President of Bolivia

Last updated

President of the
Plurinational State of Bolivia
Presidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
Escudo de Bolivia.svg
Coat of arms of Bolivia
Luis Arce (23588020275) (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Luis Arce

since 8 November 2020
Style The Most Excellent [1]
(Formal)
His Excellency
(Diplomatic)
Status Head of State
Head of Government
Residence Casa Grande del Pueblo
Seat La Paz
Nominator Plurinational Electoral Organ
Appointer Direct popular vote (two rounds if necessary)
Term length Five years
renewable once
Inaugural holder Simón Bolívar
Formation11 August 1825
First holder Evo Morales [lower-alpha 1]
Deputy Vice President of Bolivia
Salary24,251 bolivianos per month [2]
Website www.presidencia.gob.bo

The President of Bolivia (Spanish : Presidente de Bolivia), officially known as the President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish : Presidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is head of state and head of government of Bolivia and the Captain General of the Armed Forces of Bolivia.

Contents

According to the Bolivian Constitution, the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year term with a two-term limit. [3] If no candidate wins a majority (defined as either more than 50%, or alternatively at least 40% and at least 10% more than the second-place candidate), the top two candidates advance to a runoff election.

Luis Arce is the 67th and incumbent President of Bolivia. He assumed office on 8 November 2020.

Constitutional history

Establishment

On 6 August 1825, the Republic of Bolivia declared its independence and proclaimed Simón Bolívar head of state. While it is certainly true that Bolívar was the official ruler of the country starting from his arrival on 12 August, there exists conflict amongst scholars as to whether he should be considered the first president of the republic. [4] According to the research of the Bolivian historian Isaac Sandoval, in his book "Political development in the social formation of Bolivia" it is affirmed that the first president of Bolivia was not Bolívar, but Antonio José de Sucre. This is due to the fact that Bolívar is never referred to as president in legal documents and was never sworn-in having renounced the title in favor of Sucre on 29 December 1825. Sucre, on the other hand, was president when the country's first Constitution was promulgated on 19 November 1826. [5]

Historian and author of the book "Presidents of Bolivia: Between urns and rifles" Carlos Mesa asserts that Bolívar was indeed the first president and that the lack of mention of him with the title is due to the fact the term "president" was not in common use in legal documents at the time. Mesa points to the Congressional decree of 11 August 1825 which proclaims Bolívar "liberator" granting him "Supreme Executive Power of the Republic." Whatever the case, the position of Simón Bolívar as the first president is the most generally accepted stance.

The Political Constitution of 1826, also known as the Bolivarian Constitution, was the first constitutional text prepared by Simón Bolívar, sanctioned by the General Constituent Congress on 6 November 1826 and promulgated by Antonio José de Sucre on 19 November 1826. [6] In this first instance, the presidency constituted a lifetime position with the power to elect and appoint a successor. The lifetime position was repealed during the presidency of Andrés de Santa Cruz who promulgated the Political Constitution of 1831. [7] Instead, the president would serve for a four-year term of government with the ability to be reelected unlimitedly.

2009 Political Constitution

The 2009 Political Constitution, approved by referendum on 25 January 2009 and promulgated by President Evo Morales on 7 February resulted in the official name of the country, leaving behind its previous denominative of Republic of Bolivia to become the Plurinational State of Bolivia. [8] As such, Evo Morales became was the 65th and last President of the Republic and the first President of the State. The Constitution extended the term of the president from four years to five years while keeping the two-term limit. On 21 February 2016, a proposal to abolish term limits failed to pass via constitutional referendum by a margin of 51% to 49%. [9] Despite this, on 28 November 2017, the Supreme Tribunal of Justice ruled that all elected officials could run for office indefinitely, rather than for the two consecutive terms permitted under the 2009 Constitution. The court justified its decision based on the American Convention on Human Rights’ interpretation of political rights. [10]

Prior to 2009, if no candidate won more than half of the popular vote, the president was chosen by a vote in a joint legislative session from among the top two candidates (prior to 1995, the top three). This system led to multiple times in which the loser of the popular vote, once even the third place finisher, were elected president. This was replaced by a two-round system in which if no party won more than half of the popular vote in the first electoral round, the top two contenders would run in a runoff election.

Incumbency

Vacancies and succession

Of the 67 people who have served as President of Bolivia, 13 (19%) died by tragic means. 5 died in office, 3 by assassination; Pedro Blanco Soto was shot while trying to escape custody, Agustín Morales was shot in self-defense after he attacked one of his military assistants, and Gualberto Villarroel was lynched outside the government palace. Germán Busch committed suicide and René Barrientos died in a helicopter crash, both deaths are rumored to have been planned assassinations. [11] [12] A further 8 former presidents were assassinated in various ways after leaving office.

Line of succession

According to Article 169 I of the 2009 Constitution: "In the event of an impediment or definitive absence of the president, he or she shall be replaced by the vice president and, in the absence of the latter, by the president of the Senate, and in his or her absence by the president of the Chamber of Deputies. In this last case, new elections shall be called within a maximum period of 90 days. [13]

Historically there have been multiple periods of time during different constitutions in which the office of vice president has been rendered nonexistant and more still in which the office was vacant. Between 26 October 1839 and 15 February 1878, the office of vice president was abolished with the president of the Senate being the first in the line of succession. [14] During this time, Eusebio Guilarte and Tomás Frías Ametller both came to power in their capacity as President of the Council of State.

Interim president

Rather than complete the previous president's term, interim presidents have held office until new elections could be held even if that period of time runs past or cuts short the previous president's term. José María Pérez de Urdininea, Felipe Segundo Guzmán, Carlos Blanco Galindo, Carlos Quintanilla, Néstor Guillén, Tomás Monje, Wálter Guevara, Lidia Gueiler Tejada, Eduardo Rodríguez and most recently Jeanine Áñez all came to power as interim presidents due to the fact the previous president had resigned, been deposed, died, or otherwise left office and new elections had to be held to elect a valid successor.

José Miguel de Velasco Franco was initially the acting president in the absence of Andrés de Santa Cruz but became interim president due to the fact Santa Cruz never arrived to be sworn-in, forcing a new president to have to be elected by Congress.

Acting president

In the case of temporary incapacity or absence from the country, the title of Acting President (Spanish : Presidente en ejercicio) is transferred to lower officials according to the order of presidential succession. In September 2012, Senate president Gabriela Montaño became the first woman to assume this office, during the presidency of Evo Morales. [15] José Miguel de Velasco Franco, Mariano Enrique Calvo, and Pedro José Domingo de Guerra were acting presidents for particularly long periods of time of multiple months or, in the case of Enrique Calvo, multiple years.

The Casa Grande del Pueblo is current residence of the President of Bolivia. Plaza Murillo .jpg
The Casa Grande del Pueblo is current residence of the President of Bolivia.

Residence

The Palacio Quemado, in English "Burnt Palace," in the legal capital of La Paz was the official residence of the President of Bolivia from 1853 to 2018. Its nickname originates from the fact that it was set aflame and burned almost to the ground when rebels in opposition to Tomás Frías Ametller failed to storm it and instead opted to light it on fire in 1875. It has since been rebuilt and redecorated a number of times, but the name stuck. At the end of 2018, it ceased to function as the headquarters of the government offices, with plans to turn it instead into a museum. [16] Briefly occupied again from 2019 to 2020, it has since returned to being a museum.

In 2018, the official residence of the president was moved by President Evo Morales to the Casa Grande del Pueblo, known in English as the "Great House of the People", replacing the Palacio Quemado as the seat of the Executive Branch of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. [17] Inaugurated on 9 August 2018, the building houses the president as well as various government ministries. In 2019, Interim President Jeanine Áñez refused to use the new building and returned operations to the Palacio Quemado, though the ministries and other government offices continued to operate within the new building. The Casa Grande returned to being the residence of the president upon the inauguration of Luis Arce on 8 November 2020.

Travel

The Colorados of Bolivia in their traditional uniform. Colorados de bolivia.jpg
The Colorados of Bolivia in their traditional uniform.

The transportation of the President of Bolivia is the charge of the Bolivian Presidential Air Group, for the transportation of the president at the national short-range level the EC145 helicopter is used, for national and international transportation the Falcon 900EX EASY aircraft is used, both manufactured by Dassault Aviation (France) that make up part of the Bolivian Air Force's aircraft.

Protection

The Presidential Bodyguard is made up of the RI-1 Colorados of Bolivia infantry regiment, which is a military unit of the Bolivian Army whose specific mission is to protect the security and physical integrity of the President of Bolivia and whose charge is the custody of the Palace of Government and Presidential Residence .

It has two infantry battalions, the BI-201 and BI-202, with their respective barracks, both located in the city of La Paz. The Calama headquarters is located on the street on the same name where the unit's headquarters and the recruitment center operate and the Mirador barracks with a seat on the Quilli Quilli hill. The Villa Pavón area is a training center in various areas of specialization such as assault, support, protection of people, first aid, etc. There are also bedrooms in the Casa Grande del Pueblo for the soldiers who watch and stand guard at the government palace at night.

Political history

Since its independence in 1825, Bolivia has been ruled by key figures in the fight for independence, leaders of the War of the Pacific, representatives of the aristocracy, military dictators and democratically elected leaders. Due to the complexities in the rise to power of these individuals, in Bolivia presidents are divided between two groups. The first are what are classified as "Constitucionales" having come to power legally or through quasi-legal means (achieving power through a revolution or coup d'état but later constitutionalised). [18] The rest are known as de facto presidents, having come to power militarily and never constitutionalised. A third category belongs to interim presidents, placed in power only until a new president is chosen. Interim presidents have historically been both constitutional or de facto depending on the legality of their rise to the office.

Throughout Bolivian history, there have been six periods of time in 1839, 1841, 1848, 1879-1880, and most recently in 2019 in which there has been no head of state. Seven governments were made up of triumvirates: 1861, 1899, 1920-1921, 1970, 1978, 1981, and 1982. For one month in 1928, Hernando Siles Reyes' cabinet ruled the country being the only time when a constituted government was not presided over by an agent. In 1965, faced with discontent from loyalists of Alfredo Ovando Candía, President René Barrientos established the co-presidency between himself and Ovando on 26 May 1965. This is the only example of two presidents ruling at once in Bolivian history and it lasted until 2 January 1966 when Barrientos resigned to run for president in the upcoming general elections. [19]

In 1983, a poll was taken by Última Hora newspaper to determine which seven historical presidents were regarded as most significant. The "winners" were Antonio José de Sucre, Andrés de Santa Cruz, Manuel Isidoro Belzu, Mariano Melgarejo, Aniceto Arce, Ismael Montes, and Víctor Paz Estenssoro.

Evo Morales is considered Bolivia's first indigenous president. Evo Morales 2017.jpg
Evo Morales is considered Bolivia's first indigenous president.
Lidia Gueiler Tejada was Bolivia's first female president. Lidia Gueiler Tejada.png
Lidia Gueiler Tejada was Bolivia's first female president.

Sucre oversaw the early developments of the country with the promulgation of the Political Constitution of 1826. Andrés de Santa Cruz oversaw the unification of Bolivia with Peru to become the Peru-Bolivian Confederation in 1836. His term as Supreme Protector of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation saw the height of the political power of Bolivia on the South American continent though it would ultimately end in failure and the separation of the two states. Manuel Isidoro Belzu was perhaps amongst the most populist Bolivian presidents, attempting to modernize the country through division of wealth. The dictatorship of Mariano Melgarejo saw brutal repression of opposition and Bolivia's indigenous population. Following the War of the Pacific, Aniceto Arce and Ismael Montes would respectivaley become influential leaders in the Conservative and Liberal eras. Víctor Paz Estenssoro led the 1952 National Revolution and founded the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (MNR) which heavily influenced Bolivian politics in the second half of the 20th century.

Indigenous presidents

Evo Morales is described as the first indigenous president of Bolivia in academic studies of his presidency, such as those of Muñoz-Pogossian, [20] Webber, [21] Philip and Panizza, [22] and Farthing and Kohl, [23] as well as in press reports, such as those of BBC News. However, there have been challenges to this claim by critics who have asserted that Morales probably has some European ancestry, and thus on genetic grounds is technically mestizo rather than solely indigenous. [24] Further, former president Enrique Peñaranda was of substantially indigenous origin while Andrés de Santa Cruz, was of Aymara and Inca lineage. Harten asserted that this argument was "misguided[,] wrong[... and] above all irrelevant" because regardless of his genetic makeup, the majority of Bolivians perceive Morales as being the first indigenous president. [24] In Bolivian society, indigeneity is a fluid concept rooted in cultural identity; [24] for instance, many indigenous individuals that have settled in urban areas and abandoned their traditional rural customs have come to identify as mestizo. [25]

Women presidents

Two women have served as presidents of the country. Lidia Gueiler Tejada became the first female President of Bolivia (second in the history of the Americas) on 16 November 1979 following a brief coup by Alberto Natusch. Jeanine Añez was the second and most recent female president from 12 November 2019 to 8 November 2020. Both women came to power in similar ways, taking office on an interim basis as members of Congress. As of yet, however, no woman has been elected president by popular vote in Bolivian history.

Elections

See article: Bolivian general election, 2020

PartyPresidential candidateVotes%ChamberSenate
Seats+/–Seats+/–
Movement for Socialism Luis Arce 3,304,70054.8875Increase2.svg 821Steady2.svg
Civic Community Carlos Mesa 1,740,30628.9039Decrease2.svg 1111Decrease2.svg 3
Creemos Luis Fernando Camacho 853,38914.1516New4New
Front For Victory Chi Hyun Chung 92,8321.540Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
National Action Party of BoliviaFeliciano Mamani30,8600.510Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
Invalid/blank votes316,709
Total6,338,8251001300360
Registered voters/turnout7,332,926
Source: OEP (97.84% counted)

See also

Notes

  1. While Simón Bolívar was the inaugural holder of the office of President of Bolivia, Evo Morales was the first President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia in its current form.

Related Research Articles

Bolivia Landlocked country in South America

Bolivia, officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The constitutional capital is Sucre, while the seat of government and executive capital is La Paz. The largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales, a mostly flat region in the east of the country.

Politics of Bolivia

The politics of Bolivia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the president is head of state, head of government and head of a diverse multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. Both the Judiciary and the electoral branch are independent of the executive and the legislature. After the 2014 election, 53.1% of the seats in national parliament were held by women, a higher proportion of women than that of the population.

Flag of Bolivia National flag

The flag of Bolivia is the national flag of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. It was originally adopted in 1851. The state and war flag is a horizontal tricolor of red, yellow and green with the Bolivian coat of arms in the center. According to one source, the red stands for Bolivia's brave soldiers, while the green symbolizes fertility and yellow the nation's mineral deposits. Along with the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Afghanistan, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and El Salvador it is one of eight national flags in the world which has a depiction of its flag within the flag itself. It is one of four national flags among UN member states that features a firearm, along with those of Mozambique, Haiti and Guatemala.

Elections in Bolivia

Elections in Bolivia gives information on elections and election results in Bolivia.

Constitution of Bolivia

The current Constitution of Bolivia came into effect on 7 February 2009 when it was promulgated by President Evo Morales, after being approved in a referendum with 90.24% participation. The referendum was held on 25 January 2009, with the constitution being approved by 61.43% of voters.

Vice President of Bolivia

The Vice President of Bolivia, officially known as the Vice President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is the second highest political position in Bolivia. The vice president replaces the president in his definitive absence or others impediment and is the President of the Legislative Assembly.

Palacio Quemado Former official residence of the President of Bolivia (1853–2018, 2019–2020)

The Bolivian Palace of Government, better known as Palacio Quemado, was the official residence of the President of Bolivia from 1853 to 2018 and again briefly from 2019 to 2020. It is located in downtown La Paz on Plaza Murillo, next to the La Paz Cathedral and across from the Bolivian legislature. On 9 August 2018, it was replaced by the Casa Grande del Pueblo as the residence of the president by President Evo Morales. The interim government of Jeanine Áñez briefly reverted to occupying the Palacio Quemado from 2019 until 2020 when the newly elected Luis Arce returned to using the Casa Grande. It now serves as a museum.

2009 Bolivian constitutional referendum

A constitutional referendum was held in Bolivia on 25 January 2009, postponed from the initially planned dates of 4 May 2008 and then 7 December 2008. Drafted by the Constituent Assembly in 2007, the new constitution was approved in the referendum according to an exit poll by Ipsos Apoyo for La Razón and ATB, a Bolivian television network. Furthermore, it required early elections to be held on 6 December 2009.

Bolivia has recognised same-sex civil unions since 9 December 2020.

Constitutional history of Bolivia

Bolivia has had seventeen constitutions, including the present one, since its foundation in 1825.

President of the Chamber of Deputies of Bolivia

The president of the Chamber of Deputies is the presiding officer of the lower chamber of the National Congress of Bolivia. The president is currently elected for a one-year term.

2016 Bolivian constitutional referendum Bolivian referendum

A constitutional referendum was held in Bolivia on Sunday, 21 February 2016. The proposed constitutional amendments would have allowed the president and vice president to run for a third consecutive term under the 2009 Constitution. The referendum was voted down by a 51.3% majority.

Gabriela Montaño

Lilly Gabriela Montaño Viaña is a Bolivian physician, politician, and former senator. She was the elected President of the Plurinational Legislative Assembly, a position she accepted and would hold until 2020 while still the presidential representative of Santa Cruz de la Sierra for the Movement for Socialism (MAS) party. In 2012, Montaño was made the acting President of Bolivia for a short time. Montaño is a feminist and vocal defender of the rights of the LGBT community. She has been a regular guest and speaker at forums and conferences in different parts of the world. She married Argentine citizen Fabián Restivo, with whom she has had two daughters.

Casa Grande del Pueblo Bolivian presidential residence

The Casa Grande del Pueblo, is the Bolivian presidential residence (palace) that replaced the Palacio Quemado in 2018. Inaugurated on 9 August 2018 during the presidency of Evo Morales as the official residence of the President of Bolivia, the interim government of Jeanine Áñez reverted to occupying the Palacio Quemado from 2019 to 2020. Following the inauguration of Luis Arce on 8 November 2020, it has again become the residence of the president.

2019 Bolivian protests Protests against electoral fraud allegations in the 2019 Bolivian elections

The 2019 Bolivian protests were protests and marches from 21 October 2019 until late November of that year in Bolivia, in response to claims of electoral fraud in the 2019 general election of 20 October. Additionally, after 11 November 2019 there were protests by supporters of the outgoing government in response to Jeanine Áñez becoming the acting president of Bolivia. The claims of fraud were made after the suspension of the preliminary vote count, in which incumbent Evo Morales was not leading by a large enough margin (10%) to avoid a runoff, and the subsequent publication of the official count, in which Morales won by just over 10%. Some international observers expressed concern over the integrity of the elections.

2019 Bolivian political crisis series of resignations by Bolivias highest political leaders following disputed election results

The 2019 Bolivian political crisis occurred on 10 November 2019, after 21 days of civil protests following the disputed 2019 Bolivian general election and the release of a report from the Organization of American States (OAS), which alleged irregularities in the electoral process. The military and the police of Bolivia forced president Evo Morales to resign. He complied, accompanied by other resignations by high-level politicians throughout the day, some citing fears for the safety of their families. The government of Mexico offered political asylum to Morales the following day, which Morales accepted a day afterwards.

Jeanine Áñez 66th President of Bolivia

Jeanine Áñez Chávez is a Bolivian politician and lawyer who served as the 66th President of Bolivia on an interim basis from 2019 to 2020. Áñez was previously a senator from the northeastern department of Beni from 2010 to 2019. She was Bolivia's second female president after Lidia Gueiler Tejada. She is a member of Ahora! (Now), a branch of the National Unity Front.

Bolivia has experienced more than 190 coups d'état and revolutions since its independence in 1825. Since 1950, Bolivia has seen the most coups of any other country. The last known attempt was in 1984, four years after the country's transition to democracy in 1980. However, the 2019 Bolivian political crisis which resulted in the resignation of President Evo Morales has been described by international observers and allies of Morales as a coup.

The First Lady or First Gentleman of Bolivia is the title usually attributed to the wife or husband of the President of Bolivia, or official designee in place of a spouse. She or he fulfills official protocol functions when accompanying the president.

References

  1. (PDF). 27 September 2012 https://web.archive.org/web/20120927014351/http://www.un.int/protocol/documents/Hspmfm.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2020.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. PAZ/ANF, LA. "El salario del Presidente sube de 22.987 a 24.251 bolivianos". Opinión Bolivia (in Spanish).
  3. "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  4. Mendoza, Luz. "¿Quién fue el primer presidente de Bolivia?; se enciende el debate por el cargo de Simón Bolívar". eju.tv (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  5. "Primera Constitucion Política de Bolivia o Constitución Bolivariana". APUNTES JURIDICOS™. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  6. "Bolivia: Constitución política de 1826, 19 de noviembre de 1826". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  7. "Bolivia: Constitución política de 1831, 14 de agosto de 1831". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  8. "Bolivia: Constitución Política del Estado de 2009, 7 de febrero de 2009". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  9. Watts, Dan Collyns Jonathan; correspondent, Latin America; agencies, and (24 February 2016). "Bolivian referendum goes against Evo Morales as voters reject fourth term". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  10. "Bolivia Says Goodbye to Term Limits". NACLA. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  11. "Conmoción y duda: ¿fue la muerte de Germán Busch un suicidio?". www.paginasiete.bo (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  12. "¿René Barrientos fue víctima de un magnicidio?". www.paginasiete.bo (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  13. "Artículo 169: En caso de impedimento o ausencia definitiva de la Presidenta o del Presidente del Estado, será reemplazada o reemplazado en el cargo por la Vicepresidenta o el Vicepresidente y, a falta de ésta o éste, por la Presidenta o el Presidente del Senado, y a falta de ésta o éste por la Presidente o el Presidente de la Cámara de Diputados. En este último caso, se convocarán nuevas elecciones en el plazo máximo de noventa días." "Segunda Parte, Título II, Capítulo Primero". Nueva Constitución Política del Estado (PDF). pp. 36–37. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
  14. "Bolivia: Constitución política de 1839, 26 de octubre de 1839". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  15. Corz, Carlos (23 September 2012). "Montaño asume la Presidencia interina de Bolivia, Evo va a la ONU y hablará del mar". La Razón. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  16. Bolivia, Opinión. "Evo ratifica que Palacio Quemado se convertirá en museo tras inauguración de Casa Grande del Pueblo". Opinión Bolivia (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  17. "Una casa para el pueblo - La Razón". 6 July 2018. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  18. "Inhalt". Jahrbuch für Geschichte Lateinamerikas - Anuario de Historia de America Latina. 53 (1). 1 January 2016. doi:10.7767/jbla-2016-0101. ISSN   2194-3680.
  19. admins5 (20 November 2014). "La Co -Presidencia Barrientos - Ovando 1965". www.educa.com.bo (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  20. Muñoz-Pogossian 2008, p. 180.
  21. Webber 2011, p. 1.
  22. Philip & Panizza 2011, p. 57.
  23. Farthing & Kohl 2014, p. 1.
  24. 1 2 3 Harten 2011, p. 7.
  25. Farthing & Kohl 2014, p. 22.