List of presidents of Bolivia

Last updated

This President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia is the head of state and head of government of Bolivia, elected by popular vote to a 5-year (historically 4-year) term. [1]

Contents

Since the office was established in 1825, 65 men and 2 women have served as president. Who the first president was is disputed among scholars. [2] While Simón Bolívar was proclaimed "liberator" on 11 August 1825, and the country named after him, he was never sworn-in having renounced the title in favor of Antonio José de Sucre. Sucre, on the other hand, was the interim holder of the office when Bolívar was chosen on 11 August and was president of the nation when its first Constitution was promulgated in 1826. The 65th president, Evo Morales, was the last president of the Republic of Bolivia and the first President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. The third and current President of the Plurinational State is Luis Arce (since 8 November 2020). There are currently eight living former presidents. The most recent former president to die was Luis García Meza on 29 April 2018.

Pedro Blanco Soto held the shortest presidency being assassinated on 1 January 1829, just six days after assuming office on 26 December 1828, and fourteen days after being elected on 18 December. Evo Morales served the longest, over thirteen years, before resigning after the disputed 2019 general election. Morales is one of only five presidents to be successfully reelected and one of just two to be reelected consecutively. Ismael Montes, Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada, Hernán Siles Zuazo, and Víctor Paz Estenssoro all achieved reelection for nonconsecutive terms while Paz Estenssoro had two consecutive terms. Víctor Paz Estenssoro and José Miguel de Velasco have the highest number of cumulative terms with four each, though Velasco was interim president for two of those and never completed a full term, while Morales has the highest number of consecutive terms with three.

Two presidents died in office (Germán Busch and René Barrientos), both are theorized to have been assassinated. Three presidents were confirmed to have been assassinated in office (Pedro Blanco Soto, Agustín Morales, and Gualberto Villarroel). Eighteen presidents resigned from office either willingly or under military pressure. Twenty-eight presidents were successfully ousted from office. Military triumvirates and juntas have held the presidency with no direct president on seven occasions in 1861, 1899, 1920-1921, 1970, 1978, 1981, and 1982 while multiple individuals ruled as singular presidents of a junta. For one month in 1928, Hernando Siles Reyes' cabinet ruled the country. René Barrientos and Alfredo Ovando Candía were the only co-presidents in Bolivian history while Simón Bolívar, Antonio José de Sucre and Andrés de Santa Cruz were the only presidents who were also heads of state of other countries. There have been six periods of time in 1839, 1841, 1848, 1879–1880, and most recently in 2019 in which there has been no head of state.

José Luis Tejada Sorzano was the first vice president to assume the presidency after the deposition of Daniel Salamanca Urey, though others, particularly presidents of either chambers of Congress, had done so in the past. Twelve presidents have held the presidency on an interim basis. Both women who have held the presidency (Jeanine Añez, and Lidia Gueiler Tejada) were interim presidents.

Antonio José de Sucre, at 30-years-old, was the youngest president while Victor Paz Estenssoro at the start of his fourth term in 1985 was the oldest president at age 78. [3] Lidia Gueiler Tejada was the first female president and Evo Morales was the first indigenous president. [lower-alpha 1]

Background

The origins of Bolivia are traceable to the Chuquisaca Revolution of 1809 in Upper Peru, [10] followed by the La Paz revolution within the same year, which was part of the Latin American wars of independence against Spanish colonial governments. Despite other struggles for independence, the insurgents immediately formed a constitutional government who rejected any oath or compromise with Spain. The rebel government also integrated all parts of population, including mestizos and indigenous. However, by the early 1810, the rebels were defeated, with their leaders executed or hunted down, leaving the neighboring countries of Peru and Argentina to fight for the controls of the Upper Peru areas. [11]

Presidents

Republic of Bolívar & Bolivia (1825–1836)

In early 1825, General Antonio José de Sucre led his army to Upper Peru after his triumph in the Battle of Ayacucho on 9 December 1824, which ended the Spanish rule over Peru, entering La Paz on 9 February 1825. After his arrival, he issued a decree considered the milestone of Bolivian independence, calling a "General Assembly of Deputies of Upper Peru" in the town of Oruro (then moved to Chuquisaca, present-day Sucre) to clarify the political status of the province. [12]

On 28 July 1825, representatives voted for three alternatives: unification with Lower Peru, annexation to the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, or full independence and establishment of a republican state. [13] The large majority of deputies opted for independence, and the president of the Assembly José Mariano Serrano, together with a commission of three others, wrote the " Act of Independence ", which declared Upper Peru a country on 6 August 1825. The General Simón Bolívar was deeply popular in the region, and was immediately elected by the General Assembly as president. To honor who was considered one of the great libertadores , the delegates chose to name Upper Peru as "Republic of Bolívar", changing it into Bolivia on 3 October 1825, echoing the delegate Manuel Martín Cruz who stated "If to Romulus, Rome; to Bolívar, Bolivia" (Si de Rómulo, Roma; de Bolívar, Bolivia). [14]

Presidency [lower-alpha 2] PresidentPartyDesignationGovernment [lower-alpha 3] Vice President
1 [lower-alpha 4] 6 August 1825

11 August 1825
End of mandate
Jose Mariano Serrano.jpg José Mariano
Serrano
Independent Assumed command upon
declaration of independence
of the Republic of Bolívar
(President of the Constituent Assembly)
Interim [17] [18] Office blank to
19 Nov. 1826
11 August 1825

12 August 1825
End of mandate
Antonio Jose de Sucre Small.jpg Antonio José
de Sucre
Independent Assumed command while

waiting for Simón Bolívar
(General of the United Liberation Army)

Interim
6 August 1825

12 August 1825
Assumed office

29 December 1825
Renounced position
SIMON BOLIVAR PALACIOS.jpg Simón Bolívar Independent Proclaimed by the Constituent Assembly
(President of Gran Colombia, President of Peru)
Legal
229 December 1825

18 April 1828
Resigned from office

2 August 1828
Official resignation
Antonio Jose de Sucre Small.jpg Antonio José
de Sucre
Independent Appointed by Simón Bolívar [19] Legal [20]
(29 December 1825)
Elected by the Constituent Assembly Legal provisional [21]
(26 May 1826)
Constitutional

for life
(9 December 1826)

Vacant after
19 Nov. 1826
318 April 1828

2 August 1828
End of mandate
Jose maria perez de urdinena.jpg José María Pérez
de Urdininea
Independent Appointed by Antonio José de Sucre
(President of the Council of Ministers)
Interim [lower-alpha 5] Vacant throughout
presidency
From 2 to 12 August 1828, the presidency was fulfilled by President of the Council of Ministers José Miguel de Velasco.
412 August 1828

18 December 1828
End of mandate
Jose Miguel de Velasco Franco - bolivianischer Prasident.jpg José Miguel
de Velasco
Independent Succeeded to office according
to Constitutional laws
(Vice President of Andrés de Santa Cruz) [lower-alpha 6]
Interim [25] Same
From 18 to 26 December 1828, the presidency was fulfilled by Vice President José Ramón de Loayza. [26]
518 December 1828

26 December 1828

Assumed office

1 January 1829
Assassinated in office

Pedro Blanco Soto.jpg Pedro Blanco
Soto
Independent Elected by the Constituent Assembly Provisional José Ramón
de Loayza
From 1 to 31 January 1829, the presidency was fulfilled by José Miguel de Velasco.
631 January 1829

24 May 1829
End of mandate
Jose Miguel de Velasco Franco - bolivianischer Prasident.jpg José Miguel
de Velasco
Independent Elected by the Constituent Assembly
(Vice President of Andrés de Santa Cruz)
Acting [27] Same
31 January 1829

24 May 1829
Assumed office

28 October 1836
Legal change
Andressantacruz2.jpg Andrés de
Santa Cruz
Independent Elected by the Constituent Assembly Provisional
(31 January 1829)
José Miguel
de Velasco
]
Reelected by the Constituent Congress Constitutional [28]
(14 August 1831)
Mariano Enrique
Calvo

Bolivian State (1836–1839)

The Bolivian State was one of the three states that made up the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. On 28 October 1836, Andrés de Santa Cruz was elected Supreme Protector of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation by the Tapacarí, Huaura and Sicuani Congresses while simultaneously being the President of the Bolivian State. While Santa Cruz was the only official President of the Bolivian State, his vice president, Mariano Enrique Calvo, would be acting president in replacement of Santa Cruz when he was in Peruvian territory. As president, Santa Cruz was more concerned with military than administrative matters, as the country found itself in the War of the Confederation against Chile, and the war against the Argentine Confederation.

PresidencyPresidentPartyDesignationGovernmentVice President
128 October 1836

20 February 1839
Resigned from office
and fled to Ecuador
Andressantacruz2.jpg Andrés de
Santa Cruz
Independent Elected by the Congress of Tapacarí

(Supreme Protector of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation)

Constitutional [29] Mariano Enrique
Calvo
1836

20 February 1839
Resigned from office
Mariano Calvo.jpg Mariano Enrique
Calvo
Independent Appointed by Andrés de Santa Cruz
(Vice President of Andrés de Santa Cruz)
Acting [lower-alpha 7] Same

Republic of Bolivia (1839–2009)

Taking advantage of the internal anarchy caused by the dissolution of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, on 22 February 1839, Jose Miguel de Velasco overthrew Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz, thus assuming the presidency of the Bolivian State, which he ended with his secessionist pronouncement. Velasco promulgated the Political Constitution of 1839, repealing the Political Constitution of 1834, and giving rise to a new Republic of Bolivia. [30] The Republic of Bolivia was maintained for 170 years through multiple periods of military dictatorship and democracy and over a dozen constitutions.

Presidency [lower-alpha 2] PresidentPartyDesignationGovernment [lower-alpha 3] Vice President
No government from 20 to 22 February 1839. José Ballivián proclaims himself president, but is unsuccessful.
22 February 1839

10 June 1841
Deposed by a coup d'état
Jose Miguel de Velasco Franco - bolivianischer Prasident.jpg José Miguel
de Velasco
Military Installed by a coup d'état De facto

(22 February 1839)

Vacant to
26 Oct. 1839
Elected by the Constituent Congress Provisional [31]
(16 June 1839)
Elected by indirect vote Constitutional [32]

(15 August 1840)

Office blank
26 Oct. 1839 [33]
-
15 Feb. 1878 [34]
710 June 1841

9 July 1841
Resigned from office
Sebastian Agreda - bolivianischer Prasident.jpg Sebastián Ágreda Military Installed by a coup d'état De facto [35]
89 July 1841

22 September 1841
Deposed by a coup d'état
Mariano Calvo.jpg Mariano Enrique
Calvo
Independent Appointed by Sebastián Ágreda De facto
No government from 22 to 27 September 1841.
927 September 1841

23 December 1847
Resigned from office
and fled to Chile
Jose Ballivian (Cropped).jpg José Ballivián Military Installed by a coup d'état De facto

(27 September 1841)

Elected by the National Convention Provisional [36]
(23 April 1843)
General Election of 1844Constitutional [37]
(15 August 1844)
1023 December 1847

2 January 1848
Deposed by a coup d'état
Eusebio Guilarte Vera - bolivianischer Prasident.jpg Eusebio Guilarte Independent Succeeded to office according

to Constitutional laws
(President of the Council of State)

Constitutional
No government from 2 to 18 January 1848.
18 January 1848

6 December 1848
Deposed by a coup d'état
Jose Miguel de Velasco Franco - bolivianischer Prasident.jpg José Miguel
de Velasco
Military Installed by a coup d'état De facto [38]
116 December 1848

15 August 1855
Resigned from office
ManuelIsidoroBelzu.jpg Manuel Isidoro
Belzu
Military Installed by a coup d'état De facto

(6 December 1848)

Elected by the Constituent Congress De facto Provisional [39]
(6 August 1850)
General Election of 1850Constitutional [40]

(15 August 1850)

Declared dictator [lower-alpha 8] De facto [42]

(16 October 1850)

Elected by the National Convention Constitutional [43]

(16 July 1851)

1215 August 1855

9 September 1857
Declared deposed
by Linaristas [lower-alpha 9]

27 September 1857
Defeated by insurgents
and fled
Jorge-cordova.jpg Jorge Córdova Independent General Election of 1855Constitutional
139 September 1857

14 January 1861
Deposed by a coup d'état
Jose Maria Linares.jpg José María
Linares
Independent Installed by a coup d'état De facto
From 14 January to 4 May 1861, the presidency was fulfilled by a military triumvirate headed by José María de Achá, Ruperto Fernández, and Manuel Antonio Sánchez.
144 May 1861

28 December 1864
Deposed by a coup d'état
JoseMariaAcha.jpg José María
de Achá
Military Elected by National

Constituent Assembly

Provisional [44]

(14 January 1861)

General Election of 1862Constitutional [45]
1528 December 1864

15 January 1871
Deposed by a coup d'état
MarianoMelgarejo.jpg Mariano Melgarejo Military Installed by a coup d'état De facto

(28 December 1864)

General Election of 1868Provisional [46]
(15 August 1868)
Declared dictatorDe facto [47]

(3 February 1869)

Constitutional freedoms restoredProvisional [48]

(31 May 1869)

General Election of 1870Constitutional [49]

(15 August 1870)

1615 January 1871

27 November 1872
Assassinated in office
AGUST N MORALES HERN NDEZ.jpg Agustín Morales Military Installed by a coup d'état De facto

(15 January 1871)

Elected by National

Constituent Assembly

Provisional [50]
(18 June 1871)
General Election of 1872Constitutional [51]

(25 August 1872)

1728 November 1872

9 May 1873
End of term
TOMAS FRIAS AMETLLER.jpg Tomás Frías
Ametller
Independent Succeeded to office according

to Constitutional laws
(President of the Council of State)

Constitutional
189 May 1873

31 January 1874
Resigned from office [lower-alpha 10]
ADOLFO BALLIVI N COLL.jpg Adolfo Ballivián RedGeneral Election of 1873Constitutional
From 31 January to 14 February 1874, the presidency was fulfilled by Tomás Frías Ametller.
14 February 1874

4 May 1876
Deposed by a coup d'état
TOMAS FRIAS AMETLLER.jpg Tomás Frías
Ametller
Independent Succeeded to office according

to Constitutional laws
(President of the Council of State)

Constitutional
194 May 1876

17 April 1879
Ceded command

28 December 1879
Declared deposed
in his absence
HILARION DAZA GROSELLE.jpg Hilarión Daza Military Installed by a coup d'état De facto
(4 May 1876)
Elected by National
Constituent Assembly
Provisional [54]
(15 November 1877)
Elected by National
Constituent Assembly
Constitutional [55]
(15 February 1878)
Vacant after
15 Feb. 1878
From 17 April to 10 September 1879, the presidency was fulfilled by President of the Council of Ministers Pedro José Domingo de Guerra. [lower-alpha 11]
From 10 September to 28 December 1879, the presidency was fulfilled by the Council of Ministers.
No government from 28 December 1879 to 19 January 1880.
2019 January 1880

4 September 1884
End of term
NARCISO CAMPERO LEYES.jpg Narciso Campero Independent [lower-alpha 12] Proclaimed by a junta

of Notables in La Paz [57]

Civil provisional

(19 January 1880)

Vacant to
31 May 1880
Elected by the National Convention Constitutional [58]
(31 May 1880)
Aniceto Arce [lower-alpha 13]
(1st)
Belisario Salinas

(2nd)

214 September 1884

15 August 1888
End of term
GREGORIO PACHECO LEYES.jpg Gregorio Pacheco Democratic [59] General Election of 1884 Constitutional Mariano Baptista

(1st)

Conservative [lower-alpha 14] Jorge Oblitas

(2nd)

2215 August 1888

11 August 1892
End of term
Aniceto Arce.jpg Aniceto Arce Conservative General Election of 1888 Constitutional José Manuel
del Carpio

(1st)

Serapio Reyes
Ortiz

(2nd)

2311 August 1892

19 August 1896
End of term
Mariano Baptista Caserta.jpg Mariano Baptista Conservative General Election of 1892Constitutional [61] Severo
Fernández

(1st)

Vacant throughout
presidency
[lower-alpha 15]
(2nd)
2419 August 1896

12 April 1899
Deposed by a coup d'état
SEVERO FERNANDEZ ALONSO CABALLERO.jpg Severo Fernández Conservative General Election of 1896Constitutional [63] Rafael Peña
de Flores

(1st)

Jenaro Sanjinés

(2nd)

From 12 April to 25 October 1899, the presidency was fulfilled by a civil-military triumvirate headed by José Manuel Pando, Serapio Reyes Ortiz, and Macario Pinilla Vargas.
2525 October 1899

14 August 1904
End of term
Jose manuel pando 2.jpg José Manuel
Pando
Liberal Elected by the National Convention Constitutional [64] Lucio Pérez
Velasco

(1st)

Aníbal Capriles
Cabrera

(2nd)

2614 August 1904

12 August 1909
End of term [lower-alpha 16]
Ismael montes 2.jpg Ismael Montes Liberal General Election of 1904Constitutional [66] Eliodoro Villazón

(1st)

Valentín Abecia
Ayllón

(2nd)

2712 August 1909

14 August 1913
End of term
Eliodoro Villazon con banda presidencial.jpg Eliodoro Villazón Liberal General Election of 1909Constitutional [67] Macario Pinilla
Vargas

(1st)

Juan Misael
Saracho

(2nd)

14 August 1913

15 August 1917
End of term
Ismael montes 2.jpg Ismael Montes Liberal General Election of 1913 Constitutional [68] Juan Misael
Saracho

(1st)

José Carrasco
Torrico

(2nd)

2815 August 1917

12 July 1920
Deposed by a coup d'état
Jose Gutierrez Guerra.jpg José Gutiérrez
Guerra
Liberal General Election of 1917 Constitutional [69] Ismael Vázquez
Virreira

(1st)

José Santos
Quinteros

(2nd)

From 13 July 1920 to 28 January 1921, the presidency was fulfilled by a transitory triumvirate headed by Bautista Saavedra, José María Escalier, and José Manuel Ramírez.
2928 January 1921

3 September 1925
Resigned from office
Bautista Saavedra Mallea 2.jpg Bautista Saavedra PRS Elected by the National Convention Constitutional [70] Vacant throughout
presidency
303 September 1925

10 January 1926
End of mandate
Felipe segundo guzman.jpg Felipe Segundo
Guzmán
PRS Succeeded to office according

to Constitutional laws
(President of the National Senate)

Interim [lower-alpha 17] Vacant throughout
presidency
3110 January 1926

28 May 1930
Resigned from office
Hernando siles reyes.jpg Hernando Siles
Reyes
PRS [lower-alpha 18] General Election of 1925 Constitutional Abdón Saavedra
PN
From 28 May to 28 June 1930, the presidency was fulfilled by the presidential cabinet. [lower-alpha 19]
3228 June 1930

5 March 1931
End of mandate
Ex presidente Carlos Blanco Galindo.jpg Carlos Blanco
Galindo
Military Installed by a coup d'état

(President of the junta)

De facto interimVacant throughout
presidency
335 March 1931

27 November 1934
Resigned from office
under military pressure

1 December 1934
Official resignation [lower-alpha 20]
Daniel Salamanca Urey.jpg Daniel Salamanca
Urey
PRG General Election of 1931 Constitutional José Luis
Tejada Sorzano
341 December 1934

16 May 1936
Deposed by a coup d'état
Jose luis tejada sorzano.jpg José Luis
Tejada Sorzano
Liberal Installed by a coup d'état
(Vice President of Daniel Salamanca)
De facto [lower-alpha 21] Vacant throughout
presidency
From 17 to 22 May 1936, the presidency was fulfilled by lieutenant colonel Germán Busch. [80]
35 22 May 1936

13 July 1937
Resigned from office
under military pressure
DAVID TORO RUILOVA.jpg David Toro Military Socialist [lower-alpha 22]
(Trend)
Installed by a coup d'état

(President of the junta)

De factoVacant throughout
presidency
36 13 July 1937

23 August 1939
Died in office [lower-alpha 23]
Presidente german busch.jpg Germán Busch Military Socialist

(Trend)

Succeeded to lead the military junta

(President of the junta)

De facto

(13 July 1937)

Vacant to
28 May 1938
Elected by the National Convention Constitutional [83]

(28 May 1938)

Enrique Baldivieso
Declared dictatorDe facto [84]

(24 April 1939)

Vacant after
24 Apr. 1939
37 23 August 1939

15 April 1940
End of mandate
CARLOS QUINTANILLA QUIROGA.jpg Carlos Quintanilla Military Appointed by the militaryDe facto interim [lower-alpha 24] Vacant to
4 Dec. 1939
Office blank
4 Dec. 1939 [85]
-
24 Nov. 1945 [86]
38 15 April 1940

20 December 1943
Deposed by a coup d'état
Enrique Penaranda.jpg Enrique Peñaranda Concordance [lower-alpha 25] General Election of 1940 Constitutional
39 20 December 1943

21 July 1946
Assassinated in office
Gualberto Villarroel Lopez CROPPED.jpg.png Gualberto Villarroel RADEPA [lower-alpha 26] Installed by a coup d'état

(President of the junta)

De facto [88]
(20 December 1943)
Receives command

from the junta

De facto

provisional [89]

(5 April 1944)

Elected by the National Convention Constitutional [90]

(6 August 1944)

Julián Montellano
4021 July 1946

17 August 1946
End of mandate
Nestor guillen olmos.jpg Néstor Guillén Independent Installed by a coup d'état

(President of the civil junta,

President of the District Court of La Paz)

De facto interim [lower-alpha 27] Vacant throughout
presidency
4117 August 1946

10 March 1947
End of mandate
Tomas monje gutierrez 1.jpg Tomás Monje Independent Receives command

from Néstor Guillén

(President of the civil junta,

President of the Supreme Court of Justice)

De facto interimVacant throughout
presidency
4210 March 1947

22 October 1949
Resigned from office [lower-alpha 28]
42 - Enrique Hertzog (CROPPED).jpg Enrique Hertzog PURS General Election of 1947 Constitutional Mamerto
Urriolagoitía
4324 October 1949

16 May 1951
Resigned from office [lower-alpha 29]
43 - Mamerto Urriolagoitia (CROPPED1).jpg Mamerto Urriolagoitía PURS Succeeded to office according
to Constitutional laws
(Vice President of Enrique Hertzog)
ConstitutionalVacant throughout
presidency
4416 May 1951

11 April 1952
Deposed by a coup d'état
44 - Hugo Ballivian (CROPPED).jpg Hugo Ballivián Military Receives command

from Mamerto Urriolagoitía
(President of the junta)

De facto [93] Vacant throughout
presidency
From 11 to 15 April 1952, the presidency was fulfilled by Vice President Hernán Siles Zuazo. [lower-alpha 30]
4515 April 1952

6 August 1956
End of term
45 - Victor Paz Estenssoro (CROPPED1).jpg Víctor Paz
Estenssoro
MNR Receives command

from Hernán Siles Zuazo

De facto Hernán Siles
Zuazo
466 August 1956

6 August 1960
End of term
46 - Hernan Siles Zuazo.jpg Hernán Siles
Zuazo
MNR General Election of 1956 Constitutional Ñuflo Chávez
Ortiz
6 August 1960

4 November 1964
Deposed by a coup d'état
45 - Victor Paz Estenssoro (CROPPED1).jpg Víctor Paz
Estenssoro
MNR General Election of 1960 Constitutional Juan Lechín
Oquendo
General Election of 1964 René Barrientos
For less than a day on 5 November 1964, the presidency was fulfilled by a military junta headed by Alfredo Ovando Candía and René Barrientos. [lower-alpha 31]
475 November 1964

26 May 1965
Legal change
47 - Rene Barrientos.jpg René Barrientos Military Installed by a coup d'état

(President of the junta)

De facto [96] Vacant throughout
presidency
26 May 1965

2 January 1966
René Barrientos
resigns from office [lower-alpha 32]
Co-presidency [lower-alpha 33]
48 48 - Alfredo Ovando Candia.jpg Alfredo Ovando
Candía
Military De factoVacant throughout
presidency
2 January 1966

6 August 1966
End of term
Receives full command

from René Barrientos

6 August 1966

27 April 1969
Died in office [lower-alpha 34]
47 - Rene Barrientos.jpg René Barrientos MPC General Election of 1966 Constitutional [99] Luis Adolfo
Siles Salinas
4927 April 1969

26 September 1969
Deposed by a coup d'état
49 luis adolfo siles s.jpg Luis Adolfo
Siles Salinas
PSD Succeeded to office according

to Constitutional laws
(Vice President of René Barrientos)

Constitutional [100] Vacant throughout
presidency
26 September 1969

6 October 1970
Deposed by a coup d'état
48b - Alfredo Ovando Candia.jpg Alfredo Ovando
Candía
Military Installed by a coup d'état De facto [101] Vacant throughout
presidency
For one day on 6 October 1970, the presidency was fulfilled by a military triumvirate headed by Efraín Guachalla, Fernando Sattori, and Alberto Albarracín. [lower-alpha 35]
50 7 October 1970

21 August 1971
Deposed by a coup d'état
50 - Juan Jose Torres.jpg Juan José
Torres
Military Installed by a coup d'état De factoVacant throughout
presidency
51 21 August 1971

21 July 1978
Resigned from office
under military pressure
GralHugoBanzerSuarez (CROPPED).jpg Hugo Banzer Military Installed by a coup d'état De facto [103] Vacant throughout
presidency
For less than a day on 21 July 1978, the presidency was fulfilled by a military triumvirate headed by Víctor González Fuentes, Alfonso Villalpando, and Gutemberg Barroso. [lower-alpha 36]
52 21 July 1978

24 November 1978
Deposed by a coup d'état
Escudo-de-Bolivia.gif Juan Pereda Military Installed by a coup d'état De factoVacant throughout
presidency
53 24 November 1978

8 August 1979
Ceded command
Escudo-de-Bolivia.gif David Padilla Military Installed by a coup d'état De facto [105] Vacant throughout
presidency
54 8 August 1979

1 November 1979
Deposed by a coup d'état
Escudo-de-Bolivia.gif Wálter Guevara PRA Elected by the National Congress
(President of the National Senate)
Interim [lower-alpha 37] Vacant throughout
presidency
55 1 November 1979

16 November 1979
Resigned from office
under government pressure
Escudo-de-Bolivia.gif Alberto Natusch Military Installed by a coup d'état De facto [107] Vacant throughout
presidency
56 16 November 1979

17 July 1980
Deposed by a coup d'état
Lidia Gueiler Tejada.png Lidia Gueiler
Tejada
PRIN Elected by the National Congress
(President of the Chamber of Deputies)
Interim [lower-alpha 38] Vacant throughout
presidency
57 17 July 1980

4 August 1981
Resigned from office
under military pressure
LuisGarciaMeza1980.png Luis García
Meza
Military Installed by a coup d'état

(President of the junta)

De factoVacant throughout
presidency
From 4 August to 4 September 1981, the presidency was fulfilled by a military triumvirate headed by Celso Torrelio, Waldo Bernal Pereira, and Óscar Pammo Rodríguez. [108]
58 4 September 1981

19 July 1982
Ceded command
Celso Torrelio Villa.jpg Celso Torrelio Military Receives command

from the junta

De facto [109] Vacant throughout
presidency
From 19 to 21 July 1982, the presidency was fulfilled by a military triumvirate headed by Ángel Mariscal, Natalio Morales, and Óscar Pammo Rodríguez. [lower-alpha 39]
59 21 July 1982

10 October 1982
Ceded command
Guido Vildoso.jpg Guido Vildoso Military Receives command

from the junta

De facto [111] Vacant throughout
presidency
10 October 1982

6 August 1985
End of term
46 - Hernan Siles Zuazo.jpg Hernán Siles
Zuazo
MNRI General Election of 1980 [lower-alpha 40] Constitutional Jaime Paz
Zamora
Vacant after
14 Dec. 1984
6 August 1985

6 August 1989
End of term
45 - Victor Paz Estenssoro (CROPPED1).jpg Víctor Paz
Estenssoro
MNR General Election of 1985 Constitutional [113] Julio Garrett
Ayllón
606 August 1989

6 August 1993
End of term
Jaime Paz Zamora.jpg Jaime Paz
Zamora
MIR General Election of 1989 Constitutional [114] Luis Ossio
616 August 1993

6 August 1997
End of term
Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada-Agencia BrasilAntonio Cruz.jpg Gonzalo Sánchez
de Lozada
MNR General Election of 1993 Constitutional [115] Víctor Hugo
Cárdenas
6 August 1997

7 August 2001
Resigned from office
51 - Hugo Banzer.jpg Hugo Banzer ADN General Election of 1997 Constitutional [116] Jorge Quiroga
62 7 August 2001

6 August 2002
End of term
Jorge Quiroga Inter-American 2019 cropped.jpg Jorge Quiroga ADN Succeeded to office according

to Constitutional laws
(Vice President of Hugo Banzer)

Constitutional [117] Vacant throughout
presidency
6 August 2002

17 October 2003
Resigned from office
Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada-Agencia BrasilAntonio Cruz.jpg Gonzalo Sánchez
de Lozada
MNR General Election of 2002 Constitutional Carlos Mesa
6317 October 2003

9 June 2005
Resigned from office
Carlos Mesa Independent Succeeded to office according

to Constitutional laws
(Vice President of Gonzalo Sánchez
de Lozada
)

Constitutional [118] Vacant throughout
presidency
649 June 2005

22 January 2006
End of mandate
Eduardo Rodriguez Veltze en la XV Cumbre Iberoamericana (cropped).jpg Eduardo Rodríguez
Veltzé
Independent Succeeded to office according

to Constitutional laws
(President of the Supreme Court of Justice)

Interim [119] Vacant throughout
presidency
65 22 January 2006

22 January 2010
Legal change
Evo Morales Ayma (cropped 3).jpg Evo Morales MAS-IPSP General Election of 2005 Constitutional [120] Álvaro García
Linera

Plurinational State of Bolivia (2009–present)

The emergence of the Plurinational State occurred as a consequence of the promulgation of the Political Constitution of 2009. Drafted by the Constituent Assembly in 2007, the new constitution was approved in a popular referendum on 25 January 2009, and was promulgated on 7 February. The Constitution resulted in a change in the official name of the country, leaving behind its previous denominative of Republic of Bolivia to become the Plurinational State of Bolivia. In order to comply with the structural changes of the new constitution, it was decided to advance the general elections to be held on 6 December 2009, with Evo Morales winning again, with 64.22% of the votes. This situation made Evo Morales Ayma the last president of the Republic and the first of the Plurinational State.

Presidency [lower-alpha 2] PresidentPartyDesignationGovernment [lower-alpha 3] Vice President
65 22 January 2010

10 November 2019
Resigned from office
under military pressure
Evo Morales Ayma (cropped 3).jpg Evo Morales MAS-IPSP General Election of 2009 Constitutional Álvaro García
Linera
General Election of 2014
Office vacant 10–12 November 2019. [lower-alpha 41]
6612 November 2019

8 November 2020
End of mandate
66 - Jeanine Anez.jpg Jeanine Áñez MDS Succeeded to office
according to Constitutional laws
(Second vice president of the Senate)
Interim [123] [124] Vacant throughout
presidency
67 8 November 2020

Incumbent
Luis Arce (23588020275) (cropped).jpg Luis Arce MAS-IPSP General Election of 2020 Constitutional David Choquehuanca

Timeline

Luis ArceJeanine ÁñezEvo MoralesEduardo Rodríguez (politician)Carlos MesaJorge QuirogaGonzalo Sánchez de LozadaJaime Paz ZamoraGuido VildosoNatalio MoralesÁngel Mariscal GómezCelso Torrelio

Luis García Meza TejadaLidiaGueiler TejadaAlberto NatuschWálter GuevaraDavid PadillaJuan PeredaGutemberg BarrosoAlfonso VillalpandoVictor González FuentesHugo BanzerJuan José TorresAlberto Albarracín CrespoFernando Sattori RiberaEfraín Guachalla IbáñezLuis Adolfo Siles SalinasAlfredo Ovando CandíaRené BarrientosHernán Siles ZuazoVíctor Paz EstenssoroHugo BalliviánMamerto UrriolagoitíaEnrique HertzogTomás MonjeNéstor GuillénGualberto VillarroelEnrique PeñarandaCarlos QuintanillaGermán BuschDavid ToroJosé Luis Tejada SorzanoDaniel Salamanca UreyCarlos Blanco GalindoEzequiel Romecín CalderónCarlos BanzerJosé Aguirre AcháAlberto Díez de MedinaFidel VegaFranklin MercadoGermán Antelo ArauzHernando Siles ReyesFelipe Segundo GuzmánBautista SaavedraJosé Manuel RamirezJosé Maria EscalierJosé Gutiérrez GuerraEliodoro VillazónIsmael MontesJosé Manuel PandoMacario Pinilla VargasSerapio Reyes OrtizSevero FérnandezMariano BaptistaAniceto ArceGregorioP achecoNarciso CamperoPedro José Domingo de GuerraHilarión DazaAdolfo BalliviánTomás Frias AmetllerAgustín MoralesMariano MelgarejoJosé Maria AcháManuel António SanchezRuperto FernándezJosé Maria LinaresJorge CórdovaManuel Isidoro BelzuEusebio Guilarte VeraJosé BalliviánMariano CalvoSebastián ÁgredaAndrés de Santa CruzPedro Blanco Soto

José Miguel de VelascoJosé María Pérez de UrdinineaAntonio José de SucreSimón Bolivar
List of presidents of Bolivia

Living former presidents

As of 19 July 2021, there are eight living former presidents:

The most recent death of a former president was that of Luis García Meza (1980–1981) on 29 April 2018; he was 88 years old. [125]

See also

Notes

  1. Morales is described as the first indigenous president of Bolivia in academic studies of his presidency, such as those of Muñoz-Pogossian, [4] Webber, [5] Philip and Panizza, [6] and Farthing and Kohl, [7] as well as in press reports, such as those of BBC News. However, there have been challenges to this claim by critics who have asserted that Morales probably has some European ancestry, and thus on genetic grounds is technically mestizo rather than solely indigenous. [8] Further, former president Enrique Peñaranda was of substantially indigenous origin. Harten asserted that this argument was "misguided[,] wrong[... and] above all irrelevant" because regardless of his genetic makeup, the majority of Bolivians perceive Morales as being the first indigenous president. [8] In Bolivian society, indigeneity is a fluid concept rooted in cultural identity; [8] for instance, many indigenous individuals that have settled in urban areas and abandoned their traditional rural customs have come to identify as mestizo. [9]
  2. 1 2 3 Presidents are numbered according to the first period of time served. For example, Tomás Frías served two nonconsecutive terms but is counted only as the seventeenth president (not the seventeenth and nineteenth). A vice president who temporarily becomes acting president is not counted, because the president remains in office during such a period. Military triumvirates in which multiple people lead are not counted but singular presidents of a junta are. René Barrientos and Alfredo Ovando were briefly co-presidents but are counted separately. Interim presidents are counted.
  3. 1 2 3 In Bolivia, presidents are divided between two groups. The first are what are classified as "Constitucionales" having come to power legally or through quasi-legal means (achieving power through a revolution or coup d’état but later constitutionalised). The rest are either de facto having come to power militarily and never constitutionalised, or interim having been placed in power only until a new president is chosen. Interim presidents have been both constitutional and de facto. [15]
  4. The question of whether Simón Bolívar or Antonio José de Sucre should be considered the first president of Bolivia is a source of dispute. [16]
  5. The government of José María Pérez de Urdininea was not a succession but a temporary delegation of command, while Sucre was recovering from a gunshot wound to his arm, which occurred in the Mutiny of 18 April 1828. [22] [23]
  6. On 12 August 1829, Congress elected Andrés de Santa Cruz as president and José Miguel de Velasco as vice president. As Santa Cruz was in Santiago, Velasco became interim president in his absence. However, Santa Cruz never appeared with Velasco remaining as interim president until the convening of a Conventional Assembly to elect new leaders [24]
  7. Andrés de Santa Cruz assumed the position of Supreme Protector of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation in parallel with that of the presidency of Bolivia. On 23 July 1835, Mariano Enrique Calvo is appointed vice president. In 1836, he assumes the acting presidency of Bolivia in Santa Cruz's absence, in order to act as the representative of the Bolivian State in the Confederation, while Santa Cruz was in Lima governing the Confederation.
  8. Dictatorial measures had already been adopted by 7 September. [41]
  9. On 9 September 1857, José María Linares was proclaimed president in Oruro rising militarily against the government of Jorge Córdova. Córdova and his forces were finally defeated by the Linaristas in Cochabamba on 27 September.
  10. Adolfo Ballivián resigned from office on account of his stomach cancer. Tomás Frías took the presidency on an interim basis. Ballivián died 2 weeks later on 14 February 1874, at which point Frías became Constitutional president. [52] [53]
  11. On 17 April 1879, Hilarión Daza ceded command of the government to his Council of Ministers, chaired by Pedro José de Guerra, and took the lead of the Bolivian troops during the War of the Pacific. The Council of Ministers in charge of the Executive Power ended its mandate with the death of de Guerra in September of that year, leaving the Ministry of Government and Foreign Relations vacant, later occupied by Serapio Reyes Ortiz. It is not clear whether Reyes Ortiz presided over the new Council of Ministers. Hilarión Daza is generally regarded as the president who was overthrown in December 1879.
  12. Narciso Campero had no official affiliation with any party but held Liberal tendencies. [56]
  13. On 31 May 1880, Narciso Campero was appointed Constitutional president and Aniceto Arce and Belisario Salinas were appointed first and second vice presidents respectively. This began a period of dual-vice presidency which lasted until the presidency of José Gutiérrez Guerra after which the practice came to an end.
  14. Though elected as part of the Democratic party, Pacheco ruled in coalition with the Conservatives and supported the electoral campaign of Aniceto Arce in 1888. [60]
  15. The second vice presidency remains vacant due to the death of the elected citizen Juan Federico Zuazo before taking office. [62]
  16. In the general election of 4 May 1908, the Liberal Fernando Eloy Guachalla is elected president with Eufronio Viscarra and Fidel Valdez elected first and second vice president respectively. However, Guachalla would die of natural causes before assuming office. Though vice president-elect Eufronio Viscarra tried to claim the right to succession, Ismael Montes decided to extend his mandate for another year and annul the election. [65]
  17. In the general elections of 2 May 1925, the Republican José Gabino Villanueva was elected president and Abdón Saavedra elected vice president. However, both Villanueva and Saavedra would be denounced for not having resigned from their public positions 6 months before their application of candidacy. As a consequence, the general elections were annulled. President of the National Senate Felipe Segundo Guzmán assumed the presidency on an interim basis until new elections could be called. [71]
  18. In 1926, Hernando Siles Reyes split with the Saavedristas of the Socialist Republican Party (PRS) and formed the Nationalist Party (PN) on 29 December 1926. [72]
  19. On 28 May 1930, Hernando Siles Reyes resigned and left command of the country to his cabinet with the idea that it would immediately convene a constituent assembly that would amend the Constitution and reelect him. However, the cabinet could not weather the storm of popular discontent and was deposed by a coup d'état on 28 June at which point Carlos Blanco Galindo became interim president. [73]
  20. On 27 November 1934, as a result of disputes with his high command over the conduct of the Chaco War, Daniel Salamanca was forced to resign while visiting the front line. The army decided to keep up democratic appearances and instead of taking power directly, Vice President José Luis Tejada was allowed to succeed to the presidency. [74] Though Tejada assumed the office of president on 28 November 1934, his term officially started on 1 December when Salamanca's official resignation arrived. [75] [76]
  21. In the general election of 11 November 1934, the Genuine Republican Franz Tamayo was elected president with Rafael de Ugarte elected vice president. Given the coup which occurred against Salamanca two weeks later, the results were annulled. [77] Though as vice president José Luis Tejada Sorzanoa could Constitutionally succeed Salamanca, the annulment of the 1934 results makes his presidency unconstitutional. [78] However, official records of the time names Tejada Sorzano Constitutional President of the Republic. [79]
  22. Though not an official party, Military Socialism is an expression used in Bolivia to refer to the military governments of Toro and Busch. It was a coalition between the army, labor movements, and left parties. [81]
  23. Though generally accepted today that Germán Busch committed suicide, there was and is still controversy over whether he was in fact assassinated by his brother-in-law on behalf of conservative elements of the military. [82]
  24. On 23 August 1939, Germán Busch committed suicide. Though Vice President Enrique Baldivieso tried to convince the military chiefs to allow him to assume the presidency, General Quintanilla was soon elevated to the position on the basis that since Busch had declared himself dictator four months prior, the constitutional order was thus null and void.
  25. Concordance was a coalition of the traditionalist Liberal (PL), Genuine Republican (PRG), and Socialist Republican (PRS) parties created in order to consolidate the vote for the 1940 general elections. [87]
  26. Razón de Patria, or Fatherland's Cause (RADEPA), while not a political party, was a military faction of young officers inspired by the Military Socialist governments of David Toro and Germán Busch.
  27. On 21 July 1946, Gualberto Villarroel was deposed and murdered by a mob in La Paz during a popular uprising. Upon the death of Villarroel, the alliance of forces that had toppled him settled on the President of the Supreme Court of Justice, Tomás Monje Gutiérrez, as interim president. Since Monje was ill at the time, the Attorney General of La Paz, Néstor Guillén, filled in for him as interim president for fewer than four weeks, whereupon Monje was sworn-in.
  28. In 1949, PURS leadership lost confidence in Hertzog and forced his resignation on 22 October in favor of his vice president, Mamerto Urriolagoitía, under the pretext of a non-existent disease. Urriolagoitía held executive power immediately after Hertzog's resignation but his term officially started two days later following his inauguration on 24 October. [91]
  29. In the general elections of 6 May 1951, the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (MNR) party candidate Víctor Paz Estenssoro and Hernán Siles Zuazo won the majority. However, since neither the MNR nor PURS won an absolute majority of votes, the National Congress was constitutionally obliged to elect a president from the top three contenders. Faced with the possibility that Estenssoro might still win, Mamerto Urriolagoitía resigned in a self-coup in favor of the army which annulled the election results. [92]
  30. On 9 April 1952, the Bolivian National Revolution of 1952 saw the MNR, victors of the annulled 1951 general election, take power by force. On 11 April, Hugo Ballivián was ousted and Hernán Siles Zuazo, the 1951 vice presidential candidate, took the presidency in the absence of Víctor Paz Estenssoro who was in exile in Buenos Aires. On 15 April, Siles handed Paz Estenssoro the presidential sash, thus respecting the result of the 1951 presidential elections. [94]
  31. In late October 1964, Víctor Paz Estenssoro asked the army to quell a miner uprising. This, drove his own vice president, René Barrientos, and General Alfredo Ovando to launch a coup d'état on 4 November. However, Alfredo Ovando was prevented from taking power as president of the junta due to pressure of the masses who accused him of having allowed Paz Estenssoro to flee the country. For this reason, René Barrientos assumed the presidency instead. [95]
  32. On 2 January 1966, René Barrientos resigned as co-president in order to run in the 1966 general elections that coming July. Alfredo Ovando Candía became singular president from this point.
  33. Although both René Barrientos and Alfredo Ovando exercised leadership in the military junta, due to the events of 5 November, Barrientos held the singular presidency of the junta. However, faced with discontent from Ovando loyalists, Barrientos established the co-presidency between himself and Ovando on 26 May 1965. This is the only example of two presidents ruling at once in Bolivian history. [97]
  34. On 27 April 1969, René Barrientos died in a helicopter crash when his helicopter collided with telegraph wires. There is controversy whether his death was truly an accident or a plot by Alfredo Ovando Candía who would soon overthrow Barrientos' successor, Vice President Luis Adolfo Siles. [98]
  35. On 6 October 1970, Alfredo Ovando was deposed in a coup d'état led by the chiefs of the army, air force, and navy. The military triumvirate was quickly defeated by Ovando loyalists led by Juan José Torres. Ovando agreed not to return to the presidency, entrusting it with Torres. [102]
  36. Under pressure from the Carter administration, Hugo Banzer held the general elections of 9 July 1978. The Nationalist Union of the People (UNP) coalition candidate Juan Pereda won with a few thousand votes enough to win the presidency outright without requiring a run off. The election was blatantly rigged against leftist ex-president Hernán Siles Zuazo and the results were annulled and the electoral fraud blamed on Pereda who in turn staged a rebellion. Banzer was forced to resign in favor of a triumvirate of his military chiefs who themselves were deposed in a coup d'état which installed Juan Pereda as president on 21 July 1978. [104]
  37. In the general elections of 1 July 1979, neither the Democratic and Popular Union coalition candidate Hernán Siles Zuazo nor the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement–Alliance (MNR) coalition candidate Víctor Paz Estenssoro reached 40% of the vote. Since neither won an absolute majority of votes, the National Congress was constitutionally obliged to elect a president from the top three contenders but could not reach an agreement and instead elected the President of the Senate Wálter Guevara as interim president until new elections could be called. [106]
  38. On 1 November 1979, Wálter Guevara was deposed by Alberto Natusch. However, Natusch faced popular opposition from both the government and the people forcing him to resign after just 16 days. In order to save face, he extracted from Congress the condition that Guevara would not be allowed to resume the post of interim presidency and Lidia Gueiler Tejada, president of the lower chamber, was elected interim president instead.
  39. On 19 July 1982, the repressive government of Celso Torrelio is asked to resign in favor of a military junta which on 21 July appoints Guido Vildoso to take the office of the presidency until the country can transition to democracy. [110]
  40. On 10 October 1982, the military government of Guido Vildoso recognized the results of the annulled 1980 general elections and handed command to Hernán Siles Zuazo. [112]
  41. In the general election of 10 October 2019, Evo Morales won reelection but was accused of electoral fraud by the OAS. Following protests, Morales and top MAS leadership resigned and left La Paz to Chimoré, resulting in a political crisis in which Bolivia experienced a period of lack of government and misrule. Between 10 and 12 November it came to the Legislature in session to accept or reject the resignation of Morales and elect a new president, but given the absence of assemblymen of the Movement for Socialism, who demanded guarantees for meetings [121] the Plurinational Constitutional Court intervened and recognized the de facto proclamation of second vice president of the Senate, opposition senator Jeanine Áñez, as interim president by constitutional succession, through a Constitutional Sentence. [122]

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Cabinet of Germán Busch Bolivian presidential administration and ministerial cabinet from 1937 to 1939

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Cabinet of Enrique Hertzog Bolivian presidential administration and ministerial cabinet from 1947 to 1949

Enrique Hertzog assumed office as the 42nd president of Bolivia on 10 March 1947, and his term ended upon his resignation on 22 October 1949. A physician who served in various ministerial positions since the 1920s, Hertzog was elected as the head of the Republican Socialist Unity Party (PURS) ticket in the 1947 general elections.

The Government Junta of Bolivia was a civil-military junta which ruled Bolivia from 20 December 1943 through 5 April 1944. It consisted of representatives of the armed forces through the Reason for Fatherland (RADEPA) military lodge as well as members of the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (MNR). The President of the Junta was Colonel Gualberto Villarroel who came to power after a coup d'état which overthrew the government of Enrique Peñaranda. Immediately upon its inception, the junta faced a diplomatic blockade by the United States who viewed the MNR as sympathetic to the fascist powers of World War II and as such led the rest of Latin America in refusing to recognize the new regime until all members of the MNR were removed from the administration. After months of attempted negotiations and the removal of several cabinet ministers, the government finally relented and dismissed all remaining MNR members, dissolving the junta and entrusting Villarroel with the provisional Presidency of the Republic on 5 April 1944.

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