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|President of the|
Plurinational State of Bolivia
Presidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
Coat of arms of Bolivia
|Term length||Five years|
|Inaugural holder||Simón Bolívar|
|Formation||11 August 1825|
|Deputy||Vice President of Bolivia|
|Salary||$3,327 USD per month|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The President of Bolivia (Spanish : Presidente de Bolivia), officially known as the President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish : Presidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is head of state and head of government of Bolivia. According to the Bolivian Constitution, the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year term with a two-term limit. If no candidate wins a majority, the top two candidates advance to a runoff election.
Since its independence in 1825, Bolivia has been ruled by key figures in the fight for independence, leaders of the War of the Pacific, representatives of the aristocracy, military dictators and democratically elected leaders. Also, the history of the presidency has involved civil wars [ which? ], more than 190 coups and violence. [ citation needed ]
In 1983, a poll was taken by Última Hora newspaper to determine which seven historical presidents were regarded as most significant. The "winners" were Antonio José de Sucre, Andrés de Santa Cruz, Manuel Isidoro Belzu, Mariano Melgarejo, Aniceto Arce, Ismael Montes, and Víctor Paz Estenssoro.
Leaders adopted titles such as "Liberator of Bolivia" (used by Simón Bolívar and Antonio José de Sucre), and "Supreme Protector" (by Andrés de Santa Cruz).
Two women served as head of state:
Prior to 2009, if no candidate won more than half of the popular vote, the president was chosen by a vote in a joint legislative session from among the top two candidates (prior to 1995, the top three).
On November 10, 2019, president Juan Evo Morales Ayma resigned as head of state after more than 20 days of street protests by opposition supporters and accusations of voter fraud committed by Morale's party, MAS (Movimiento al Socialismo). Initially, there was brutal police repression against protestors claiming that Morales had committed fraud in the elections.
Shortly thereafter, large groups of people that supported Morales went into the streets. Some incidents of vandalism were reported, and a house was torched which belonged to Waldo Albarracin, president of the Universidad Mayor de San Andres, who had long denounced Morales. After more than two weeks of intense protests and corollary suppression by public safety forces, the latter determined that they would stand down. A few days later, and owing to the potential for further confrontation and bloodshed, Bolivian military General Williams Kaliman convinced Morales to resign the presidency to pacify the country. Morales, fearing reprisals, flew first to Mexico and then received a lengthier refuge in Argentina.
Shortly thereafter, Morales's successors, who were also accused of participating in voter fraud, resigned, namely Vice President Alvaro Garcia Linera, President of the Senate Adriana Salvatierra and President of the Chamber of Deputies Víctor Borda. The first vice president of the Senate, Rubén Medinaceli, also resigned.
Jeanine Añez, the second vice president of the Senate and member of the CC Party, became the highest-ranking official, who, according to the Bolivian constitution, should assume the role of interim presidentafter the president, vice-president, and the first president of the senate resigned. On November 12, 2019, Añez proclaimed transitional, temporary interim charge of the Senate of Bolivia and, on this basis, was declared the Constitutional President. Her accession to office was formally approved by a decision of the Plurinational Constitutional Court the same day. Añez began planning to call new elections in 2020 as well as working to calm the nation and ordered military police to prevent large demonstrations and isolated attacks by individuals supporting the MAS party.
See article: Bolivian general election, 2019
|Movement for Socialism||Evo Morales||2,889,359||47.08||Results annulled|
|Civic Community||Carlos Mesa||2,240,920||36.51|
|Christian Democratic Party||Chi Hyun Chung||539,081||8.78|
|Democrat Social Movement||Óscar Ortiz Antelo||260,316||4.24|
|Third System Movement||Felix Patzi||76,827||1.25|
|Revolutionary Nationalist Movement||Virginio Lema||42,334||0.69|
|National Action Party of Bolivia||Ruth Nina||39,826||0.65|
|Solidarity Civic Unity||Víctor Hugo Cárdenas||25,283||0.41|
|The Front For Victory||Israel Rodriquez||23,725||0.39|
|Source: Cómputo Electoral|
In the event of the president's death or permanent incapacity, the vice president was to assume office. The president of the Senate and the president of the Chamber of Deputies are third and fourth in the line of succession. In the 2005 political crisis, with all of these positions exhausted, Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé, the chief justice of the Bolivian Supreme Court, assumed the presidency. Under the 2009 Constitution, however, the assumption of power by the president of the Chamber of Deputies automatically precipitates an election within 90 days.
In the case of temporary incapacity or absence from the country, the title of Acting President (Spanish : Presidente en ejercicio) is transferred to lower officials according to the order of presidential succession. In September 2012, Senate president Gabriela Montaño became the first woman to assume this office, during the presidency of Evo Morales.
The politics of Bolivia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the president is head of state, head of government and head of a diverse multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. Both the Judiciary and the electoral branch are independent of the executive and the legislature. After the 2014 election, 53.1% of the seats in national parliament were held by women, a higher proportion of women than that of the population.
Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert served as president of Bolivia from 2003 to 2005. He was vice president of Bolivia from August 2002 to October 2003. Mesa previously had been a television journalist. His widespread recognition prompted the MNR candidate Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada to pick him as running mate in the 2002 Bolivian presidential elections. The winning ticket of Sánchez-Mesa took office August 6, 2002. Soon after becoming vice president, a wave of protests and strikes shut down Bolivia in a bitter dispute known as the Bolivian Gas War. The demonstrations eventually forced Sánchez de Lozada to resign, which put forward Mesa as president.
The Movement for Socialism–Political Instrument for the Sovereignty of the Peoples, alternately referred to as the Movement Toward Socialism or the Movement to Socialism, is a Bolivian left-wing populist and indigenist political party led by Evo Morales, founded in 1998. Its followers are known as Masistas.
The current Constitution of Bolivia came into effect on February 7, 2009 when it was promulgated by President Evo Morales, after being approved in a referendum with 90.24% participation. The referendum was held on January 25, 2009, and the constitution was approved by 61.43% of voters.
General elections were held in Bolivia on 12 October 2014, the second to take place under the country's 2009 constitution, and the first supervised by the Plurinational Electoral Organ, a newly created fourth branch of government. Incumbent President Evo Morales was re-elected for a third term.
The Democrat Social Movement, often shortened to just the Democrats, is a Bolivian political party founded in 2013 by politicians associated with the centre-right of the country's political spectrum and the movement for greater autonomy for the eastern departments of the Media Luna.
Bolivia–Mexico relations refers to the diplomatic relations between the Plurinational State of Bolivia and the United Mexican States. Both nations are members of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, Latin American Integration Association, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the United Nations. There is a community of approximately 10,000 Mexican citizens residing in Bolivia.
A constitutional referendum was held in Bolivia on Sunday, 21 February 2016. The proposed constitutional amendments would have allowed the president and vice president to run for a third consecutive term under the 2009 Constitution. The referendum was voted down by a 51.3% majority.
Lilly Gabriela Montaño Viaña is a Bolivian physician, politician, and former senator. She was the elected President of the Plurinational Legislative Assembly, a position she accepted and would hold until 2020 while still the presidential representative of Santa Cruz de la Sierra for the Movement for Socialism (MAS) party. In 2012, Montaño was made the first female interim President of Bolivia since Lidia Gueiler Tejada for a short time. Montaño is a feminist and vocal defender of the rights of the LGBT community. She has been a regular guest and speaker at forums and conferences in different parts of the world. She married Argentine citizen Fabián Restivo, with whom she has had two daughters.
General elections were held in Bolivia on 20 October 2019. Voters elected all 130 members of the Chamber of Deputies and 36 senators and cast ballots for a joint slate of president and vice president.
Adriana Salvatierra Arriaza is a Bolivian politician. She was the President of the Senate of Bolivia from January 2019. In 2015, she was elected to the Senate as a member of the Movement for Socialism from the Santa Cruz Department.
Since 21 October 2019, protests and marches have been occurring in Bolivia in response to claims of electoral fraud in the 2019 general election of 20 October 2019 and, subsequently, to Jeanine Áñez declaring herself the acting president of Bolivia. The claims of fraud were made after the suspension of the preliminary vote count, in which incumbent Evo Morales was not leading by a large enough margin (10%) to avoid a runoff, and the subsequent publication of the official count, in which Morales won by over 10%. Some international observers have expressed concern over these developments. After conducting a statistical analysis of the election resutls, resarchers at MIT disputed the claims of electoral fraud, stating, "There is not any statistical evidence of fraud that we can find — the trends in the preliminary count, the lack of any big jump in support for Morales after the halt, and the size of Morales’s margin all appear legitimate."
On 10 November 2019, after 19 days of civil protests following the disputed election results of October 2019 and the release of a report from the OAS, which alleged irregularities in the electoral process, trade unions, the military and the police of Bolivia suggested that president Evo Morales resign. After General Williams Kaliman Romero made the military's request for Morales's resignation public, Morales complied, accompanied by other resignations by high-level politicians throughout the day, some citing fears for the safety of their families. The government of Mexico offered political asylum to Morales the following day, which Morales accepted a day afterwards.
General Williams Kaliman Romero is the former commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of Bolivia. In 2019 he called for the resignation of President Evo Morales after a disputed election, amid ongoing protests. Morales was seeking a 4th term.
Jeanine Áñez Chávez is a Bolivian politician and lawyer currently serving as the Interim President of Bolivia since November 2019, after the resignation of the government of Evo Morales. She was previously an opposition senator from Beni. Her political position has been described by journalists as right-wing and anti-Morales.
Snap general elections will be held in Bolivia on 3 May 2020, after the sequence of events that led to the installation of an interim government on 10 November 2019.
Luis Fernando Camacho Vaca is a Bolivian lawyer, businessman and activist. He is a member of the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement in Bolivia, and has been the chair of the Civic Committee of Santa Cruz since 2019. He emerged as a major critic of Evo Morales in the 2019 Bolivian general elections, demanding Morales resign on 5 November 2019.
The following is a list of reactions to the 2019 Bolivian political crisis.
Karen Longaric Rodríguez is a Bolivian lawyer, professor and columnist and politician. She is the current Chancellor of Bolivia since her inauguration by interim President of Bolivia Jeanine Añez on November 13, 2019.
The 2019–20 Mexico–Bolivia diplomatic crisis began on 29 October 2019 when the Mexican government congratulated incumbent Bolivian President Evo Morales for his reelection victory. After the election, a preliminary report by the Organization of American States on 9 November reported numerous irregularities in the election, and amid protests and pressure from the Bolivian armed forces and police, Morales was forced to resign.