Demographics of Guatemala

Last updated

The Demographics of Guatemala are diverse; the population, 17,263,239 strong, (2018 estimate) [1] primarily comprises Mestizos, Amerindians, and people of European descent. The population is divided almost evenly between rural and urban areas. [2] About 65% of the population speak Spanish, with nearly all the rest speaking Amerindian languages (there are 23 officially recognized Amerindian languages). [3]

Mestizo race

Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America and the Philippines that originally referred to a person of combined European and Indigenous American descent, regardless of where the person was born. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system that was in use during the Spanish Empire's control of its American and Asian colonies. Nowadays though, particularly in Spanish America, mestizo has become more of a cultural term, with culturally mainstream Latin Americans regarded or termed as mestizos regardless of their actual ancestry and with the term Indian being reserved exclusively for people who have maintained a separate indigenous ethnic identity, language, tribal affiliation, etc. Consequently, today, the vast majority of Spanish-speaking Latin Americans are regarded as mestizos.

Contents

According to official 2012 national statistics, 39.8% of the population is Indigenous. [2]

Population

Guatemala's population (1950-2010). Guatemala Population Graph.svg
Guatemala's population (1950-2010).

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects [5] the total population estimate was 16,582,469 in 2016. The proportion of the population below the age of 15 in 2010 was 41.5%, 54.1% were aged between 15 and 65 years of age, and 4.4% were aged 65 years or older. [4]

Guatemala City is home to almost 3 million inhabitants. [6] In 1900 Guatemala had a population of 885,000. [7] Over the twentieth century Guatemala's population grew by a factor of fourteen. Even though Guatemala's population grew by a factor of 14, it still wasn't the biggest jump in that region. [8] Although Guatemala does have an increase in population, the annual population isn't the superior in that region of the world as well. [8]

Guatemala City City in Guatemala, Guatemala

Guatemala City, locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, is the capital and largest city of Guatemala, and the most populous city in Central America. The city is located in the south-central part of the country, nestled in a mountain valley called Valle de la Ermita. It is estimated that its population is about 1 million. Guatemala City is also the capital of the Municipality of Guatemala and of the Guatemala Department.

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
19503 14644.652.92.5
19553 61945.452.02.6
19604 14145.851.62.7
19654 73645.252.02.8
19705 41644.652.52.9
19756 19444.852.32.9
19807 00145.451.63.0
19857 92045.751.23.1
19908 89045.451.33.4
19959 98444.951.43.7
200011 20444.151.94.0
200512 67943.252.64.3
201014 34241.554.14.4

Population by departments

In Guatemala, there are 22 departments that make up the country. Each department has its own population, with Guatemala City ranking at 1 with the highest population and El Progreso ranking at 22 with the lowest population. [9]

Departments of Guatemala Political subdivision of Guatemala

Guatemala is divided into 22 departments which are in turn divided into 340 municipalities.

Rank Department Pop.Rank Department Pop.Rank Department Pop.
1 Guatemala 3,306,39710 Suchitepéquez 555,26118 Retalhuleu 325,556
2 Huehuetenango 1,234,59311 Sololá 430,57319 Baja Verapaz 291,903
3 Alta Verapaz 1,219,58512 Jutiapa 489,08520 Zacapa 291,903
4 San Marcos 1,095,99713 Izabal 445,12521 Totonicapán 134,373
5Quiché955,70514 Chiquimula 397,20222El Progreso22,654.00
6 Quetzaltenango 844,90615 Santa Rosa 367,569
7 Escuintla 746,30916 Jalapa 345,926
8 Petén 711,58517 Sacatepéquez 336,606
9 Chimaltenango 666,93818Total15,806,675 (2014)
Source: National Institute of Statistics (INE). [10]

According to the table, Guatemala City accounts for 20% of the entire population in Guatemala, while El Progreso only accounts for 0.14% of the population. Sololá accounts for 2.7% of the population while ranking in the middle at 11. Overall, the rankings correlate to the percent of the population that each department contains.

El Progreso Department Department in Guastatoya, Guatemala

El Progreso is a department in Guatemala. The departmental capital is Guastatoya. The Spanish established themselves in the region by 1551, after the Spanish conquest of Guatemala. El Progreso was declared a department in 1908, but was dissolved in 1920 before being reestablished in 1934. Guastatoya was badly affected by the 1976 Guatemala earthquake.

Emigration

The Guatemalan civil war from 1960 to 1996 led to mass emigration, particularly Guatemalan immigration to the United States. According to the International Organization for Migration, the total number of emigrants increased from 6,700 in the 1960s to 558,776 for the period 1995-2000; by 2005, the total number had reached 1.3 million. [11] In 2013, the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) estimated that there were about 900,000 Guatemalan Americans (persons of Guatemalan origin in the United States). [12]

CountryCount
Flag of the United States.svg United States 480,665 [13]  – 1,489,426 [14]
Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico 23,529 [14]
Flag of Belize.svg Belize 14,693 [14]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada 14,256 [14]  – 34,665 [15]
Flag of Germany.svg Germany 5,989 [14]
Flag of Honduras.svg Honduras 5,172 [14]
Flag of El Salvador.svg El Salvador 4,209 [14]
Flag of Spain.svg Spain 2,491 [14]

Ethnic groups

Indigenous girls in Chichicastenango Chichicastenango-004.jpg
Indigenous girls in Chichicastenango

Ethnic Groups in Guatemala % [2] [3] [16]

   Mestizos (41.0%)
   Amerindians (38.9%)
   Whites (18.5%)
   Blacks (1.0%)
   Asians (0.6%)

Official 2012 statistics indicate that approximately 60.2% of the population is "non-Indigenous", [2] referring to the Mestizo population and the people of European origin. These people are called Ladino in Guatemala.

Approximately 39.8% of the population is Indigenous [2] and consist of 23 Maya groups and one non-Maya group. These are divided as follows: (K'iche 9.1%, 8.4% Kaqchikel, Mam 7.9%, 6.3% Q'eqchi', other Maya peoples 8.6%, 0.2% Indigenous non-Maya). [3] They live all over the country, especially in the highlands.

Other racial groups include numbers of Afro-Guatemalans, Afro-Mestizos, and Garifuna of mixed African and Indigenous Caribbean origins who live in the country's eastern end. Some Garifunas live mainly in Livingston, San Vicente and Puerto Barrios. They descend mainly from the Arawaks and Belizean Creoles. [3]

There are thousands of Arab Guatemalans descending from; Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and other Arab countries who reside in Guatemala City. Some belong to Christian Churches while others to Islamic Mosques.

There are also thousands of Jews residing in Guatemala. They are immigrants from Germany and Eastern Europe that arrived in the 19th century. Many immigrated during World War II. There are approximately 9,000 Jews living in Guatemala today. Most live in Guatemala City, Quezaltenango and San Marcos. Today, the Jewish community in Guatemala is made up of Orthodox Jews, Sephardi, Eastern European and German Jews.

In 2014, numerous members of the Hassidic communities Lev Tahor and Toiras Jesed began settling in the village of San Juan La Laguna. The mainstream Jewish community was reportedly dismayed and concerned that the arrival of communities with a more visible adherence to Judaism might stir up anti-Jewish sentiment. Despite the tropical heat, the members of the community continued to wear the traditional ancient Jewish clothing. [17] [18] [19]

Asian Guatemalans are primarily of Korean descent[ citation needed ] and Chinese descent, whose ancestors were farm workers and railroad laborers in the early 20th century.

History

The Maya Civilization ruled Guatemala and the surrounding regions until around 1,000 A.D. Following 1,000 A.D., Guatemala became a Spanish colony for approximately three centuries, until in 1821 when Guatemala won its independence. Since the independence of Guatemala, the country has experienced a wide range of governments, including civilian and military governments. In 1996, a peace treaty was signed by the government that ended internal conflicts within the region, which caused over 200,000 casualties and approximately one million refugees. [20]

White Guatemalans

Approximately, 18.5% of the population is considered White or Caucasian, accounts for more than 3 million of the population. Most are of Spanish or German descent, but there is a considerable number of people of Italian, Belgian, French, British, Swiss, Finnish, Russian and Hungarian descent.

The departments of Zacapa and Chiquimula are half or predominantly of Spanish descent, with castizos, the white populations make up more than 80% in these departments, where many European immigrants arrived, mainly the 19th and 20th centuries. In Guatemala City there is a significant amount of minority descendants of Europeans (35-40%), and other minorities with more than 20% in Coban, Carlos V, and Xelaju.

Mestizo Guatemalans

Guatemalan Mestizos are people of mixed European and indigenous ancestry. The Mestizo population is heavily populated in urban areas of the country (the national capital and departmental capitals). [21]

Historically, the Mestizo population in the Kingdom of Guatemala at the time of Independence amounted to nearly 600,000 Indians, 300,000 Castas (mostly Mestizos and a lesser number of Mulattos, Zambos, and Pardos), and 45,000 Criollos or Spanish, with a very small number of Spaniards. [22]

Indigenous Guatemalans

The Amerindian populations in Guatemala include the K'iche' 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9% and Q'eqchi 6.3%. 8.6% belongs to other Maya groups, 0.4% belong to non-Maya Indigenous peoples. The whole Indigenous community in Guatemala is about 40.5% of the population. [23]

Languages

The official language of Guatemala is Spanish. It is spoken by nearly 93% of the population and is found mainly in the departments of the Southern region, Eastern region, Guatemala City and Peten. [24] Though the official language is Spanish, it is often the second language among the Indigenous population.

Approximately 23 additional Amerindian languages are spoken by more than 40% of the population. [25] 21 Mayan languages, one indigenous, and one Arawakan are spoken in Guatemala. [26] The most significant are; Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna and Xinca. [25]

There are also significant numbers of German, Chinese, French and English speakers.

RankLanguageLanguage Family
1SpanishIndo-European
2K’iche’Mayan
3Q'eqchi'Mayan
4KaqchikelMayan
5MamMayan
6PoqomchiMayan
7Tz’utujilMayan
8AchíMayan
9Q’anjob’alMayan
10IxilMayan
11AkatekMayan
12JakaltekMayan
13ChujMayan
14PoqomamMayan
15Ch'orti'Mayan
16AwakatekMayan
17SakapultekMayan
18SipakapaMayan
19GarífunaArawakan
20UspantekMayan
21TektitekMayan
22MopanMayan
23Xincan languagesIsolate
24ItzaMayan

. [26]

Vital statistics

UN estimates

The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [27]

PeriodLive births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR*CDR*NC*TFR*IMR*Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
males
Life expectancy
females
1950-1955170 00075 00095 00050.322.328.07.0014142.541.843.3
1955-1960183 00078 000104 00047.020.226.96.6013444.543.745.4
1960-1965204 00080 000124 00046.018.028.06.5012747.146.248.1
1965-1970227 00080 000146 00044.715.828.86.3011650.149.051.3
1970-1975255 00079 000177 00044.013.530.46.2010253.952.455.4
1975-1980287 00080 000206 00043.512.231.36.209156.254.458.2
1980-1985315 00081 000234 00042.210.931.36.107958.356.160.8
1985-1990333 00079 000254 00039.69.430.25.706760.958.363.8
1990-1995367 00076 000291 00038.98.130.85.455563.560.566.9
1995-2000396 00073 000322 00037.36.930.45.004666.362.970.0
2000-2005427 00072 000355 00035.86.129.74.603969.065.572.5
2005-2010449 00077 000373 00033.35.727.64.153070.366.773.8
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Over the course of 60 years, live births per year has increased by a factor of 2.6, while the deaths per year has only increased by a factor of 1.0. This suggests that the natural change per year has increased by a factor of 3.9. The crude birth rate has decreased from 50.3 births per 1,000 population to only 33.3 births per 1,000 population. Meanwhile, the crude death rate has decreased from 22.3 deaths per 1,000 population to 5.6 deaths per 1,000 population. The CDR and CBR correlate to the rate of natural change, which has fluctuated over the 60 year time period. The total fertility rate has decreased from 7.00 children per woman to 4.15 children per woman and the infant mortality rate decreased from 141 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to 30 infant deaths per 1,000 live births. The TFR decreases due to the decreased IMR. [28] Lastly, the table shows the total life expectancy for males and/or females. Overall, the total life expectancy has increased from approximately 43 years to approximately 70 years. [29]

Registered annual data

[30] [31]

Average populationLive birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)TFR
19301 760 000100 00043 50056 50056.824.732.1
19311 810 00099 00044 00055 00054.724.330.4
19321 860 00093 60043 90049 70050.323.626.7
19331 910 00090 70052 10038 60047.527.320.2
19341 940 00092 20560 05132 15447.531.016.6
19351 980 00096 03154 78941 24248.527.720.8
19362 020 00097 64650 60447 04248.325.123.3
19372 070 00096 98151 02745 95446.924.722.2
19382 110 00098 90656 13142 77546.926.620.3
19392 150 000102 90864 11738 79147.929.818.0
19402 200 000106 99855 08351 91548.625.023.6
19412 250 000103 68856 44447 24446.125.121.0
19422 300 000107 51972 47735 04246.731.515.2
19432 340 000112 40772 83739 57048.031.116.9
19442 390 000111 32463 06848 25646.626.420.2
19452 440 000118 91259 73259 18048.724.524.3
19462 500 000120 52561 64158 88448.224.723.6
19472 570 000134 06663 31670 75052.224.627.5
19482 641 000137 00962 09074 91951.923.528.4
19492 724 000140 59659 27781 31951.621.829.9
19503 146 000142 67361 23481 43948.120.627.4
19513 238 000151 41656 55094 86649.618.531.1
19523 331 000151 86571 99479 87148.322.925.4
19533 426 000156 37770 79485 58348.321.926.4
19543 521 000162 77358 132104 64148.917.431.4
19553 619 000158 85667 08891 76846.319.626.7
19563 719 000163 30166 28097 02146.218.827.5
19573 820 000170 38170 93399 44846.919.527.4
19583 924 000172 74575 63497 11146.220.226.0
19594 031 000181 74063 010118 73047.216.430.8
19604 141 000186 47665 805120 67147.116.630.4
19614 253 000193 83363 287130 54647.515.532.0
19624 369 000191 42069 287122 13345.616.529.1
19634 488 000197 67171 449126 22245.816.629.2
19644 610 000196 38668 278128 10844.215.428.9
19654 736 000201 05974 830126 22944.016.427.6
19664 864 000206 52075 774130 74644.016.127.8
19674 996 000201 81671 191130 62541.814.827.1
19685 132 000211 67979 421132 25842.716.026.7
19695 271 000215 39785 174130 22342.216.725.5
19705 416 000212 15177 333134 81840.514.725.7
19715 565 000229 67475 223154 45142.614.028.6
19725 719 000241 59367 989173 60443.612.331.3
19735 877 000238 49869 454169 04441.812.229.6
19746 036 000252 20369 820182 38343.011.931.1
19756 194 000249 33278 708170 62441.413.128.4
19766 352 000266 72881 627185 10143.213.230.0
19776 510 000284 74771 777212 97045.011.333.6
19786 669 000286 41566 844219 57144.110.333.8
19796 832 000295 97272 274223 69844.510.933.6
19807 001 000303 64371 352232 29144.510.534.1
19817 177 000308 41375 658232 75544.110.833.3
19827 358 000312 04776 267235 78043.510.632.9
19837 543 000306 82774 462232 36541.710.131.6
19847 731 000312 09475 462236 63241.310.031.4
19857 920 000326 84969 455257 39442.29.033.3
19868 109 000318 34066 328252 01240.18.431.8
19878 299 000319 94266 404253 53839.48.231.2
19888 492 000337 39664 100273 29640.57.732.8
19898 688 000340 80761 548279 25939.97.232.7
19908 890 000347 20773 344273 86339.78.431.3
19919 099 000359 90472 896287 00839.68.031.5
19929 313 000363 64873 124290 52439.07.931.2
19939 533 000370 13873 870296 26838.87.731.1
19949 756 000381 49774 761306 73639.17.731.4
19959 984 000371 09165 159305 93237.26.530.6
199610 215 000377 72360 618317 10537.05.931.0
199710 450 000387 86267 691320 17137.16.530.6
199810 691 000400 13369 847330 28637.46.530.9
199910 942 000409 03465 139343 89537.46.031.4
200011 204 000425 41067 284358 12638.06.032.0
200111 479 000415 33868 041347 29736.25.930.3
200211 766 000387 28766 089321 19832.95.627.3
200312 063 000375 09266 695308 39731.15.525.6
200412 368 000383 70466 991316 71331.05.425.6
200512 679 000374 06671 039303 02729.55.623.93.8
200612 995 000368 39969 756298 64328.35.422.93.6
200713 318 000366 12870 030296 09827.45.222.23.5
200813 678 000369 76970 233299 53627.05.121.93.4
200914 017 000351 62871 707279 92125.15.120.03.1
201014 362 000361 90672 748289 15825.25.120.13.1
201114 714 000373 69272 354301 33825.44.920.53.1
201215 073 000388 61372 657315 95625.84.821.03.1
201315 438 000387 34276 639310 70325.15.020.13.1
201415 807 000386 19577 807308 38824.44.919.53.3
201516 176 000391 42580 876310 54924.25.019.22.9
201616 548 000390 38282 585307 79723.75.018.7
201716 924 000381 66481 726299 93822.54.817.7

Fertility and Births (Demographic and Health Surveys)

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR): [32] [33]

YearCBR (Total)TFR (Total)CBR (Urban)TFR (Urban)CBR (Rural)TFR (Rural)
19875.6 (4.9)4.1 (3.5)6.5 (5.8)
19955.1 (4.0)3.8 (3.0)6.2 (4.8)
1998-9938.05.0 (4.1)34.84.1 (3.4)40.15.8 (4.6)
20024.43.45.2
2008-093.62.94.2
2014-1527.33.1 (2.6)22.52.5 (2.0)31.03.7 (3.0)

Structure of the population [34]

Structure of the population (01.07.2005) (Estimates) :

Age GroupMaleFemaleTotal%
Total6 197 3996 502 38112 699 780100
0-41 035 5491 000 7632 036 31216,03
5-9921 924901 7181 823 64214,36
10-14815 791808 3281 624 11912,79
15-19685 359694 2151 379 57410,86
20-24571 385608 8791 180 2649,29
25-29446 309506 386952 6957,50
30-34340 378412 767753 1455,93
35-39270 907329 253600 1604,73
40-44225 243267 504492 7473,88
45-49191 635218 053409 6883,23
50-54175 311191 751367 0622,89
55-59149 593161 320310 9132,45
60-64113 686119 957233 6431,84
65-6994 12898 864192 9921,52
70-7474 46381 804156 2671,23
75-7950 34057 089107 4290,85
80+35 39843 73079 1280,62
Age groupMaleFemaleTotalPercent
0-142 773 2642 710 8095 484 07343,18
15-643 169 8063 510 0856 679 89152,60
65+254 329281 487535 8164,22

Structure of the population (01.07.2010) (Estimates) (Projections based on the 2002 Population Census) :

Age GroupMaleFemaleTotal%
Total7 003 3377 358 32814 361 666100
0-41 103 5211 062 2242 165 74515,08
5-91 017 180987 4902 004 67013,96
10-14906 603891 6591 798 26212,52
15-19794 459795 6881 590 14711,07
20-24646 911675 2141 322 1259,21
25-29538 214590 7461 128 9607,86
30-34418 535494 657913 1926,36
35-39323 010402 681725 6915,05
40-44258 454321 849580 3034,04
45-49215 304260 145475 4493,31
50-54182 662211 040393 7022,74
55-59165 910184 214350 1242,44
60-64139 395152 936292 3312,04
65-69103 433111 058214 4911,49
70-7481 80988 219170 0281,18
75-7960 25768 733128 9900,90
80+47 67859 778107 4560,75
Age groupMaleFemaleTotalPercent
0-143 027 3042 941 3735 968 67741,56
15-643 682 8564 089 1677 772 02354,12
65+293 177327 788620 9654,32

Structure of the population (2015): [35]

Age GroupTotal%
Total16 176 133100
0-42 262 51413.99
5-92 142 30813.24
10-141 988 54112.29
15-191 776 35210.98
20-241 553 4509.60
25-291 286 6397.95
30-341 099 0396.79
35-39889 6735.50
40-44707 1914.37
45-49563 4313.48
50-54459 4322.84
55-59377 2422.33
60-64330 8032.05
65+739 5184.57%
Age groupTotalPercent
0-146 393 36339.52
15-649 043 25255.90
65+739 5184.57

Marriage and childbearing

The legal age for females to get married in Guatemala was 14, but was raised to 16 with parental consent and 18 without in November 2015. This phenomenon, known as child marriage, is prevalent in Central America; in rural areas of Guatemala, 53% of 20 to 24 year-old women married before their 18th birthday. Once married, young girls are likely to abandon their education and are exposed to domestic and sexual violence. They are no longer seen as girls; their husbands, who are often older men, see them as servants. Frequently births are at home. Most of these women are isolated without networks of support. [36]

In most cases, motherhood comes after marriage. However, due to the fact that these young women' bodies are not entirely developed, many pregnancies result in high complications and high risks for both the mother and baby, during and after labor. [37] Because there is limited access to health services, women in Guatemala choose a different alternative when it comes to the care during and after child delivery. Pregnancies before marriage are on the rise and unmarried women make their decision based on their image more than their safety. [38] Single Guatemalan women may choose midwives as their health care provider during pregnancy and delivery to avoid feeling ashamed. [38] Other women know the midwives in the community personally so they opt for a private healthcare provider. [38] Throughout the country, midwives are known as the providers of choice for approximately 80% of the births even though they are not professionally trained. [38] This contributes to the increasing infant mortality rate of 100 per 1,000 births as reported in some Guatemalan communities. [38]

Other demographic statistics

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019. [39]

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated. [40]

Population
16,581,273 (July 2018 est.)
Ethnic groups

mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) and European 60.1%, Maya 39.3% (K'iche 11.3%, Q'eqchi 7.6%, Kaqchikel 7.4%, Mam 5.5%, other 7.5%), non-Maya, non-mestizo 0.15% (Xinca (indigenous, non-Maya), Garifuna (mixed West and Central African, Island Carib, and Arawak)), other 0.5% (2001 est.)

Age structure
Population pyramid of Guatemala in 2017 Guatemalapop.svg
Population pyramid of Guatemala in 2017
0-14 years: 34.55% (male 2,919,281 /female 2,810,329)
15-24 years: 20.23% (male 1,688,900 /female 1,665,631)
25-54 years: 35.47% (male 2,878,075 /female 3,002,920)
55-64 years: 5.28% (male 407,592 /female 468,335)
65 years and over: 4.46% (male 336,377 /female 403,833) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 22.5 years. Country comparison to the world: 179th
male: 22 years
female: 23.1 years (2018 est.)
Birth rate
24.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 50th
Death rate
5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 194th
Total fertility rate
2.87 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 58th
Net migration rate
-2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 168th
Population growth rate
1.72% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 59th
Mother's mean age at first birth
21.2 years (2014/15 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Contraceptive prevalence rate
60.6% (2014/15)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 68.7 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 61.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 13.1 (2015 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 71.8 years
male: 69.8 years
female: 73.9 years (2018 est.)
Languages
Spanish (official) 68.9%, Maya languages 30.9% (K'iche 8.7%, Q'eqchi 7%, Mam 4.6%, Kaqchikel 4.3%, other 6.3%), other 0.3% (includes Xinca and Garifuna) (2001 est.)
note: the 2003 Law of National Languages officially recognized 23 indigenous languages, including 21 Maya languages, Xinka, and Garifuna
Urbanization
urban population: 51.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.68% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Education expenditures
2.8% of GDP (2017) Country comparison to the world: 149th
Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 81.5%
male: 87.4%
female: 76.3% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 6.1%. Country comparison to the world: 151st
male: 4.6%
female: 9.1% (2016 est.)

Religion

Religion in Guatemala (1996) [41]
Religion
Roman Catholic
54%
Evangelical
25%
Atheist, None, Agnostic
8%
Others
9%
NS/NC
4%
Religion in Guatemala (2013) [41]
Religion
Roman Catholic
47%
Evangelical
40%
Atheist, None, Agnostic
9%
Others
3%
NS/NC
1%

Catholicism was the official religion during the colonial era. Protestantism has increased in recent decades. More than one third of Guatemalans are Protestant, chiefly Evangelicals and Pentecostals. Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy claim rapid growth, especially among the Indigenous Maya.

The Islamic community in Guatemala is growing, Muslim population of Guatemala is approximately 1,200. Of this population, 95% are Palestinian Arab immigrants. There is a mosque in the outskirts of Guatemala City called the Islamic Da'wah Mosque of Guatemala (Spanish: Mezquita de Aldawaa Islámica) which is available for the five daily prayers and offers classes in Islamic studies.

The president of the Islamic Community of the country is Jamal Mubarak.

Traditionally a large proportion of Guatemalans have been Catholics. This has declined, from 90% of the population in 1950, 61% in 1986, 65% in 1991 (after the visit of the Pope John Paul II), 57% in 2006, [42] and 47% in 2013. [41] Between 1882 and 1940, 2% of the population were Protestants, 17.98% were Protestant in 1978, 30% in 1986, 21% in 1991, 25.27% in 2001, 30.70% in 2006 [42] and 40% Protestant in 2014. [41]

3% of Guatemalans follow other religions. [41] 9% are non-religious. [41] Guatemalans who self-identify as atheists/agnostics were 3.25% of the population in 1982, 12% in 1991, and 9,9%% in 2006. [42] According to the Latinobarómetro, 8% of the population were irreligious in 1996, 15% in 2000, 16% in 2007, 11% in 2008, 13% in 2010, with 10% irreligious in 2014. [41] The "other religions" were 9% in 1996 to 14% one year later, and 3% in 2013. [41]

Religious Evolution in Guatemala (by national census)
Year% Catholic% Evangelic% Others% No religion
1882-194097%2%0.1%0.4%
197880.1% Decrease2.svg17.9% Increase2.svg0.8% Increase2.svg1.2% Increase2.svg
198077% Decrease2.svg19.1% Increase2.svg1.1% Increase2.svg2.8% Increase2.svg
198273.4% Decrease2.svg22.3% Increase2.svg1.1% Steady2.svg3.2% Increase2.svg
198662.9% Decrease2.svg30% Increase2.svg2% Increase2.svg6% Increase2.svg
199164.6% Increase2.svg21% Decrease2.svg2.4% Increase2.svg12% Increase2.svg
199260.4% Decrease2.svg26.4% Increase2.svg2.1% Decrease2.svg11.1% Decrease2.svg
200158.1% Decrease2.svg25.2% Decrease2.svg2.5% Increase2.svg14.2% Increase2.svg
200657.3% Decrease2.svg30.7% Increase2.svg2.1% Decrease2.svg9.9% Decrease2.svg
201047.6% Decrease2.svg31.7% Increase2.svg2.4% Increase2.svg18.3% Increase2.svg
201247.9% Increase2.svg38.2% Increase2.svg2.3% Decrease2.svg11.6% Decrease2.svg
Religious identity in Guatemala (1996-2013).
Year% Catholics% Protestants% atheist/non-religion% others
199654%25%8%13%
199754%24%6%16%
199869%19%8%3%
199960%27%9%3%
200052%29%15%4%
200158%29%7%6%
200257%29%8%6%
200359%32%7%2%
200453%33%12%2%
200557%31%10%2%
200654%34%10%2%
200748%36%15%1%
200851%36%11%2%
200954%34%9%3%
201047%39%12%2%
201155%30%11%4%
201347%40%10%3%

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