeast to southwest, with the Taita Hills being in Kenya and the other ranges being in Tanzania. They are delimited on the southwest by the fault complex represented by the Makambako Gap that separates them from the Kipengere Range. To the northeast, they are delimited by more recent volcanism represented by Mount Kilimanjaro. The chain is considered a Tentative World Heritage Site.

A Centre of Endemism is an area in which the ranges of restricted-range species overlap, or a localised area which has a high occurrence of endemics. Centres of endemism may overlap with biodiversity hotspots which are biogeographic regions characterized both by high levels of plant endemism and by serious levels of habitat loss. The exact delineation of centres of endemism is difficult and some overlap with one another. Centres of endemism are high conservation priority areas.

Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Hotspot Southern Africa biodiversity hotspot

The Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Hotspot (MPA) is a biodiversity hotspot, a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity, in Southern Africa. It is situated near the south-eastern coast of Africa, occupying an area between the Great Escarpment and the Indian Ocean. The area is named after Maputaland, Pondoland and Albany. It stretches from the Albany Centre of Plant Endemism in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, through the Pondoland Centre of Plant Endemism and KwaZulu-Natal Province, the eastern side of Eswatini and into southern Mozambique and Mpumalanga. The Maputaland Centre of Plant Endemism is contained in northern KwaZulu-Natal and southern Mozambique.

Short-range endemic (SRE) invertebrates are animals that display restricted geographic distributions, nominally less than 10,000 km2, that may also be disjunct and highly localised. The most appropriate analogy is that of an island, where the movement of fauna is restricted by the surrounding marine waters, therefore isolating the fauna from other terrestrial populations. Isolating mechanisms and features such as roads, urban infrastructure, large creek lines and ridges can act to prevent the dispersal and gene flow of the less mobile invertebrate species. Subterranean fauna, which include stygofauna and troglofauna, typically comprise short-range endemics.

Paleoendemism along with neoendemism is a possible subcategory of endemism. Paleoendemism refers to species that were formerly widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have recently arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants.

Biogeographic classification of India Wikipedia article on biogeography of India

Biogeographic classification of India is the division of India according to biogeographic characteristics. Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species (biology), organisms, and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time. India has a rich heritage of natural diversity. India ranks fourth in Asia and tenth in the world amongst the top 17 mega-diverse countries in the world. India harbours nearly 11% of the world's floral diversity comprising over 17500 documented flowering plants, 6200 endemic species, 7500 medicinal plants and 246 globally threatened species in only 2.4% of world's land area. India is also home to four biodiversity hotspots—Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Eastern Himalaya, Indo-Burma region, and the Western Ghats. Hence the importance of biogeographical study of India's natural heritage.

In biogeography and paleontology, a relict is a population or taxon of organisms that was more widespread or more diverse in the past. A relictual population is a population currently inhabiting a restricted area whose range was far wider during a previous geologic epoch. Similarly, a relictual taxon is a taxon which is the sole surviving representative of a formerly diverse group.

Flora of Madagascar Plants endemic to Madagascar

The flora of Madagascar consists of more than 12,000 species of plants, as well as a poorly known number of fungi and algae. Around 83% of Madagascar's vascular plants are found only on the island. These endemics include five plant families, 85% of the over 900 orchid species, around 200 species of palms, and such emblematic species as the traveller's tree, six species of baobab and the Madagascar periwinkle. The high degree of endemism is due to Madagascar's long isolation following its separation from the African and Indian landmasses in the Mesozoic, 150–160 and 84–91 million years ago, respectively. However, few plant lineages remain from the ancient Gondwanan flora; most extant plant groups immigrated via across-ocean dispersal well after continental break-up.

Tasmanian coniferous shrubbery

The vegetation in Tasmania's alpine environments is predominately woody and shrub-like. One vegetation type is coniferous shrubbery, characterised by the gymnosperm species Microcachrys tetragona, Pherosphaera hookeriana, Podocarpus lawrencei, and Diselma archeri. Distribution of these species is relevant with abiotic factors including edaphic conditions and fire frequency, and increasingly, the threat of climate change towards species survival exists. Conservation and management of coniferous shrubbery are necessary considering that the paleoendemic species, Microcachrys,Pherosphaera and Diselma, have persisted in western Tasmanian environments for millions of years.

The Biodiversity of South Africa is the variety of living organisms within the boundaries of South Africa and its exclusive economic zone. South Africa is a region of high biodiversity in the terrestrial and marine realms. The country is ranked sixth out of the world's seventeen megadiverse countries, and is rated among the top 10 for plant species diversity and third for marine endemism.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Morrone, Juan J. (2008). Encyclopedia of Ecology. 3 (2 ed.). Elsevier. pp. 81–86. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-63768-0.00786-1.
  2. Riley, Adam (13 December 2011). "South Africa's endemic birds". 10,000 Birds. Adam Riley. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  3. Genetic diversity in Cytisus aeolicus Guss. (Leguminosae), a rare endemite of the Italian flora
  4. Hausdorf, Bernhard (2015). "The Supposed Transcaucasian Endemite Adzharia renschi Hesse, 1933 is a South AmericanBulimulus Species (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae)". Malacologia. 58 (1–2): 363–364. doi:10.4002/040.058.0214. S2CID   87572201.
  5. 1 2 Encyclopedia of Entomology. Dordrecht: Springer. 2004. doi:10.1007/0-306-48380-7_3391. ISBN   978-0-306-48380-6.
  6. "Endemic". Reference.com. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  7. 1 2 Frank, J. H.; McCoy, E. D. (March 1990). "Endemics and epidemics of shibboleths and other things causing chaos". Florida Entomologist. 73 (1): 1–9. JSTOR   3495327.
  8. Frank, J. H.; McCoy, E. D. (March 1995). "Precinctive insect species in Florida". Florida Entomologist. 78 (1): 21–35. doi: 10.2307/3495663 . JSTOR   3495663.
  9. Sharp, David (1900). "Coleoptera. I. Coleoptera Phytophaga". Fauna Hawaiiensis, Being the Land-Fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. 2, part 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 91–116. I use the word precinctive in the sense of 'confined to the area under discussion' ... 'precinctive forms' means those forms that are confined to the area specified.
  10. MacCaughey, Vaughan (August 1917). "A survey of the Hawaiian land flora". Botanical Gazette. LXIV (2): 92. doi:10.1086/332097. S2CID   83629816.
  11. 1 2 3 4 Bhan, Preksha (12 July 2016). "Endemics: Types, Characters and Theories" . Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  12. Kier G, Kreft H, Lee TM, Jetz W, Ibisch PL, Nowicki C, Mutke J, Barthlott W (June 2009). "A global assessment of endemism and species richness across island and mainland regions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (23): 9322–7. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.9322K. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0810306106 . PMC   2685248 . PMID   19470638.
  13. Steinbauer MJ, Field R, Grytnes JA, Trigas P, Ah-Peng C, Attorre F, et al. (2016). "Topography-driven isolation, speciation and a global increase of endemism with elevation" (PDF). Global Ecology and Biogeography. 25 (9): 1097–1107. doi:10.1111/geb.12469. hdl: 1893/23221 .
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 Martens, K.; Segers, H. (2009). "Endemism in Aquatic Ecosystems". Encyclopedia of Inland Waters. Academic Press. pp. 423–430. doi:10.1016/B978-012370626-3.00211-8. ISBN   9780123706263.
  15. Harrison S, Noss R (January 2017). "Endemism hotspots are linked to stable climatic refugia". Annals of Botany. 119 (2): 207–214. doi:10.1093/aob/mcw248. PMC   5321063 . PMID   28064195.
  16. 1 2 3 4 Ono, Mikio (1991). "The Flora of the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands: Endemism and Dispersal Modes". Aliso. 13 (1): 95–105. doi: 10.5642/aliso.19911301.04 . Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  17. "BirdLife Data Zone". datazone.birdlife.org. Retrieved 2021-04-12.
  18. 1 2 Williams, David (January 2011). "Historical biogeography, microbial endemism and the role of classification: Everything is endemic". In Fontaneto, Diego (ed.). Biogeography of microorganisms. Is everything small everywhere?. Cambridge University Press. pp. 11–32. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511974878.003. ISBN   9780511974878.
  19. Contandriopoulos, J.; Cardona i Florit, Mileniac A. (1984). "Caractère original de la flore endémique des Baléares". Botanica Helvetica (in French). 94 (1): 101–132. ISSN   0253-1453 . Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  20. Stebbins, G. Ledyard; Major, Jack (1965). "Endemism and Speciation in the California Flora". Ecological Monographs. 35 (1): 2–35. doi:10.2307/1942216. JSTOR   1942216.
  21. 1 2 "Endemism". Alpecole. University of Zurich, Department of Geography. 29 August 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  22. Habel, Jan C.; Assmann, Thorsten; Schmitt, Thomas; Avise, John C. (2010). "Relict Species: From Past to Future". In Habel, Jan Christian; Assmann, Thorsten (eds.). Relict species: Phylogeography and Conservation Biology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 1–5. ISBN   9783540921608.
  23. Myers, Alan A.; de Grave, Sammy (December 2000). "Endemism: Origins and implications". Vie et Milieu. 50 (4): 195–204. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  24. Anacker, Brian L. (February 2014). "The nature of serpentine endemism". American Journal of Botany. 101 (2): 219–224. doi:10.3732/ajb.1300349. PMID   24509800.
  25. 1 2 Mayer, Michael S.; Soltis, Pamela S. (October 1994). "The Evolution of Serpentine Endemics: A Chloroplast DNA Phylogeny of the Streptanthus glandulosus Complex (Cruciferae)". Systematic Botany. 19 (4): 557–74. doi:10.2307/2419777. JSTOR   2419777.
  26. Kruckeberg, Arthur R (2002). Geology and plant life: the effects of landforms and rock types on plants. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN   978-0-295-98203-8. OCLC   475373672.[ page needed ]
  27. Carlquist, Sherwin (1974). Island Biology. New York: Columbia University. pp. 19, 34, 35. ISBN   9780231035620 . Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  28. Lomolino, Mark V. (2016). Biogeography: Biological Diversity across Space and Time. Sunderland, Massachusetts, U.S.A.: Sinauer Associates, Inc. p. 316. ISBN   9781605354729.
  29. Schenkova, J. (June 2021). "Myxobdella socotrensis sp. nov., a new parasitic leech from Socotra Island, with comments on the phylogeny of Praobdellidae (Hirudinida: Arhynchobdellida)". Parasitology International. 82: 102310. doi:10.1016/j.parint.2021.102310. PMID   33617989. S2CID   232018118 via SCOPUS.
  30. Comes, Hans Peter (1 September 2004). "The Mediterranean region – a hotspot for plant biogeographic research". New Phytologist. 164 (1): 11–14. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01194.x. PMID   33873489.
  31. Isik-Gursoy, Deniz (January 2015). "Plant communities, diversity and endemism of the Kula Volcano, Manisa, Turkey". Plant Biosystems: 1–6 via ResearchGate.
  32. Fritz, S. A.; Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P.; Purvis, A. (15 May 2009). "Geographical variation in predictors of mammalian extinction risk: big is bad, but only in the tropics". Ecology Letters. 12 (6): 538–549. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01307.x. PMID   19392714.
  33. 1 2 Myers, Norman; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Mittermeier, Cristina G.; da Fonseca, Gustavo A. B.; Kent, Jennifer (February 2000). "Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities". Nature. 403 (6772): 853–858. Bibcode:2000Natur.403..853M. doi:10.1038/35002501. PMID   10706275. S2CID   4414279.
  34. 1 2 Meadows, Robin (29 July 2008). "Endemism as a Surrogate for Biodiversity". Conservation. University of Washington. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  35. Müller, Paul (11 October 1973). The dispersal centres of terrestrial vertebrates in the Neotropical realm : a study in the evolution of the Neotropical biota and its native landscapes. The Hague: W. Junk. ISBN   9789061932031.
  36. Morrone, Juan J. (1994). "On the Identification of Areas of Endemism" (PDF). Systematic Biology. 43 (3): 438–441. doi:10.1093/sysbio/43.3.438. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  37. Silva, Rosane Gomes da; Santos, Alexandre Rosa dos; Pelúzio, João Batista Esteves; Fiedler, Nilton César; Juvanhol, Ronie Silva; Souza, Kaíse Barbosa de; Branco, Elvis Ricardo Figueira (2021-04-01). "Vegetation trends in a protected area of the Brazilian Atlantic forest". Ecological Engineering. 162: 106180. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2021.106180. ISSN   0925-8574. S2CID   233567444.
  38. Orme, C. David L.; Richard G., Davies; Burgess, Malcolm; Eigenbrod, Felix; Pickup, Nicola; Olson, Valerie A.; et al. (August 2005). "Global hotspots of species richness are not congruent with endemism or threat". Nature. 436 (7053): 1016–1019. Bibcode:2005Natur.436.1016O. doi:10.1038/nature03850. PMID   16107848. S2CID   4414787.
  39. Kerr, Jeremy T. (October 1997). "Species Richness, Endemism, and the Choice of Areas for Conservation" (PDF). Conservation Biology. 11 (55): 1094–1100. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96089.x. JSTOR   2387391. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-09. Retrieved 2010-08-30.