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Republic of New Granada
República de la Nueva Granada (Spanish)
Motto: Libertad y Orden
(English: Liberty and Order)
Republic of the New Granada
|Capital||Santa Fé de Bogotá|
|20 October 1831|
• Bill of rights ¹
• Constitutional Change
|11 April 1858|
The Republic of New Granada was a centralist republic consisting primarily of present-day Colombia and Panama with smaller portions of today's Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, and Brazil. It was created after the dissolution in 1830 of Gran Colombia, with the secession of Ecuador (Quito, Guayaquil and Azuay) and Venezuela (with Orinoco, Apure and Zulia) and was formed by the departments of Boyaca, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, and Istmo, all parts of the present Republic of Colombia. except Istmo, which is part of present-day Panama). In November 1831, those departments created the Republic of New Granada, but nothing was established about a flag. Old flags were confirmed provisional by the National Convention of 17 December 1831. However, it is not clear what flag it was: Restrepo believes that it is the flag with two cornucopias of Gran Colombia. While new flags were discussed, some proposals were issued. On 9 May 1834, the national flag was adopted and was used until 26 November 1861, with the Gran Colombian colors in Veles' arrangement. The merchant ensign had the eight-pointed star in white.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru. It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogotá.
Panama, officially the Republic of Panama, is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. Managua is the country's capital and largest city and is also the third-largest city in Central America, behind Tegucigalpa and Guatemala City. The multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, European, African, and Asian heritage. The main language is Spanish. Indigenous tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak their own languages and English.
In 1851, a new civil war broke out when conservative and pro-slavery groups from Cauca and Antioquia, led by Manuel Ibánez, Julio Arboleda, and Eusebio Borrero, revolted against liberal president José Hilario López, trying to stop the process of freeing the slaves, in addition to a number of religious issues.
José Hilario López Valdés was a Colombian politician and military officer. He was the President of Colombia between 1849 and 1853.
One of the prime features of the political climate of the republic was the position of the Roman Catholic Church and the level of autonomy for the federal states. In 1839, a dispute arose over the shutting down of monasteries by the Congress of New Granada. This soon escalated into the War of the Supremes, which raged for the next two years and transformed into a conflict about regional autonomy.
The War of the Supremes was a civil conflict in Republic of the New Granada from 1839 to 1841 caused by the ambitions of various regional leaders (gamonales) to seize power and depose President José Ignacio de Márquez. It was called the War of the Supremos because of the participation of General José María Obando and other revolutionary gamonales who called themselves jefes supremos.
New Granada was transformed in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation as an answer to demands for a decentralized country.
The Granadine Confederation was a short-lived federal republic established in 1858 as a result of a constitutional change replacing the Republic of New Granada. It consisted of the present-day nations of Colombia and Panama and parts of northwestern Brazil. In turn, the Granadine Confederation was replaced by the United States of Colombia after another constitutional change in 1863.
The territory of the republic was divided into provinces. Each province was composed of one or more cantons, each canton was divided into several districts.
The republic also included some territories in the peripheries of the country.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated later in 1739, and the provinces of Venezuela were separated from the Viceroyalty and assigned to the Captaincy General of Venezuela in 1777. In addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, southwestern Suriname, parts of northwestern Brazil, and northern Peru.
The national flag of Colombia symbolizes Colombian independence from Spain, gained on July 20, 1810. It is a horizontal tricolor of yellow, blue and red. The yellow stripe takes up the top half of the flag and the blue and red take up a quarter of the space each.
Colombia is a unitary republic made up of thirty-two departments and a Capital District. Each department has a Governor (gobernador) and a Department Assembly, elected by popular vote for a four-year period. The governor cannot be re-elected in consecutive periods. Departments are country subdivisions and are granted a certain degree of autonomy.
The Congress of Angostura was convened by Simón Bolívar and took place in Angostura during the wars of Independence of Colombia and Venezuela, culminating in the proclamation of Gran Colombia. It met from February 15, 1819, to July 31, 1821, when the Congress of Cúcuta began its sessions. It consisted of twenty-six delegates representing Venezuela and New Granada.
The United States of Colombia was the name adopted in 1861 by the Rionegro Constitution for the Granadine Confederation, after years of civil war. Colombia became a federal state itself composed of nine "sovereign states.” It comprised the present-day nations of Colombia and Panama and parts of northwestern Brazil. After several more years of intermittent civil wars, it was replaced by the more centralist Republic of Colombia in 1886, predecessor to modern Colombia.
The flag of Gran Colombia was based on Francisco de Miranda's tricolour, which served as the national flag of the First Republic of Venezuela. The general design of the Gran Colombian flag later served as the model for the current flags of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela, which emerged as independent nations at the breakup of Gran Colombia in 1831.
The Gran Colombia–Peru War of 1828 and 1829 was the first international conflict fought by the Republic of Peru, which had gained its independence from Spain in 1821, and Gran Colombia, that existed between 1819 and 1830.
The Ecuadorian–Colombian War, or War of the Cauca, occurred in 1863 between the United States of Colombia,, and the Republic of Ecuador. Under the Spanish Empire, Colombia and Ecuador had been part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, and upon independence from Spain, they had co-existed as part of Greater Colombia between 1819 and 1831. Periodic border disputes, arising from the lack of clear borders under the Spanish, were combined with occasional attempts to recreate Greater Colombia to produce tensions. In 1861, conservative Gabriel Garcia Moreno (1821–75) became president of Ecuador and soon attempted to unify his country, which was sharply divided by class, regional, and language differences, by handing over much power to the Roman Catholic Church, which he considered to be the people's chief social tie to achieving a sense of nationalism. That decision deeply polarised Ecuadorian politics, as liberals generally viewed the Church as an obstacle to social and political progress.
The Congress of Cúcuta was a constituent assembly where Gran Colombia was created. The Congress elected Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander president and vice-president, respectively.
The United Provinces of New Granada was a country in South America from 1811 to 1816, a period known in Colombian history as the Patria Boba. It was formed from areas of the New Kingdom of Granada, roughly corresponding to the territory of modern-day Colombia. The government was a federation with a parliamentary system, consisting of a weak executive and strong congress. The country was reconquered by Spain in 1816.
Gran Colombia is the name historians use to refer to the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831. The state included the territories of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela, and parts of northern Peru, western Guyana and northwestern Brazil. The term Gran Colombia is used historiographically to distinguish it from the current Republic of Colombia, which is also the official name of the former state.
The Real Audiencia of Quito was an administrative unit in the Spanish Empire which had political, military, and religious jurisdiction over territories that today include Ecuador, parts of northern Peru, parts of southern Colombia and parts of northern Brazil. It was created by Royal Decree on 29 August 1563 by Philip II of Spain in the city of Guadalajara. It ended in 1822 with the incorporation of the area into the Republic of Gran Colombia.
The constitutional history of Colombia is the process of formation and evolution of the different constitutions that Colombia has had since its formation.
Colombia–Ecuador relations refers to the diplomatic relations between the neighboring Republic of Colombia and Republic of Ecuador. The present territory of both countries was part of the Spanish Empire from the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries. After the wars for independence against the Spain led by Simón Bolívar, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela became part of the Republic of Gran Colombia in 1819. Gran Colombia struggled to hold itself together as a country, and after intense civil conflicts between political factions, the union fell apart in 1830.
The Republic of Gran Colombia was a former independent country in northern South America, a post-Spanish colonial country that existed from 1819 to 1831. Its initial subdivisions, created in 1820, were revised and expanded in 1824.
States of Colombia existed from February 27, 1855, in the Republic of New Granada and the Granadine Confederation, where they were called "federal states". In the United States of Colombia they were called "sovereign states".
Following independence from Spain in 1821, Panamá State was one of the states of the Republic of Gran Colombia. Created 27 February 1855 under the name Estado Federal de Panamá. It later was recognized as Estado de la Federación in the constitution of the Granadine Confederation of 1858, and in the constitution of 1863 renamed as Estado Soberano in the national and state constitutions of 1863. Since 1903, most of its territory has become the Republic of Panama.
The Bolivarian countries are six Hispanic American countries whose republican origin is attributed to the ideals of Simón Bolívar and independence war led by the Venezuelan military in the viceroyalties of New Granada and Peru.