This article needs additional citations for verification . (August 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|President of the|
Republic of Colombia
Presidente de la República de Colombia
|Style|| Mr. President |
(Señor Presidente) His Excellency
|Residence||Casa de Nariño|
|Appointer||Popular vote election|
|Term length||Four years, single term|
|Inaugural holder||Simón Bolívar|
|Formation||December 17, 1819|
|Deputy||Vice President of Colombia|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The President of Colombia (Spanish : Presidente de Colombia), officially known as the President of the Republic of Colombia (Spanish : Presidente de la República de Colombia) is the head of state and head of government of Colombia. The office of president was established upon the ratification of the Constitution of 1819, by the Congress of Angostura, convened in December 1819, when Colombia was the "Gran Colombia". The first president, General Simón Bolívar, took office in 1819. His position, initially self-proclaimed, was subsequently ratified by Congress.
Spanish, known in the Middle Ages as Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.
The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. "Head of government" is often differentiated from "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.
The current president of the Republic of Colombia is Iván Duque Márquez, who took office on August 7, 2018.
Iván Duque Márquez is a Colombian politician, and lawyer who is the current President of Colombia, in office since 7 August 2018.
According to the Colombian Constitution of 1991, Article 188, the President of Colombia is the head of state, head of government and Supreme Administrative Authority. The President of Colombia symbolizes the National Unity, and after taking an oath to the Constitution of Colombia and swearing to defend and protect the nation's laws, he is charged to guarantee and protect the rights and liberties of all Colombian nationals.
The Constitution of Colombia, better known as the Constitution of 1991, is the current governing document of the Republic of Colombia. Promulgated on July 4, 1991, it replaced the Constitution of 1886. It is Colombia's ninth constitution since 1830. See a timeline of all previous constitutions and amendments here. It has recently been called the Constitution of Rights.
The Administrative Department of the Presidency of Colombia has the commission to assist or support the President of Colombia on its constitutional mandated functions and legal issues.
Article 115 states that the National Government is formed by the President of Colombia, the Vice President of Colombia, the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Colombia and the Directors of the Administrative Departments of Colombia. Any official from these entities constitute the Government of Colombia in any particular business.
The Government of Colombia is a republic with separation of powers into executive, judicial and legislative branches. Its legislature has a congress, its judiciary has a supreme court, and its executive branch has a president.
The Vice President of Colombia is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of Colombia upon leave of absence or death, resignation, or removal of the president, as designated by the Colombian Constitution of 1991 which also reinstated the vice president figure after almost a century of being abolished during the presidency of Rafael Núñez. The vice president cannot assume presidential functions on temporary absences of the president such as official trips abroad or vacations. In these cases, the president delegates functions to a cabinet member, usually the Minister of the Interior. Marta Lucía Ramírez is the current vice president.
Any act by the President of Colombia, in order to be legal and enforceable, must be sanctioned by any of the ministries or department directors, who will also be held responsible for the act. The only exception is if the President appoints or removes ministers, administrative departments' directors and any other officials appointed by him under his administrative authority. Governors of the Departments of Colombia, Mayors of Municipalities of Colombia, as well as regional Superintendents of Colombia, public establishments and industrial and commercial state owned enterprises, are all part of the executive branch of Colombia.
Colombia is a unitary republic made up of thirty-two departments and a Capital District. Each department has a Governor (gobernador) and a Department Assembly, elected by popular vote for a four-year period. The governor cannot be re-elected in consecutive periods. Departments are country subdivisions and are granted a certain degree of autonomy.
The Municipalities of Colombia are decentralized subdivisions of the Republic of Colombia. Municipalities make up most of the departments of Colombia with 1,122 municipalities (municipios). Each one of them is led by a mayor (alcalde) elected by popular vote and represents the maximum executive government official at a municipality level under the mandate of the governor of their department which is a representative of all municipalities in the department; municipalities are grouped to form departments.
The Colombian Constitution of 1991, coupled with several articles of amendment, establishes the requirements an eligible candidate must meet in order to become president, as well as the term of office, method of election, and powers.
Colombian Constitution of 1991 Article 191: states that the president must be a natural born citizen of Colombia and at least 30 years of age.
The President and Vice President serve a term of office of four years after being elected by popular vote. Since 2015, the president is restricted to a single four-year term and is barred from running for reelection, even for a nonconsecutive term.
Already the Constitution of 1991 limited presidents to a single term. However, on 24 November 2005, the Colombian Congress introduced the Electoral Guarantees Law (Ley de Garantias Electorales), which modified Article 152, of the Colombian Constitution of 1991 and allowed a president to run for a second term. The President or Vice President running for re-election must officially tell in the National Electoral Council and guarantee a fair competition for the other contenders. Participation of acting officials in political proselytism was standardized. If the president or vice president are not running for office, they are prohibited from participating on political proselytism. If one or both are participating, they can engage in political activity only four months before the primary elections. Also, if the president and/or vice president is running for office, he may participate in their political party's selection mechanism to postulate candidates. In 2010, the Constitutional Court of Colombia threw out a planned referendum to allow presidents to run for three consecutive terms. It ruled that Colombian presidents can only serve two terms, even if they are nonconsecutive. In 2015, a constitutional amendment repealed the 2004 changes and reverted to the original one-term limit.
The Vice President of Colombia is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new president of Colombia and completing the remaining term upon leaves of absence or death, resignation, or removal of the President, even if such a vacancy should occur before the President assumes office, as designated by Article 202 of the Constitution of 1991.
In absence of both the President and the Vice President, Article 203 of the Constitution of 1991 establishes that the presidential office will be assumed by a minister in the order of precedence established by law. The assuming minister has to be a member of the same party or movement the original President belonged to, and will exercise the presidency until the Congress, within the 30 days following the presidential vacancy, elects a new Vice President who will assume the Presidency.
|1||Vice President||Marta Lucía Ramírez|
|2||Minister of the Interior||Nancy Patricia Gutiérrez|
|3||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Carlos Holmes Trujillo|
|—||Minister of Finance and Public Credit||Alberto Carrasquilla Barrera|
|—||Minister of Justice and Law||Gloria María Borrero|
|—||Minister of National Defense||Guillermo Botero|
|—||Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development||Andrés Valencia Pinzón|
|—||Minister of Health and Social Protection||Juan Pablo Uribe|
|4||Minister of Labour||Alicia Arango|
|—||Minister of Mines and Energy||María Fernanda Suárez|
|—||Minister of Commerce, Industry and Tourism||José Manuel Restrepo Abondano|
|—||Minister of National Education||María Victoria Angulo|
|—||Minister of Environment and Territorial Development||Ricardo Lozano Picón|
|—||Minister of Housing, City and Territory||Jonathan Malagón|
|—||Minister of Information Technologies and Communications||Silvia Constaín|
|—||Minister of Culture||Carmen Vásquez|
|—||Minister of Transport||Ángela María Orozco|
|Candidate||Party/alliance||First round||Second round|
|Iván Duque Márquez||Grand Alliance for Colombia||7,569,693||39.14||10,373,080||53.98|
|Gustavo Petro||List of Decency||4,851,254||25.09||8,034,189||41.81|
|Sergio Fajardo||Colombia Coalition||4,589,696||23.73|
|Germán Vargas Lleras||Mejor Vargas Lleras||1,407,840||7.28|
|Humberto De la Calle||PLC–ASI||399,180||2.06|
|Jorge Antonio Trujillo||We Are All Colombia||75,614||0.39|
|Promotores Voto En Blanco||Party of Ethnic Reclamation "PRE"||60,312||0.31|
|Viviane Morales Hoyos||Somos Región Colombia||41,458||0.21|
|Source: El Tiempo Government|
The President of Bolivia officially known as the President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is head of state and head of government of Bolivia. According to the current Constitution, the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year term, renewable once. In 2016, in a referendum the country voted to maintain term limits. Since 2009, if no candidate wins a majority, the top two candidates advance to a runoff election. Prior to 2009, if no candidate won half the popular vote, the president was chosen by a vote in a joint legislative session from among the top two candidates.
The Prime Minister of Spain, officially the President of the Government of Spain, is the head of the government of Spain. The office was established in its current form by the Constitution of 1978 and originated in 1823 as a chairmanship of the extant Council of Ministers.
The President of Guatemala officially known as the President of the Republic of Guatemala, is the head of state and head of government of Guatemala, elected to a single four-year term.
The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of Brazil. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d'état against Emperor Pedro II. Since then, Brazil has had six constitutions, three dictatorships, and three democratic periods. During the democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory. The Constitution of Brazil, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements, powers, and responsibilities of the president, their term of office and the method of election.
The President of the Dominican Republic is both the head of state and head of government of the Dominican Republic. The presidential system was established in 1844, following the proclamation of the republic during the Dominican War of Independence. The President of the Dominican Republic is styled Your Excellency, Mr. President during his time in office. His official residence is the National Palace.
The President of El Salvador, officially known as the President of the Republic of El Salvador, is the Head of State and Head of Government of El Salvador. He is also, by Constitutional Law, the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of El Salvador. The office was created in the Constitution of 1841. From 1821 until 1841, the head of state of El Salvador was styled simply as Head of State.
The Congress of the Republic of Peru is the unicameral body that assumes legislative power in Peru. The congress consists of 130 members (congresistas), who are elected for five-year periods in office on a proportional representation basis.
The President of Venezuela, officially known as the President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is the head of state and head of government in Venezuela. The president leads the National Executive of the Venezuelan government and is the commander-in-chief of the National Bolivarian Armed Forces. Presidential terms were set at six years with the adoption of the 1999 Constitution of Venezuela, and presidential term limits were removed in 2009.
Gustavo Adolfo Bell Lemus is the current Ambassador of Colombia to Cuba. A lawyer, economist and historian, he served as the seventh Vice President of Colombia between 1998 and 2002 under the administration of Andrés Pastrana Arango, during which time he also served concurrently as High Commissioner for Human Rights of Colombia and as Minister of National Defence between 2001 and 2002. In 1992, as the 53rd Governor of Atlántico, he became the first popularly elected Governor of the Department following the enactment of the 1991 Colombian Constitution.
Gran Colombia is the name historians use to refer to the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831. The state included the territories of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela, and parts of northern Peru, western Guyana and northwestern Brazil. The term Gran Colombia is used historiographically to distinguish it from the current Republic of Colombia, which is also the official name of the former state.
The constitutional history of Colombia is the process of formation and evolution of the different constitutions that Colombia has had since its formation.
The President of the Congress of Colombia is the leader of the Congress of the Republic of Colombia. The Presidency of Congress is assumed by the person elected as President of the Senate of Colombia by members of the Senate in an election held every year on July 20. The President of the Senate serves a term of one year without a chance for reelection in which s/he also assumes the presidency of Congress. The current President of Congress is Ernesto Macías since July 20, 2018.
The Administrative Department of the Presidency of the Republic consists of the immediate staff of the President of Colombia, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President. The DAPRE is the Executive Administrative Department that assists the President in the exercise of its duties by lending the administrative support and related services to fulfil his official and constitutional duties.
The President of Uruguay, officially known as the President of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay is the head of state and head of government of Uruguay. His or her rights are determined in the Constitution of Uruguay. Conforms with the Secretariat of the Presidency, the Council of Ministers and the director of the Office of Planning and Budget, the executive branch. In case of absence, his office is exercised by the vice president. In turn, the president of the republic is the commander in chief of the armed forces.
Elías José Jaua Milano is a Venezuelan politician and former university professor who serves as the Minister of Education of Venezuela. He served as Vice President of Venezuela from January 2010 to October 2012 and had been Minister of Foreign Affairs from January 2013 until September 2014.
Federico Alonso Renjifo Vélez is the 25th Ambassador of Colombia to France dually accredited as Non-Resident Ambassador of Colombia to Algeria and Monaco. A Colombian lawyer and economist, he also served as the 30th Minister of Mines and Energy, and 10th Minister of the Interior.