President of Colombia

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President of the
Republic of Colombia
Presidente de la República de Colombia
Flag of the President of Colombia.svg
Presidential Standard
Presidential Seal of Colombia.svg
Presidential Seal
Ivan Duque Marquez (Recortado).png
Iván Duque Márquez

since August 7, 2018
Style Mr. President
(Señor Presidente) [1] His Excellency
Residence Casa de Nariño
Appointer Popular vote election
Term length Four years, single term
Inaugural holder Simón Bolívar
FormationDecember 17, 1819
Deputy Vice President of Colombia
SalaryCOP$32.624.000 monthly [2]
Coat of arms of Colombia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
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The President of Colombia (Spanish : Presidente de Colombia), officially known as the President of the Republic of Colombia (Spanish : Presidente de la República de Colombia) is the head of state and head of government of Colombia. The office of president was established upon the ratification of the Constitution of 1819, by the Congress of Angostura, convened in December 1819, when Colombia was the "Gran Colombia". The first president, General Simón Bolívar, [3] took office in 1819. His position, initially self-proclaimed, was subsequently ratified by Congress.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish, known in the Middle Ages as Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.

The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. "Head of government" is often differentiated from "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.


The current president of the Republic of Colombia is Iván Duque Márquez, who took office on August 7, 2018.

Iván Duque Márquez President of Colombia

Iván Duque Márquez is a Colombian politician, and lawyer who is the current President of Colombia, in office since 7 August 2018.


According to the Colombian Constitution of 1991, Article 188, the President of Colombia is the head of state, head of government and Supreme Administrative Authority. The President of Colombia symbolizes the National Unity, and after taking an oath to the Constitution of Colombia and swearing to defend and protect the nation's laws, he is charged to guarantee and protect the rights and liberties of all Colombian nationals. [4]

Colombian Constitution of 1991 Colombias current Constitution

The Constitution of Colombia, better known as the Constitution of 1991, is the current governing document of the Republic of Colombia. Promulgated on July 4, 1991, it replaced the Constitution of 1886. It is Colombia's ninth constitution since 1830. See a timeline of all previous constitutions and amendments here. It has recently been called the Constitution of Rights.

The Administrative Department of the Presidency of Colombia has the commission to assist or support the President of Colombia on its constitutional mandated functions and legal issues. [4]

Article 115 states that the National Government is formed by the President of Colombia, the Vice President of Colombia, the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Colombia and the Directors of the Administrative Departments of Colombia. Any official from these entities constitute the Government of Colombia in any particular business.

The Government of Colombia is a republic with separation of powers into executive, judicial and legislative branches. Its legislature has a congress, its judiciary has a supreme court, and its executive branch has a president.

Vice President of Colombia

The Vice President of Colombia is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of Colombia upon leave of absence or death, resignation, or removal of the president, as designated by the Colombian Constitution of 1991 which also reinstated the vice president figure after almost a century of being abolished during the presidency of Rafael Núñez. The vice president cannot assume presidential functions on temporary absences of the president such as official trips abroad or vacations. In these cases, the president delegates functions to a cabinet member, usually the Minister of the Interior. Marta Lucía Ramírez is the current vice president.

Any act by the President of Colombia, in order to be legal and enforceable, must be sanctioned by any of the ministries or department directors, who will also be held responsible for the act. The only exception is if the President appoints or removes ministers, administrative departments' directors and any other officials appointed by him under his administrative authority. Governors of the Departments of Colombia, Mayors of Municipalities of Colombia, as well as regional Superintendents of Colombia, public establishments and industrial and commercial state owned enterprises, are all part of the executive branch of Colombia.

Departments of Colombia department, group of municipalities, in Colombia

Colombia is a unitary republic made up of thirty-two departments and a Capital District. Each department has a Governor (gobernador) and a Department Assembly, elected by popular vote for a four-year period. The governor cannot be re-elected in consecutive periods. Departments are country subdivisions and are granted a certain degree of autonomy.

Municipalities of Colombia municipalities of Colombia

The Municipalities of Colombia are decentralized subdivisions of the Republic of Colombia. Municipalities make up most of the departments of Colombia with 1,122 municipalities (municipios). Each one of them is led by a mayor (alcalde) elected by popular vote and represents the maximum executive government official at a municipality level under the mandate of the governor of their department which is a representative of all municipalities in the department; municipalities are grouped to form departments.

General description

The Colombian Constitution of 1991, coupled with several articles of amendment, establishes the requirements an eligible candidate must meet in order to become president, as well as the term of office, method of election, and powers.

Requirements for holding

Colombian Constitution of 1991 Article 191: states that the president must be a natural born citizen of Colombia and at least 30 years of age. [5]

Term of office and election

The President and Vice President serve a term of office of four years after being elected by popular vote. Since 2015, the president is restricted to a single four-year term and is barred from running for reelection, even for a nonconsecutive term.

Already the Constitution of 1991 limited presidents to a single term. However, on 24 November 2005, the Colombian Congress introduced the Electoral Guarantees Law (Ley de Garantias Electorales), which modified Article 152, of the Colombian Constitution of 1991 and allowed a president to run for a second term. The President or Vice President running for re-election must officially tell in the National Electoral Council and guarantee a fair competition for the other contenders. Participation of acting officials in political proselytism was standardized. If the president or vice president are not running for office, they are prohibited from participating on political proselytism. If one or both are participating, they can engage in political activity only four months before the primary elections. Also, if the president and/or vice president is running for office, he may participate in their political party's selection mechanism to postulate candidates. In 2010, the Constitutional Court of Colombia threw out a planned referendum to allow presidents to run for three consecutive terms. It ruled that Colombian presidents can only serve two terms, even if they are nonconsecutive. In 2015, a constitutional amendment repealed the 2004 changes and reverted to the original one-term limit. [6]

Line of succession


The Vice President of Colombia is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new president of Colombia and completing the remaining term upon leaves of absence or death, resignation, or removal of the President, even if such a vacancy should occur before the President assumes office, as designated by Article 202 of the Constitution of 1991.

Further succession

In absence of both the President and the Vice President, Article 203 of the Constitution of 1991 establishes that the presidential office will be assumed by a minister in the order of precedence established by law. The assuming minister has to be a member of the same party or movement the original President belonged to, and will exercise the presidency until the Congress, within the 30 days following the presidential vacancy, elects a new Vice President who will assume the Presidency.

Current order

No.OfficeCurrent officer
1 Vice President Marta Lucía Ramírez
2 Minister of the Interior Nancy Patricia Gutiérrez
3 Minister of Foreign Affairs Carlos Holmes Trujillo
Minister of Finance and Public Credit Alberto Carrasquilla Barrera [lower-alpha 1]
Minister of Justice and Law Gloria María Borrero [lower-alpha 1]
Minister of National Defense Guillermo Botero [lower-alpha 1]
Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Andrés Valencia Pinzón [lower-alpha 1]
Minister of Health and Social Protection Juan Pablo Uribe [lower-alpha 1]
4 Minister of Labour Alicia Arango
Minister of Mines and Energy María Fernanda Suárez [lower-alpha 1]
Minister of Commerce, Industry and Tourism José Manuel Restrepo Abondano [lower-alpha 1]
Minister of National Education María Victoria Angulo [lower-alpha 1]
Minister of Environment and Territorial Development Ricardo Lozano Picón [lower-alpha 1]
Minister of Housing, City and Territory Jonathan Malagón [lower-alpha 1]
Minister of Information Technologies and Communications Silvia Constaín [lower-alpha 1]
Minister of Culture Carmen Vásquez [lower-alpha 1]
Minister of Transport Ángela María Orozco [lower-alpha 1]
  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Not a member of the President's political party, therefore ineligible for presidential succession.

Last election

CandidateParty/allianceFirst roundSecond round
Iván Duque Márquez Grand Alliance for Colombia7,569,69339.1410,373,08053.98
Gustavo Petro List of Decency4,851,25425.098,034,18941.81
Sergio Fajardo Colombia Coalition4,589,69623.73
Germán Vargas Lleras Mejor Vargas Lleras1,407,8407.28
Humberto De la Calle PLCASI 399,1802.06
Jorge Antonio TrujilloWe Are All Colombia75,6140.39
Promotores Voto En BlancoParty of Ethnic Reclamation "PRE"60,3120.31
Viviane Morales Hoyos Somos Región Colombia 41,4580.21
Blank votes341,0871.76808,1044.21
Invalid votes300,080295,499
Registered voters/turnout36,227,26753.3736,783,94053.04
Source: El Tiempo Government

See also

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  1. Desde 1958 el Presidente de Colombia, recibe tratamiento de Señor Presidente. Los presidentes de otras naciones y embajadores que visiten el país, reciben tratamiento de Excelencia.
  2. "¿Sabe usted cuánto gana el presidente de Colombia?". El Universal.
  3. Gobernantes Colombianos, Ignacio Arismendi Posada, Interprint Editors Ltd., Italgraf, Segunda Edición, Page 15, Bogotá, Colombia, 1983
  4. 1 2 "Departamento Administrativo de la Presidencia de la República : Nuestra Entidad" (in Spanish).
  5. "Requisitos para ser candidato presidencial" (in Spanish).
  6. "Constitución Política de 1991 (Artículo 197)". Secretaría General del Senado.