New Kingdom of Granada

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New Kingdom of Granada
Kingdom of the New Granada

Nuevo Reino de Granada
Reino de la Nueva Granada
1538–1739
Terra Firma et Novum Regnum Granatense et Popayan - CBT 6621102.jpg
The New Kingdom of Granada
Status Colony of the Spanish Empire
Capital Santa Fe de Bogotá
Common languagesCastilian
Religion
Catholic
GovernmentMonarchy
King  
Viceroy 
Historical era Spanish colonization of the Americas
 Established
1538
  Viceroyalty established.
July 17, 1712
  Viceroyalty suppressed; kingdom autonomous again
November 5, 1723
 Disestablished
August 20 1739
Currency Real
Succeeded by
Viceroyalty of New Granada Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg
Today part ofFlag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Flag of Panama.svg  Panama

The New Kingdom of Granada (Spanish : Nuevo Reino de Granada), or Kingdom of the New Granada, was the name given to a group of 16th-century Spanish colonial provinces in northern South America governed by the president of the Audiencia of Santa Fe, an area corresponding mainly to modern-day Colombia. The conquistadors originally organized it as a captaincy general within the Viceroyalty of Peru. The crown established the audiencia in 1549. Ultimately the kingdom became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada first in 1717 and permanently in 1739. After several attempts to set up independent states in the 1810s, the kingdom and the viceroyalty ceased to exist altogether in 1819 with the establishment of the United Provinces of New Granada. [1]

Contents

History

Old map of Tierra Firme, showing the initial divisions of the region Map New Kingdom of Granada.jpg
Old map of Tierra Firme, showing the initial divisions of the region

Discovery and settlement

In 1514, the Spanish first permanently settled in the area. With Santa Marta (founded on July 29, 1525 by the Spanish conquistador Rodrigo de Bastidas) and Cartagena (1533), Spanish control of the coast was established, and the extension of colonial control into the interior could begin. Starting in 1536, the conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada explored the extensive highlands of the interior of the region, by following the Magdalena River into the Andean cordillera. There his force defeated the powerful Muisca and founding the city of Santa Fé de Bogotá (Bogotá) and naming the region El nuevo reino de Granada, "the new kingdom of Granada", in honor of the last part of Spain to be recaptured from the Moors, home to the brothers De Quesada. After Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada left for Spain in May 1539, the reign of the colony was transferred to his brother Hernán. De Quesada, however, lost control of the province when Emperor Charles V granted the right to rule over the area to rival conquistador, Sebastián de Belalcázar, in 1540, who had entered the region from what is today Ecuador, and named himself governor of Popayán.

Regularization of the government

Belalcázar's victory placed the region under the Viceroyalty of Peru, which was being organized at the time. Charles V ordered the establishment of an audiencia , a type of superior court that combined executive and judicial authority, at Santa Fé de Bogotá in 1549.

List of governors

StartEndGovernor
15381539 Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
15391542 Hernán Pérez de Quesada
15421544 Alonso Luis Fernández de Lugo
15441545 Lope Montalvo de Lugo
15451546 Pedro de Ursúa
15461550 Miguel Díez de Armendáriz
15511558 Juan de Montaño

Royal Audiencia

The Royal Audiencia was created by a royal decree of July 17, 1549. It was given authority over the provinces of Santa Marta, Río de San Juan, Popayán, Guayana and Cartagena de Indias. The Audiencia was charged primarily with dispensing justice, but it was also to oversee the running of government and the settlement of the territory. It held its first session on April 7, 1550, in a mansion on the Plaza Mayor (today, Plaza de Bolívar) at the site which today houses the Colombian Palace of Justithey

Law VIII ("Royal Audiencia and Chancery of Santa Fe in the New Kingdom of Granada") of Title XV ("Of the Royal Audiencias and Chanceries of the Indies") of Book II of the Recopilación de Leyes de las Indias of 1680—which compiles the decrees of July 17, 1549; May 10, 1554; and August 1, 1572—describes the final limits and functions of the Audiencia. [2]

In Santa Fé de Bogotá of the New Kingdom of Granada shall reside another Royal Audiencia and Chancery of ours, with a president, governor and captain general; five judges of civil cases [oidores], who shall also be judges of criminal cases [alcaldes del crimen]; a crown attorney [fiscal]; a bailiff [alguacil mayor]; a lieutenant of the Gran Chancellor; and the other necessary ministers and officials, and which will have for district the provinces of the New Kingdom and those of Santa Marta, Río de San Juan, and of Popayán, except those places of the latter which are marked for the Royal Audiencia of Quito; and of Guayana, or El Dorado, it shall have that which is not of the Audienicia of Hispaniola, and all of the Province of Cartagena; sharing borders: on the south with said Audiencia of Quito and the undiscovered lands, on the west and north with the North Sea and the provinces which belong to the Royal Audiencia of Hispaniola, on the west with the one of Tierra Firme. And we order that the Governor and Captain General of said provinces and president of their Royal Audiencia, have, use and exercise by himself the government of all the district of that Audiencia, in the same manner as our Viceroys of New Spain and appoint the repartimiento of Indians and other offices that need to be appointed, and attend to all the matters and business that belong to the government, and that the oidores of said Audiencia do not interfere with this, and that all sign what in matters of justice is provided for, sentenced and carried out.

One further change came as part of the Bourbon Reforms of the eighteenth century. Because of the slowness in communications between Lima and Bogotá, the Bourbons decided to establish an independent Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717 (which was reestablished in 1739 after a short interruption). The governor-president of Bogotá became the viceroy of the new entity, with military and executive oversight over the neighboring Presidency of Quito and the provinces of Venezuela.

Administrative divisions

The New Kingdom was organized into several Governments and Provinces:

Government/ProvinceCapitalEstablishedFounder
Government of Santa Marta Santa Marta 1525 Don Rodrigo de Bastidas
Government of Cartagena de Indias Cartagena de Indias
(Alternative Capital of Viceroyalty)
1533Don Pedro de Heredia
Government of Popayán Popayán 1537Don Sebastián de Belalcázar
Province of Pasto San Juan de Pasto 1539Don Lorenzo de Aldana
Government of Santa Fé (de Bogotá),
the area originally called the "New Kingdom of Granada"
Santa Fé de Bogotá
(Capital of Viceroyalty)
1538Don Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Government of Tunja Tunja 1539Don Gonzalo Suárez Rendón
Government of Antioquia Santa Fe de Antioquia 1541Don Jorge Robledo
Province of Chocó Quibdó 1648Manuel Cañizales
Vast Province of Guyana
(special province)
Angostura 1595Don Antonio de Berríos

Main cities

The largest cities of the New Kingdom of Granada in the 1791 Census were

  1. Cartagena de Indias – 154,304
  2. Santa Fé de Bogotá – 108,533
  3. Popayan – 56,783
  4. Santa Marta – 49,830
  5. Tunja – 43,850
  6. Mompóx – 24,332

See also

Bibliography

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. Avellaneda Navas; José Ignacio (1995). The conquerors of the New Kingdom of Granada. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  2. Spain (1680). Recopilación de las Leyes de Indias. Titulo Quince. De las Audiencias y Chancillerias Reales de las Indias. Madrid. Spanish-language facsimile of the original.