Mestizo

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Mestizos
Mestiso 1770.jpg
A casta painting of a Spanish man and a Peruvian indigenous woman with a Mestizo child, 1770
Regions with significant populations
Latin America
United States
Philippines
Guam and Northern Mariana Islands
Aruba
Languages
Predominantly Spanish, Portuguese, English, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Papiamento
Religion
Predominantly Christianity (majority Roman Catholic, Protestant especially Pentecostal and Evangelical), Indigenous beliefs
Related ethnic groups
Amerindian peoples
European peoples

Mestizo ( /mɛˈstz, mɪ-/ ; [1] Spanish:  [mesˈti(θ/s)o] ) is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America and the Philippines that originally referred to a person of combined European and Indigenous American descent, regardless of where the person was born. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system that was in use during the Spanish Empire's control of its American and Asian colonies. Nowadays though, particularly in Spanish America, mestizo has become more of a cultural term, with culturally mainstream Latin Americans regarded or termed as mestizos regardless of their actual ancestry and with the term Indian being reserved exclusively for people who have maintained a separate indigenous ethnic identity, language, tribal affiliation, etc. Consequently, today, the vast majority of Spanish-speaking Latin Americans are regarded as mestizos.[ citation needed ]

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Latin America Region of the Americas where Romance languages are primarily spoken

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish, Portuguese, and French are predominantly spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao. The term was used also by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish, Portuguese and French are predominant are typically not included in definitions of Latin America.

Philippines Republic in Southeast Asia

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

Contents

The term mestizaje – taking as its root mestizo or mixed – is the Spanish word for miscegenation, the general process of mixing ancestries.

Miscegenation is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation, particularly mixing that is perceived to negatively impact the purity of a particular race or culture. Anti-miscegenation is a prominent theme of white supremacy.

To avoid confusion with the original usage of the term mestizo, mixed people started to be referred to collectively as castas. In some Latin American countries, such as Mexico, the concept of the mestizo became central to the formation of a new independent identity that was neither wholly Spanish nor wholly indigenous, and the word mestizo acquired its current meaning, it being used by the government to refer to all Mexicans who do not speak indigenous languages, [2] [3] including people of complete European or indigenous descent as well as Asians and Africans. [4] [5]

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Languages of Mexico languages of a geographic region

Many different languages are spoken in Mexico. The indigenous languages are from eleven distinct language families, including four isolates and one that immigrated from the United States. The Mexican government recognizes 68 national languages, 63 of which are indigenous, including around 350 dialects of those languages. The large majority of the population is monolingual in Spanish. Some immigrant and indigenous populations are bilingual, while some indigenous people are monolingual in their languages. Mexican Sign Language is spoken by much of the deaf population, and there are one or two indigenous sign languages as well.

Asian Mexicans are Mexicans of Asian descent. Although they make up less than 1% of the total population of Mexico, they are a notable minority. Asians are considered the cuarta raíz of Mexico in conjunction with the three other roots: Native, European and African.

In colonial Venezuela, pardo was more commonly used instead of mestizo. Pardo means being mixed without specifying which mixture; [6] it was used to describe anyone born in the Americas whose ancestry was a mixture of European, Amerindian and black African. [7]

Venezuela Republic in northern South America

Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, and 99,889 km2 of continental shelf. This marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has extremely high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species. There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.

Pardo is a term used in the Portuguese and Spanish colonies in the Americas to refer to the multiracial descendants of Europeans, Indigenous Americans, South Asians, and West Africans. They are defined as neither exclusively mestizo, nor mulatto, nor zambo.

In the Spanish system of racial hierarchy, the sistema de castas, mestizos/pardos, who formed the majority, had fewer rights than the minority elite European-born persons called peninsulares , and the minority white colonial-born whites criollo , but more rights than the now-minority indio , negro , mulato and zambo populations.

The Criollo are Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial European immigrant origin. Historically, they were a social class in the hierarchy of the overseas colonies established by Spain beginning in the 16th century, especially in Hispanic America, comprising the locally born people of Spanish ancestry. Although Criollos were legally Spaniards, in practice, they ranked below the Iberian-born Peninsulares. Nevertheless, they had preeminence over all the other populations: Amerindians, enslaved Africans and peoples of mixed descent.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas Pre-Columbian inhabitants of North, Central and South America and their descendants

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants.

In the English language, Negro is a term historically used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage. The term can be construed as offensive, inoffensive, or completely neutral, largely depending on the region and/or country where it is used. It has various equivalents in other languages of Europe. From the latest United States census figures, approximately 36,000 Americans identify their ethnicity as "negro".

The Portuguese cognate, mestiço , historically referred to any mixture of Portuguese and local populations in the Portuguese colonies. In colonial Brazil most of the non-slave population was initially mestiço de indio , i.e. mixed white and native Brazilian. There was no descent-based casta system, and children of upper class white landlord males and female slaves would enjoy privileges higher than the ones given to the lower classes, such as formal education, though such cases were not so common and they tended to not inherit property, generally given to the children of free women, who tended to be legitimate offspring in cases of concubinage (also a common practice, inherited from Amerindian and African customs). In Portuguese India also, the mixed population was known as mestiços and the local Indian Christians as indiacatos.

Portuguese language Romance language that originated in Portugal

Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. Reintegrationists maintain that Galician is not a separate language, but a dialect of Portuguese. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone" (Lusófono).

Cognate word that has a common etymological origin

In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin. Cognates are often inherited from a shared parent language, but they may also involve borrowings from some other language. For example, the English words dish and desk and the German word Tisch ("table") are cognates because they all come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or even opposite meanings, but in most cases there are some similar sounds or letters in the words, in some cases appearing to be dissimilar. Some words sound similar, but don't come from the same root; these are called false cognates.

Mestiço ethnic group

Mestiço, in Colonial Brazil, the Portuguese-speaking part of Latin America, was initially used to refer to mamelucos, persons born from a couple in which one was an Indigenous American and the other a European. It literally translates as "mameluke", probably referring to the common Iberian comparisons of swarthy people to North Africans.

In the Philippines, which was a colony of Spain, the term mestizo came to refer to a Filipino with any foreign ancestry, especially white, and usually shortened as Tisoy .

In Indonesia, the term mestizo refers to ethnicity which is a mixture of Europeans and native Indonesians. They are called as Indo people .

In Canada, the Métis people is a distinct community composed of the descendants of Europeans (usually French, sometimes Scottish or English) involved in the fur trade and North American Indigenous peoples of what is now Western Canada.

In Saint Barthélemy, the term mestizo refers to people of mixed European (usually French) and East Asian ancestry. [8]

Etymology

The Spanish word mestizo is from Latin mixticius, meaning mixed. [9] [10] Its usage has been documented as early as 1275, to refer to the offspring of an Egyptian and a Semite. [11] This term was first documented in English in 1582. [12]

Modern-day use

In the United States, Canada and other English-speaking countries and cultures, mestizo, as a loanword from Spanish, is used to mean a non-white of mixed European and American Indian descent exclusively, generally with connection to a Latin American culture or of Latin American descent, a concept much stricter than that found in Romance languages (especially Portuguese, possessing terms that are not cognate with mestizo for such admixture, and thus the concept of mestiço is not seen as particularly connected with Amerindian ancestry at all). It is related to the particular racial identity of historical non-white Amerindian-descended Hispanic and Latino American communities in an American context.

In English-speaking Canada, Canadian Métis (with upper-case), as a loanword from French, refers to persons of mixed French and Indigenous ancestry. French-speaking Canadians, when using the word métis, are referring to Canadian Métis ethnicity, and all persons of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry, rather than the broader concept of mixed-race people in general (métis with lowercase), present in all other French-speaking countries, as would speakers of Spanish; the usual term to refer to mixed-raced people in general is thus "mulâtre", which is considered elsewhere pejorative. In the United States, Métis Americans and Mestizo Americans are two distinct racial and ethno-racial identities, as reflected in the use of French and Spanish loanwords, respectively.

In the Philippines, the word mestizo usually refers to a Filipino with combined Indigenous and European ancestry, but occasionally it will be used for a Filipino with apparent Chinese ancestry, who will also be referred to as 'chinito'. The latter was officially listed as a "mestizo de sangley" in birth records of the 19th century, with 'sangley' as a reference to the Hokkienese word for business, 'seng-li'.

In the Portuguese-speaking world, the contemporary sense has been the closest to the historical usage from the Middle Ages, because of important linguistic differences, so that mestiço (mixed-race, mixed-ethnicity, miscegenated, etc.) is separated altogether from pardo (any kind of brown people) and caboclo (brown people originally of European–Amerindian admixture or assimilated Amerindians), in which mestiços can be also fully white, black or East Asian in their full definition (thus not brown) and one does not need to be a mestiço to be a part of the latter two categories.

In Brazil specifically, at least in modern times all non-Indigenous people are part of a single ethnicity (os brasileiros; lines between ethnic groups are historically fluid), the mestiço (Portuguese pronunciation:  [meʃˈt(ʃ)isu] , [miʃˈt(ʃ)isu] ) group is by far the largest among the free people since the earliest decades of the colony. As explained above, the concept of mestiço should not in any way be confused with the mestizo as used in either the Spanish-speaking world or the English-speaking one, as it relates no special relation to being of Amerindian extraction, and also should not be confused with pardo, literally "brown people" (there are mestiços among all major groups of the country, Indigenous, Asian, white, pardo and black, and they are likely the majority in the three latter ones).

Cognates

Mestizo (Spanish:  [mesˈtiθo] or [mesˈtiso] ), mestiço (Portuguese:  [mɨʃˈtisu] , [mesˈt(ʃ)isu] or [miʃˈt(ʃ)isu] ), métis (French:  [meˈtis] ), mestís (Catalan:  [məsˈtis] ), Mischling (German: [mɪʃˈlɪŋɡ] ), meticcio (Italian:  [meˈtittʃo] ), mestiezen (Dutch:  [mɛsˈtizə(n)] ), mestee (Middle English:  [məsˈtiː] ), and mixed (English) are all cognates of the Latin word mixticius.

History

Las castas. 18th century, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlan, Mexico. Casta painting all.jpg
Las castas. 18th century, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.

In the Spanish colonial period, the Spanish developed an extremely vast complex system of racial hierarchy, which was used for social control and which also determined a person's standing in society. [13]

There were three main categories of race during the initial period of colonization of the Americas by the Spanish: White Spaniard (español), Amerindian (indio), and Black African (negro). During the Spanish colonial era, a myriad of terms (such mestizo, pardo, mulato and zambo) were created to differentiate these racial mixtures, called collectively castas. [14] By the end of the colonial period in 1821, over one hundred sub-categories of possible variations of mixture existed, but official church and civil records were maintained with few categories. Church baptismal and marriage registers and civil records (censuses, arrest records) used the terms español, castizo, mestizo, mulato, and indio.

Casta

Throughout the territories of Spanish Empire in the Americas, systems of racial hierarchy, the sistema de castas or the sociedad de castas developed where society was divided based on race, wealth, and where one was born. The main divisions were as follows:

  1. Español (fem. española), i.e. Spaniard – person of Spanish or other European ancestry; a blanket term, subdivided into Peninsulares and Criollos
    • Peninsular – a European born in Spain who later settled in the Americas;
    • Criollo (fem. criolla) – a white person with Spanish or other European descent born in the Americas;
  2. Castizo (fem. castiza) – a person with primarily European and some Amerindian ancestry born into a mixed family; the offspring of a castizo and an español was considered español.
  3. Mestizo (fem. mestiza) – a person of extended mixed European and Amerindian ancestry;
  4. Indio (fem. India) – a person of pure Amerindian ancestry;
  5. Pardo (fem. parda) – a person of mixed white European, Amerindian and black African ancestry;
  6. Mulato (fem. mulata) – a person of mixed white European and black African ancestry;
  7. Zambo – a person of mixed native black African and Amerindian ancestry;
  8. Negro (fem. negra) – a person of black African descent, primarily African slaves and their descendants.

Persons of mixed race were collectively referred to as castas . [14] In theory, and as depicted in eighteenth-century Mexican casta paintings, español status could also be attained by people of mixed origin who consistently had intermarried with Europeans. Such cases might include the offspring of a castizo (3/4 Spanish and 1/4 Indian) parent and one Peninsular or criollo parent. [15]

A person's legal racial classification in colonial Spanish America was closely tied to social status, wealth, culture and language use. Wealthy people paid to change or obscure their actual ancestry. Many indigenous people left their traditional villages and sought to be counted as mestizos to avoid tribute payments to the Spanish. [16] Many indigenous people, and sometimes those with partial African descent, were classified as mestizo if they spoke Spanish and lived as mestizos.

In the early colonial period, the offspring of españoles and Indias were raised either in the Hispanic world, if the father recognized the child, even though illegitimate; or the child was raised in the indigenous world of the mother if he did not. As early as 1533, Charles V mandated the high court (Audiencia) to take the children of Spanish men and indigenous women from their mothers and educate them in the Spanish sphere. [17] As this mixed group born out of wedlock increased in numbers, generally living in their mother's indigenous communities, but increasingly not accepted there either, and being designated mestizos with the assumption that they were illegitimate. [17]

When the Mexican republic was established in 1824, legal racial categories ceased to exist. The production of casta paintings in New Spain ceased at the same juncture, after almost a century as a genre.

Because the term had taken on a myriad of meanings, the designation "mestizo" was removed from census counts in Mexico and is no longer in use. [12]

Spanish-speaking North America

Mexico

A representation of a Mestizo, in a Pintura de Castas from New Spain during the late colonial period. The painting's caption states "Spanish and Indian produce Mestizo", 1780. Mestizo.jpg
A representation of a Mestizo, in a Pintura de Castas from New Spain during the late colonial period. The painting's caption states "Spanish and Indian produce Mestizo", 1780.

The large majority of Mexicans can be classified as "Mestizos", meaning in modern Mexican usage that they identify fully neither with any indigenous culture nor with a particular non-Indigenous heritage, but rather identify as having cultural traits incorporating both indigenous and European elements. In Mexico, Mestizo has become a blanket term which not only refers to mixed Mexicans but includes all Mexican citizens who do not speak indigenous languages [2] even Asian Mexicans and Afro-Mexicans. [5]

By the deliberate efforts of post-revolutionary governments the "Mestizo identity" was constructed as the base of the modern Mexican national identity, through a process of cultural synthesis referred to as mestizaje ( [mes.tiˈsa.xe] ). Mexican politicians and reformers such as José Vasconcelos and Manuel Gamio were instrumental in building a Mexican national identity on the concept of "mestizaje" (the process of race homogenization). [18] [19]

Cultural policies in early post-revolutionary Mexico were paternalistic towards the indigenous people, with efforts designed to "help" indigenous peoples achieve the same level of progress as the Mestizo society, eventually assimilating indigenous peoples completely to mainstream Mexican culture, working toward the goal of eventually solving the "Indian problem" by transforming indigenous communities into Mestizo communities. [3]

A statue of Gonzalo Guerrero, who adopted the Maya way of life and fathered the first Mestizo children of Mexico, but not of the Americas, since the first mestizos were born in the Caribbean, by Spanish men and indigenous Caribbean women. Gonzalo Guerrero.JPG
A statue of Gonzalo Guerrero, who adopted the Maya way of life and fathered the first Mestizo children of Mexico, but not of the Americas, since the first mestizos were born in the Caribbean, by Spanish men and indigenous Caribbean women.

Sometimes, particularly outside of Mexico, the word "mestizo" is used with the meaning of Mexican persons with mixed Indigenous and European blood. This usage does not conform to the Mexican social reality where a person of pure indigenous genetic heritage would be considered mestizo either by rejecting his indigenous culture or by not speaking an indigenous language, [20] and a person with none or very low percentage of indigenous genetic heritage would be considered fully indigenous either by speaking an indigenous language or by identifying with a particular indigenous cultural heritage. [4] In the Yucatán peninsula the word mestizo has a different meaning to the one used in the rest of Mexico, being used to refer to the Maya-speaking populations living in traditional communities, because during the caste war of the late 19th century those Maya who did not join the rebellion were classified as mestizos. [20] In Chiapas, the term Ladino is used instead of mestizo. [21]

Due to the extensiveness of the modern definition of Mestizo, various publications offer different estimations of this group, some try to use a biological, racial perspective and calculate the Mestizo population in contemporary Mexico as being around a half and two thirds of the population, [22] while others use the culture-based definition, and estimate the percentage of Mestizos as high as 90% [2] of the Mexican population, several others mix-up both due lack of knowledge in regards to the modern definition and assert that mixed race Mexicans are as much as 93% of Mexico's population. [23] Paradoxically to its wide definition, the word Mestizo has long been dropped of popular Mexican vocabulary, with the word even having pejorative connotations, [20] which further complicates attempts to quantify Mestizos via self-identification.

While for most of its history the concept of Mestizo and Mestizaje has been lauded by Mexico's intellectual circles, in recent times the concept has been target of criticism, with its detractors claiming that it delegitimizes the importance of race in Mexico under the idea of "(racism) not existing here (in Mexico), as everybody is Mestizo." [24] In general, the authors conclude that Mexico introducing a real racial classification and accepting itself as a multicultural country opposed to a monolithic Mestizo country would bring benefits to the Mexican society as a whole. [25]

Genetic studies

A 2012 study published by the Journal of Human Genetics found that the Y-chromosome (paternal) ancestry of the average Mexican Mestizo was predominately European (64.9%), followed by Native American (30.8%), and African (4.2%). The European ancestry was more prevalent in the north and west (66.7–95%) and Native American ancestry increased in the centre and south-east (37–50%), the African ancestry was low and relatively homogeneous (0–8.8%). [26] The states that participated in this study were Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Veracruz and Yucatán. [27]

A study of 104 Mestizos from Sonora, Yucatán, Guerrero, Zacatecas, Veracruz, and Guanajuato by Mexico's National Institute of Genomic Medicine, reported that Mestizo Mexicans are 58.96% European, 31.05% Native American, and 10.03% African. Sonora shows the highest European contribution (70.63%) and Guerrero the lowest (51.98%) which also has the highest Native American contribution (37.17%). African contribution ranges from 2.8% in Sonora to 11.13% in Veracruz. 80% of the Mexican population was classed as mestizo (defined as "being racially mixed in some degree"). [28]

In May 2009, the same institution (Mexico's National Institute of Genomic Medicine) issued a report on a genomic study of 300 Mestizos from those same states. The study found that the Mestizo population of these Mexican states were on average 55% of indigenous ancestry followed by 41.8% of European, 1.8% of African, and 1.2% of East Asian ancestry. [29]

The study also noted that whereas Mestizo individuals from the southern state of Guerrero showed on average 66% of indigenous ancestry, those from the northern state of Sonora displayed about 61.6% European ancestry. The study found that there was an increase in indigenous ancestry as one traveled towards to the Southern states in Mexico, while the indigenous ancestry declined as one traveled to the Northern states in the country, such as Sonora. [29]

Central America

The Ladino people are a mix of mestizo or Hispanicized peoples [30] in Latin America, principally in Central America. The demonym Ladino is a Spanish word that derives from Latino . Ladino is an exonym invented[ by whom? ] of the colonial era to refer to those Spanish-speakers who were not colonial elites of Peninsulares, Criollos, or indigenous peoples. [31]

Costa Rica

Costa Rican kids. CostaRicans-m.jpg
Costa Rican kids.
Chavela Vargas Mixed-Costa Rican Born - Singer Chavela Vargas 060701-cropped.jpg
Chavela Vargas Mixed-Costa Rican Born - Singer
Keylor Navas Mixed-Costa Rican - Real Madrid Goalkeeper RealM-Shahter15 (9).jpg
Keylor Navas Mixed-Costa Rican - Real Madrid Goalkeeper

As of 2012 most Costa Ricans are primarily of Spanish or mestizo ancestry with minorities of German, Nicaraguan, Italian, Jamaican, Colombian, other Central American and Greek ancestry.

European migrants used Costa Rica to get across the isthmus of Central America as well to reach the USA West Coast (California) in the late 19th century and until the 1910s (before the Panama Canal opened). Other ethnic groups known to live in Costa Rica include Venezuelans, Peruvian, Brazilians, Portuguese, Palestinians, Caribbeans, Turks, Armenians and Georgians.

Many of the first Spanish colonists in Costa Rica may have been Jewish converts to Christianity who were expelled from Spain in 1492 and fled to colonial backwaters to avoid the Inquisition. [32] The first sizable group of self-identified Jews immigrated from Poland, beginning in 1929. From the 1930s to the early 1950s, journalistic and official anti-Semitic campaigns fueled harassment of Jews; however, by the 1950s and 1960s, the immigrants won greater acceptance. Most of the 3,500 Costa Rican Jews today are not highly observant, but they remain largely endogamous. [33]

Costa Rica has four small minority groups: Mulattos, Blacks, Amerindians and Asians. About 8% of the population is of Black African descent or Mulatto (mix of European and black) who are called Afro-Costa Ricans, English-speaking descendants of 19th century black Jamaican immigrant workers.

By the late twentieth century, allusions in textbooks and political discourse to "whiteness," or to Spain as the "mother country" of all Costa Ricans, were diminishing, replaced with a recognition of the multiplicity of peoples that make up the nation. [34]

El Salvador

Painting of the First Independence Movement celebration in San Salvador, El Salvador. At the center, Jose Matias Delgado, a Salvadoran priest and doctor known as El Padre de la Patria Salvadorena (The Father of the Salvadoran Fatherland), alongside his nephew Manuel Jose Arce, future Salvadoran president of the Federal Republic of Central America. Proclama de libertad (indep. Centroamerica).jpg
Painting of the First Independence Movement celebration in San Salvador, El Salvador. At the center, José Matías Delgado, a Salvadoran priest and doctor known as El Padre de la Patria Salvadoreña (The Father of the Salvadoran Fatherland), alongside his nephew Manuel José Arce, future Salvadoran president of the Federal Republic of Central America.
Ciudad Vieja, El Salvador,(Old City), also known as Old San Salvador, was a lost colony established in 1525 in what is today's El Salvador. It was a first attempt by the Spaniards to establish a permanent settlement in El Salvador. The city was abandoned after Native repeatedly attacked and then resettled again in 1528, then completely abandoned and dismantled in 1545 and moved to modern day San Salvador City. The settlement resembles more of a fortified military base rather than a city. The historic census indicates that the city contained male Spaniards with many Mestizo children with Native American indigenous wives CIUDAD VIEJA.jpg
Ciudad Vieja, El Salvador,(Old City), also known as Old San Salvador, was a lost colony established in 1525 in what is today's El Salvador. It was a first attempt by the Spaniards to establish a permanent settlement in El Salvador. The city was abandoned after Native repeatedly attacked and then resettled again in 1528, then completely abandoned and dismantled in 1545 and moved to modern day San Salvador City. The settlement resembles more of a fortified military base rather than a city. The historic census indicates that the city contained male Spaniards with many Mestizo children with Native American indigenous wives

In Central America, systematic rape and intermarriage by European men with the Native American Indigenous Lenca, Cacaopera and Pipil women of what is now El Salvador happened almost immediately after the arrival of the European Spaniards led by Pedro de Alvarado. Other indigenous groups in the country such as Maya Poqomam people, Maya Ch'orti' people, Alaguilac, Xinca people, Mixe and Mangue language people became culturally extinct due to the Mestizo process or diseases brought by the Spaniards. Mestizo culture quickly became the most successful and dominant culture in El Salvador. The majority of Salvadorans in modern El Salvador identify themselves as 86.3% Mestizo roots. [35]

In 1932, ruthless dictator Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez was responsible for La Matanza ("The Slaughter"), known as the 1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre in which the Native American indigenous people were murdered in an effort to wipe out the indigenous people in El Salvador during the 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising. Indigenous peoples, mostly of Lenca, Cacaopera and Pipil descent are still present in El Salvador in several communities, conserving their languages, customs, and traditions.

There is a significant Arab population (of about 100,000), mostly from Palestine (especially from the area of Bethlehem), but also from Lebanon. Salvadorans of Palestinian descent numbered around 70,000 individuals, while Salvadorans of Lebanese descent is around 27,000. There is also a small community of Jews who came to El Salvador from France, Germany, Morocco, Tunisia, and Turkey. Many of these Arab groups naturally mixed and contributed into the modern Salvadoran Mestizo population.

Pardo is the term that was used in colonial El Salvador to describe a tri-racial Afro-Mestizo person of Indigenous, European, and African descent. El Salvador is the only country in Central America that does not have a significant African population due to many factors including El Salvador not having a Caribbean coast, and because of president Maximiliano Hernández Martínez, who passed racial laws to keep blacks and other peoples out of El Salvador, though Salvadorans with African ancestry, called Pardos, were already present in El Salvador, the majority are tri-racial Pardo Salvadorans who largely cluster with the Mestizo population. They have been mixed into and were naturally bred out by the general Mestizo population, which is a combination of a Mestizo majority and the minority of Pardo people, both of whom are racially mixed populations. A total of only 10,000 African slaves were brought to El Salvador over the span of 75 years, starting around 1548, about 25 years after El Salvador's colonization. The enslaved Africans that were brought to El Salvador during the colonial times, eventually came to mix and merged into the much larger and vaster Mestizo mixed European Spanish/Native Indigenous population creating Pardo or Afromestizos who cluster with Mestizo people, contributing into the modern day Mestizo population in El Salvador, thus, there remains no significant extremes of African physiognomy among Salvadorans like there is in the other countries of Central America.

Today, Salvadorans who are racially European, especially Mediterranean, as well as Native American indigenous people in El Salvador who do not speak indigenous languages nor have an indigenous culture, also tri-racial Pardo Salvadorans, and Salvadoran of Arab descent, also identify themselves as culturally Salvadoran Mestizo by absorption.

Guatemala

The Ladino population in Guatemala is officially recognized as a distinct ethnic group, and the Ministry of Education of Guatemala uses the following definition:

"The ladino population has been characterized as a heterogeneous population which expresses itself in the Spanish language as a maternal language, which possesses specific cultural traits of Hispanic origin mixed with indigenous cultural elements, and dresses in a style commonly considered as western." [36]

Spanish-speaking South America

A Mestizo man and his india wife, New Spain 1763, by Miguel Cabrera. Cabrera 15 Coyote.jpg
A Mestizo man and his india wife, New Spain 1763, by Miguel Cabrera.

Argentina and Uruguay

Initially colonial Argentina and Uruguay had a predominately mestizo population like the rest of the Spanish colonies, but due to a flood of European migration in the 19th century and the repeated intermarriage with white Europeans the mestizo population became a so-called castizo population. With more Europeans arriving in the early 20th century, the majority of these immigrants coming from Spain and Italy, the face of Argentina and Uruguay has overwhelmingly become white and European in culture and tradition. Because of this, the term mestizo has fallen into disuse. Currently, individuals who are considered white Europeans contributes to 85% of Argentina's population and 88% of Uruguay's population. [37]

Northern Argentina still has a predominately mestizo population, especially in the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, La Rioja, San Juan, Mendoza, Chaco, Formosa, Corrientes, Santa Fe and Misiones, where there is also a significant population of Indigenous peoples. [28] [38]

Chile

In Chile, from the time the Spanish soldiers with Pedro de Valdivia entered northern Chile, a process of 'mestizaje' began where white Spaniards began to mate with the local bellicose Mapuche population of Amerindians to produce an overwhelmingly mestizo population during the first generation in all of the cities they founded. In Southern Chile, the Mapuche, were one of the only Amerindian tribes in the Americas that were in continuous conflict with the Spanish Empire and did not submit to a European power.

A public health book from the University of Chile states that 30% of the population is of Caucasian origin; mestizos are estimated to amount to a total of 65%, while Native Americans (Amerindians) comprise the remaining 5%. A genetic study by the same university showed that the average Chilean's genes are 60% Caucasian and 40% Amerindian.

Colombia

Colombia whose land was named after explorer Christopher Columbus is the product of the interacting and mixing of the European conquistadors and colonist with the different Amerindian peoples of Colombia. Later the African element was introduced into the coastal parts of Colombia as slaves.[ citation needed ]

Over time Colombia has become a primarily Mestizo/White country due to limited immigration from Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries, with the minorities being: the Mulattoes and Pardos living primarily in the coastal areas; and pockets of Amerindians living around the rural areas and the Amazonian Basin regions of the country.[ citation needed ]

An extraofficial estimate considers that the 49% of the Colombian population is Mestizo or of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry. Approximately 37% is of European ancestry (predominantly Spanish, and a part of Italian, French, and German) and of Middle Eastern ancestry. 10.6% is of African ancestry. Indigenous Amerindians comprise 3.4% of the population. 0.01% of the population are Roma. [39] The 2005 census reported that the "non-ethnic population", consisting of whites and mestizos (those of mixed white European and Amerindian ancestry), constituted 86% of the national population. [39]

Ecuador

During the colonial era, the majority of Ecuadorians were Amerindians and the minorities were the White Spanish Conquistadors, who came with Francisco Pizarro and Sebastian de Benalcazar. With the passage of time these Spanish conquerors and succeeding Spanish colonists sired offspring with the local Amerindian population, since Spanish immigration did not initially include many white females to the colonies. In a couple of generations a predominately mestizo population emerged in Ecuador with a drastically declining Amerindian Population due to European diseases and wars.[ citation needed ]

Afro-Ecuadorians (Zambos and Mulattoes), who are a minority in the country, can be found mostly in the Esmeraldas Province, in the Valle del Chota of the Imbabura Province, and as small communities of Afro-Ecuadorians living along the coastal areas as minorities.

Mestizos are by far the largest of all the ethnic groups, and comprise 71.9% of the current population. The next 28% of the population is comprised by four ethnic groups with about 7% each, the Montubios, Afroecuadorian, Amerindian (Indigenous) and White.

Paraguay

During the reign of José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, the first consul of Paraguay from 1811 to 1840, he imposed a law that no Spaniard may intermarry with another Spaniard, and that they may only wed mestizos or Indians.[ citation needed ] This was introduced to eliminate any sense of racial superiority, and also to end the predominantly Spanish influence in Paraguay. De Francia himself was not a mestizo (although his paternal grandfather was Afro-Brazilian), but feared that racial superiority would create class division which would threaten his absolute rule.

As a result of this, today 90% of Paraguay's population are mestizo, and the main language is the native Guaraní, spoken by 60% of the population as a first language, with Spanish spoken as a first language by 40% of the population, and fluently spoken by 75%, making Paraguay one of the most bilingual countries in the world. Although it did not had the exposition to miscegenation as de Francia wanted, after the tremendous decline of male population as a result of the War of the Triple Alliance, European male worker émigrés mixed with the female mestizo population so as that pushed a middle class of mestizo background largely accepted as a configuration of the country.[ citation needed ]

Peru

Mestizo-Mestiza, Peru, circa 1770. Mestizo. Mestiza. Mestiza.jpg
Mestizo-Mestiza, Peru, circa 1770.

According to Alberto Flores Galindo, "By the 1940 census, the last that utilized racial categories, mestizos were grouped with whites, and the two constituted more than 53% of the population. Mestizos likely outnumbered Indians and were the largest population group." [40]

Venezuela

Mestizos are the majority in Venezuela, accounting for 51.6% of the country's population. According to D'Ambrosio [41] 57.1% of mestizos have mostly European characteristics, 28.5% have mostly African characteristics and 14.2% have mostly Amerindian characteristics.

Notable mestizos migrating to Europe

Martín Cortés, son of the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés and of the NahuatlMaya indigenous Mexican interpreter Malinche, was one of the first documented mestizos to arrive in Spain. His first trip occurred in 1528, when he accompanied his father, Hernán Cortés, who sought to have him legitimized by the Pope.

There is also verified evidence of the grandchildren of Moctezuma II, Aztec emperor, whose royal descent the Spanish crown acknowledged, willingly having set foot on European soil. Among these descendants are the Counts of Miravalle, and the Dukes of Moctezuma de Tultengo, who became part of the Spanish peerage and left many descendants in Europe. [42] The Counts of Miravalle, residing in Andalucía, Spain, demanded in 2003 that the government of Mexico recommence payment of the so-called 'Moctezuma pensions' it had cancelled in 1934.

The mestizo historian Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of Spanish conquistador Sebastián Garcilaso de la Vega and of the Inca princess Isabel Chimpo Oclloun arrived in Spain from Peru. He lived in the town of Montilla, Andalucía, where he died in 1616. The mestizo children of Francisco Pizarro were also military leaders because of their famous father. Starting in the early 19th and throughout the 1980s, France and Sweden saw the arrival of hundreds of Chileans, many of whom fled Chile during the dictatorial government of Augusto Pinochet.

Hispanic Asia and Oceania

Philippines

Quezon.jpg
Josefina balderas madrid JPG Form.jpg
Marcelo-Azcarraga-Palmero-1898.jpg
Left to right: [1] Manuel L. Quezon, the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935–1944)— a Spanish mestizo, [2] A Spanish mestiza belonging to the Principalía of Iloilo, [3] the Spanish Prime Minister Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero.
Spanish Filipino mestizo couple c. 1846 Spanish mestizo costume.jpg
Spanish Filipino mestizo couple c. 1846

In the Philippines, the word "mestizo" [10] and usually shortened as Tisoy as a modern usage, today generally denotes Filipinos of mixed Austronesian and any non-native, usually white, ethnicity.

Mestizos in the Philippines are traditionally a blend of Austronesian, Chinese, Spanish, Southern European or Latin American ancestry and are primarily descendants of viajeros (sailors who plied the Manila-Acapulco Galleon route), soldados (soldiers) and negociantes (merchants who were primarily Spanish, Chinese, or themselves mestizos). Because of this, most mestizos in the Philippines are concentrated in the urban areas and large towns of the islands such as Manila, Iloilo, Zamboanga, Cebu and Vigan. In these provinces of the Philippines, many Spaniards and foreign merchants intermarried with the rich and landed MalayoPolynesian local nobilities. From these unions, a new cultural group was formed, the mestizo class. [43] Their descendants emerged later to become an influential part of the colonial government, and of the Principalía, [44] among whom were Manuel L. Quezon, the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935–1944); and Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero who even became interim Prime Minister of Spain on August 8, 1897 until October 4 of that same year. Azcárraga also went on to become Prime Minister of Spain again in two more separate terms of office. In 1904, he was granted Knighthood in the very exclusive Spanish chilvalric Order of the Golden Fleece — the only mestizo recipient of this prestigious award.

More recent migrations and interracial marriages beginning in the 20th century resulted in a greater variety of racial admixture with non-Iberian Europeans, White Americans and other Asians.

Guam and Northern Mariana Islands

In Guam and Northern Mariana Islands, the term "mestizo" was borrowed from the Spanish language and was formerly used to identify people of mixed Pacific Islander and Spanish ancestry; however, as the United States gained control of these islands after the Spanish–American War in 1898, the term "Multiracial" replaced "Mestizo".[ citation needed ]

Mestizos/Multiracials currently form a small minority of the population. Because most Guamanians and Northern Mariana Islanders were also given Spanish surnames as part of the Spanish East Indies, persons of white American and other non-Spanish European descent with Spanish surnames may be mistaken as having such descent.[ citation needed ][ clarification needed ]

Former Portuguese colonies

Jose Ramos-Horta, 1996 Nobel Peace Prize winner, former President of East Timor. EastTimor.JoseRamosHorta.01.jpg
José Ramos-Horta, 1996 Nobel Peace Prize winner, former President of East Timor.

Lusophone South America

Brazilian mestiço

In Brazil, the word mestiço is used to describe individuals born from any mixture of different ethnicities or races, not specifying any relation to Amerindian or European descent whatsoever. The Mixed Race Day, or Mestizo Day (Dia do Mestiço), on June 27, is official event in States of Amazonas, Roraima e Paraíba and a holyday in two cities.

One of the most notorious group is the pardo (brown people), also informally known as moreno (tan skinned people; given its euphemism-like nature, it may be interpreted as offensive). They include mostly those of non-light (and non-black) skin color. Nevertheless, not all pardos are mestiços. For example, an Amerindian (initially and most often índio, often more formally indígena, rarely ameríndio, an East Indian (indiano)) or a Filipino may be initially described as pardo/parda (in opposition to branco, white, negro, black, and amarelo, yellow) if his or her race is unknown, and it is testified by the initial discovery reports of Portuguese navigators. In the same way, mestiço, a term used to describe anyone with any degree of miscegenation in one's blood line, may apply to all said groups (that in Portugal and its ex-colonies, always depended solely on phenotype, meaning a brown person may have a full sibling of all other basic phenotypes and thus race groups).

Important pardo groups in Brazil are the caboclos (largely contemporary usage) or mamelucos (largely archaic usage), the mulatos, and the cafuzos. The first group is composed of the culturally assimilated Amerindians as well as the brown-skinned descendants or children of both whites or moreno (swarthy) people of otherwise Caucasian phenotype and Amerindians. They are an important group in the Northern (Amazon Basin) region, but also relatively numerous on the Northeastern and Center-Western ones. Then, those, neither black- nor fair-skinned, whose origins come from the admixture between whites or morenos and blacks or cafuzos. The last group is composed of descendants of Amerindians or caboclos and blacks or other cafuzos. Finally, those whose origins possess a notorious level of European ancestry and in which neither Amerindian nor African phenotypical traces are much more present than each other are sometimes known as juçaras.

Brazilian footballer Ronaldo Ronaldo-14-05-2013.jpg
Brazilian footballer Ronaldo

There are, however, important groups who are mestiços but not necessarily pardos. People of East Asian and non-Asian descent combined are known as ainokos, from the Japanese "love (ai) child (ko)" (also used for all children of illegitimate birth. Mixed children are now largely referred to as "half" or hāfu), though often, for those without contact with the term, mestiço de [East Asian nationality/ethnicity] may also be used. Sararás differ from mulatos at being fair-skinned (rather than brown-skinned), and having non-straight blond or red hair.

Other people who are not brown (and thus not pardo), but also their phenotypes by anything other than skin, hair and eye color do not match white ones but rather those of people of color may be just referred to as mestiço, without specification to skin color with an identitarian connotation (there are the distinctions, though, of mestiço claro, for the fair-skinned ones, and mestiço moreno, for those of olive skin tones). In Brazilian censuses, those people may choose to identify mostly with branco (white) or pardo (brown) or leave the question on race/color blank.

Lusophone Africa

Angolan mestiço

The mestiço are primarily of mixed European, native born indigenous Angolan or other indigenous African lineages. They tend to be Portuguese culturally and to have full Portuguese names.

Although they make up about two percent of the population, they are the socially elite and racially privileged group in the country. Historically, mestiços formed social and cultural allegiances with Portuguese colonists subsequently identifying with the Portuguese over and above their indigenous identities. Despite their loyalty, the ethnic group faced economic and political adversity at hands of the white population during times of economic hardship for whites. These actions lead to ostracizing Mestiços from their inherited economic benefits which sparked the group to take a new sociopolitical direction.

Across the 500 year Portuguese presence in the country, the Mestiço have retained their position of entitlement which is highly evident in the political, economic and cultural hierarchy in present-day Angola. Their phenotype range is broad with a number of members possessing physical characteristics that are close to others within the indigenous black non-mixed population. Since the Mestiços are generally better educated than the rest of the indigenous black population, they exercise influence in government disproportionate to their numbers.

Bissau-Guinean mestiço

1% of the population is of mixed Native African and Portuguese descent, Arab and Berber genetic influence ignored.

Mozambican mestiço

A minority population of Mozambicans of mixed Bantu and Portuguese heritage.

Mestiços of São Tomé and Príncipe

Mestiços of São Tomé and Príncipe are descendants of Portuguese colonists and African slaves brought to the islands during the early years of settlement from Benin, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola (these people also are known as filhos da terra or "children of the land").

Lusophone Asia

Sri Lankan mestiço

In Sri Lanka, the names mestiços (Portuguese for "mixed race") or casados ("married ones") were applied to people of mixed Portuguese and Sri Lankan (Sinhalese and Tamil) descent, starting in the 16th century.

French-speaking North America

Métis of Canada

Louis Riel, Canadian Metis. Louis Riel.jpg
Louis Riel, Canadian Métis.
Metis fur trader, c. 1870 Mixed blood Fur trader 1870.jpg
Métis fur trader, c. 1870
The Trapper's Bride
by Alfred Jacob Miller, 1837 The Trapper's Bride.jpg
The Trapper's Bride
by Alfred Jacob Miller, 1837
The 1725 return of an Osage bride from a trip to Paris, France. The Osage woman was married to a French soldier. Fort-orleans-return.jpg
The 1725 return of an Osage bride from a trip to Paris, France. The Osage woman was married to a French soldier.
Paul Kane's oil painting "Half-Breeds Running Buffalo" depicts a Metis buffalo hunt on the prairies of Dakota in June 1846. PaulKane-BuffaloHunt-ROM.jpg
Paul Kane's oil painting "Half-Breeds Running Buffalo" depicts a Métis buffalo hunt on the prairies of Dakota in June 1846.

A French Colonial empire in Canada, the Métis are regarded as an independent ethnic group.[ citation needed ] This community of descent consists of individuals descended from marriages of First Nation women, specifically Cree, Ojibway, and Saulteaux with Europeans, usually French, English, and Scottish laborers or merchants employed in the North American Fur Trade.[ citation needed ] Their history dates to the mid 17th century, and they have been recognized as a distinct people since the early 18th century.[ citation needed ]

Traditionally, the Métis spoke a mixed language called Michif (with various regional dialects). Michif (a phonetic spelling of the Métis pronunciation of "Métif", a variant of Métis) is also used as the name of the Métis people. The name is most commonly applied to descendants of communities in what is now southern Manitoba.[ citation needed ] The name is also applied to the descendants of similar communities in what are now Ontario, Quebec, Labrador, and the Northwest Territories, although these groups' histories are different from that of the western Métis.[ citation needed ] In Northern Manitoba some communities spoke Bungee, a combination of Gaelic, Orcadian, Cree, and Ojibwe. Bungee is now extinct.[ citation needed ]

Estimates of the number of Métis vary from 300,000 to 700,000 or more. [ citation needed ] In September 2002, the Métis people adopted a national definition of Métis for citizenship within the "Métis Nation." Based on this definition, it is estimated that there are 350,000 to 400,000 [ citation needed ] Métis Nation citizens in Canada, although many Métis classify anyone as Métis who can prove that an ancestor applied for money scrip or land scrip as part of nineteenth-century treaties with the Canadian government.[ citation needed ] However, Labrador, Quebec, and even some Acadian Métis communities are not accepted by the Métis National Council and are represented nationally by the "Congress of Aboriginal Peoples."[ citation needed ]

The Métis are recognized as Aboriginal, but not as a First Nation by the Canadian government and do not receive the same benefits granted to First Nation peoples.[ citation needed ] However, the 1982 amendments to the Canadian constitution recognize the Métis as an aboriginal people, and have enabled individual Métis to sue successfully for recognition of their traditional rights such as rights to hunt and trap.[ citation needed ] In 2003, a court ruling in Ontario found that the Métis deserve the same rights as other aboriginal communities in Canada.[ citation needed ]

Mestizo of Saint Barthélemy

In Saint Barthélemy, the term mestizo refers to people of mixed European (usually French) and East Asian ancestry. [8]

English-speaking North America

Canada

United States

An 1850s painting of John Rolfe and Pocahontas Pocahontas Rolfe full.jpg
An 1850s painting of John Rolfe and Pocahontas

The United States has a large mestizo population, as many Hispanic Americans of Mexican or Central American or South American descent are technically mestizo. However, the term "mestizo" is not used for official purposes, with Mexican Americans being classed in roughly equal proportions as "white" or "some other race" (see links), and the term "mestizo" is not in common popular use within the United States.

Many Mexican-Americans use the term Chicano, which has a strong connection with their Native heritage.

Anglo-Métis

A 19th-century community of the Métis people of Canada, the Anglo-Métis , more commonly known as Countryborn, were children of fur traders; they typically had Orcadian, Scottish, or English fathers and Aboriginal mothers. Their first languages were generally those of their mothers: Cree, Saulteaux, Assiniboine, etc. and English. Some of their fathers spoke Gaelic or Scots, leading to the development of the dialect of English known as "Bungee".

See also

General
International

Related Research Articles

Demographics of El Salvador

This article is about the demographic features of the population of El Salvador, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Mulatto is a term that is used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent, or to describe a mixed race person in general. Historically it was used as a racial classification, though it is now chiefly considered to be derogatory or offensive.

Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races. Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds. Preferred terms include mixed race, multiracial, biracial, multiethnic, polyethnic, half, half-and-half, Métis, Creole, Dougla, mestizo, mulatto, Melungeon, Criollo, quadroon, zambo, Eurasian, hapa, hāfu, garifuna and pardo. There are various other terms used that are considered insulting and offensive.

Zambo ethnic group

Zambo and cafuzo are racial terms used in the Casta caste class system of the Spanish and Portuguese empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry. Historically, the racial cross between enslaved African and Amerindians was referred to as a zambayga, then zambo, then sambo. In the United States, the word sambo is thought to refer to the racial cross between an enslaved African and a white person.

Mexicans people of the country of Mexico or who identify as culturally Mexican

Mexicans are the people of the United Mexican States, a multiethnic country in North America.

<i>Casta</i> mixed-race people of Spanish and Portuguese colonial regions in the 17th and 18th centuries

A casta was a term to describe mixed-race individuals in Spanish America, resulting from unions of European whites (españoles), Amerindians (indios), and Africans (negros). Racial categories had legal and social consequences, since racial status was an organizing principle of Spanish colonial rule. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, European elites created a complex hierarchical system of race classification. The sistema de castas or the sociedad de castas was used in the 17th and 18th century in New Spain, a vast area of land starting just below Alaska stretching all the way to the Isthmus of Panama, plus the entire Caribbean, the Floridas and Spanish Philippines, to formally rank the mixed-race people who were born during the post-Conquest period. The process of mixing ancestries in the union of people of different races was known as mestizaje. In Spanish colonial law, mixed-race castas were classified as part of the república de españoles and not the república de indios, which set Amerindians outside the Hispanic sphere. Other terminology for classification is categorization based on the degree of acculturation to Hispanic culture, which distinguished between gente de razón and gente sin razón, concurrently existed and supported the idea of the racial classification system.

Caboclo ethnic group

A caboclo is a person of mixed Indigenous Brazilian and European ancestry, or a culturally assimilated person of full Amerindian descent. In Brazil, a caboclo generally refers to this specific type of mestiço. A person of mixed Indigenous Brazilian and sub-Saharan black ancestry is known as a "cafuzo".

Ethnic groups in Central America

Central America is a region of North America formed by six Latin American countries and one (officially) Anglo-American country, Belize. As an isthmus it connects South America with the remainder of mainland North America, and comprises the following countries : Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.

White Latin Americans, or European Latin Americans, are Latin Americans who are considered white, typically due to European, or in some cases Levantine, descent. Latin American countries have often encouraged mixing of different ethnic groups for procreation, and even a small amount of European ancestry could entail significant upwards social mobility.

Chileans ethnic group

Chileans are people identified with the country of Chile, whose connection may be residential, legal, historical, or cultural. For most Chileans, several or all of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their Chilean identity. Chile is a multilingual and multicultural society, home to people of many different ethnicities and religions. Therefore, many Chileans do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship and allegiance to Chile. The overwhelming majority of Chileans are the product of varying degrees of admixture between European ethnic groups with Amerindian peoples indigenous to Chile’s modern territory.

Mexicans of European descent or European Mexicans are Mexican citizens or, people who identify with the Mexican cultural or national identity, who are of complete or predominant European descent. While the Mexican government does conduct ethnic censuses in which a Mexican has the option of identifying as “White” the results obtained from these censuses are not published. What Mexico's government publishes instead is the percentage of “light-skinned Mexicans” there are in the country, with it being 47% in 2010 and 49% in 2017. Due to its less directly racial undertones, the term “Light-skinned Mexican” has been favored by the government and media outlets over “White Mexican” as the go-to choice to refer to the segment of Mexico's population who possess European physical traits when discussing different ethno-racial dynamics in Mexico's society. Nonetheless, sometimes “White Mexican” is used.

Salvadoran Australians are Australians of Salvadoran descent. Salvadoran immigration to Australia was caused principally by economic and political turmoil in El Salvador.

Race and ethnicity in Latin America

There is no single system of races or ethnicities that covers all of Latin America, and usage of labels may vary substantially. In Mexico, for example, the category mestizo is not defined or applied the same as the corresponding category of mestiço in Brazil. In spite of these differences, the construction of race in Latin America can be contrasted with concepts of race and ethnicity in the United States. The ethno-racial composition of modern-day Latin American nations combines diverse Amerindian populations, with influence from Iberian and other European colonizers, and equally diverse African groups brought to the Americas as slave labor, and also recent immigrant groups from all over the world.

Demographics of the Southern Cone

The Southern Cone is a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, mostly south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Although geographically this includes part of Southern and Southeastern Brazil, in terms of political geography the Southern cone has traditionally comprised Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. In the narrowest sense, it only covers Argentina, Chile and Uruguay.

Ethnic groups in Latin America

The inhabitants of Latin America are from a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups and races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world. The specific composition of the group varies from country to country. Many have a predominance of European-Amerindian or Mestizo population; in others, Amerindians are a majority; some are dominated by inhabitants of European ancestry; and some countries' populations have large African or Mulatto populations.

In Mexico, the term Mestizo is used to refer to an ethnic group that can be defined by different criteria, namely a cultural criterion or a more strict biological criterion. Because of this, estimates of the number of Mestizos in Mexico do vary.

Mestizos in the United States are Latino Americans whose racial and/or ethnic identity is Mestizo, i.e. a mixed ancestry of white European and Native American from Latin America.

References

  1. "the definition of mestizo". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 en el censo de 1930 el gobierno mexicano dejó de clasificar a la población del país en tres categorías raciales, blanco, mestizo e indígena, y adoptó una nueva clasificación étnica que distinguía a los hablantes de lenguas indígenas del resto de la población, es decir de los hablantes de español. Archived 2013-08-23 at the Wayback Machine
  3. 1 2 Bartolomé, Miguel Alberto (1996). "Pluralismo cultural y redefinicion del estado en México" (PDF). Coloquio sobre derechos indígenas. Oaxaca: IOC. p. 5. ISBN   978-968-6951-31-8.
  4. 1 2 Knight, Alan (1990). "Racism, Revolution and indigenismo: Mexico 1910–1940". In Graham, Richard (ed.). The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870–1940. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 71–113 [p. 73]. ISBN   978-0-292-73856-0.
  5. 1 2 "Al respecto no debe olvidarse que en estos países buena parte de las personas consideradas biológicamente blancas son mestizas en el aspecto cultural, el que aquí nos interesa (p. 196)" (PDF). Redalyc.org. 2005-03-16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2013-06-27.
  6. "Venezuela – ETHNIC GROUPS". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  7. "El Desafío de la Historia". Eldesafiodelahistoria.com. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  8. 1 2 "Saint Barthelemy: People and Society". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  9. "mestizo". Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. 2008. a person of mixed blood; specifically: a person of mixed European and American Indian indigenous ancestry
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Further reading