Demographics of Costa Rica

Last updated
Demographics of Costa Rica
Population4,857,274 [1]

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Costa Rica, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Costa Rica Country in Central America

Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica, is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island. It has a population of around 5 million in a land area of 51,060 square kilometers. An estimated 333,980 people live in the capital and largest city, San José with around 2 million people in the surrounding metropolitan area.

Population density A measurement of population numbers per unit area or volume

Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square.

Ethnic group Socially defined category of people who identify with each other

An ethnic group or an ethnicity is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation. Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art or physical appearance.


According to the United Nations, in 2016 Costa Rica had an estimated population of 4,857,274 people. White and Mestizos make up 83.4% of the population, 7% are black people (including mixed race), 2.4% Amerindians, 0.2% Asians, and 7% other/none. [2]

United Nations Intergovernmental organization

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.

Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations. As such, the meaning of the expression varies widely both between and within societies, and depends significantly on context. For many other individuals, communities and countries, "black" is also perceived as a derogatory, outdated, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, and as a result is neither used nor defined.

In 2010, just under 3% of the population is of black African descent who are called Afro-Costa Ricans or West Indians and are English-speaking descendants of 19th-century black Jamaican immigrant workers. Another 1% is composed of ethnic Chinese, and less than 1% are Middle Easterners, mainly of Lebanese descent but also Palestinians. The 2011 Census provided the following data: whites and mestizos make up 83.4% of the population, 7% are black people (including mixed race), 2.4% Amerindians, 0.2% Asians, and 7% other/none. [2]

A West Indian is a native or inhabitant of the West Indies. For more than 100 years the words West Indian specifically described natives of the West Indies, but by 1661 Europeans had begun to use it also to describe the descendants of European colonists who stayed in the West Indies. Some West Indian people reserve this term for citizens or natives of the British West Indies.

Jamaica Country in the Caribbean

Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola.

Lebanon Country in Western Asia

Lebanon, officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent.

There is also a community of North American retirees from the United States and Canada, followed by fairly large numbers of European Union expatriates (esp. Scandinavians and from Germany) come to retire as well, and Australians.[ citation needed ] Immigration to Costa Rica made up 9% of the population in 2012. This included permanent settlers as well as migrants who were hoping to reach the U.S. [3] In 2015, there were some 420,000 immigrants in Costa Rica [4] and the number of asylum seekers (mostly from Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua) rose to more than 110,000. [5] An estimated 10% of the Costa Rican population in 2014 was made up of Nicaraguans. [6]

European Union Economic and poitical union of states located in Europe

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.

As of the 2011 census, the number of Immigrants in Costa Rica totaled about 390,000 individuals, or about 9% of the country's population. Following a considerable drop from 1950 through 1980, immigration to Costa Rica has increased in recent decades.

The indigenous population today numbers about 60,000 (just over 1% of the population) with some Miskito and Garifuna (a population of mixed black African and Carib Indian descent) living in the coastal regions.

Miskito people Grupo etnico en CentroAmerica (America Central) but

The Miskito are an indigenous ethnic group in Central America, of whom many are mixed race. In the northern end of their territory, the people are primarily of African-Native American ancestry; others are of mixed African-Native American and English descent. Their territory extends from Cape Camarón, Honduras, to Río Grande, Nicaragua, along the Mosquito Coast, in the Western Caribbean Zone. Their population is estimated at 180,000 people as of 2016.

Island Caribs group of people who live in Venezuela and the Lesser Antilles islands

The Island Carib, also known as the Kalinago or simply Caribs, are an indigenous people of the Greater and Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. They have descended from the Mainland Caribs (Kalina) of South America as well as the Arawakan people of the Greater Antilles. The women and children spoke an Arawakan language known as Eyeri. Meanwhile the men spoke a carib pidgin language of Karina origins.

Costa Rica's emigration is the smallest in the Caribbean Basin and is among the smallest in the Americas. By 2015 about just 133,185 (2.77%) of the country's people live in another country as immigrants. The main destination countries are the United States (85,924), Nicaragua (10,772), Panama (7,760), Canada (5,039), Spain (3,339), Mexico (2,464), Germany (1,891), Italy (1,508), Guatemala (1,162) and Venezuela (1,127). [7]

Caribbean Basin

The Caribbean Basin is generally defined as the area running from Florida westward along the Gulf coast, then south along the Mexican coast through Central America and then eastward across the northern coast of South America. This region includes the islands of the archipelago of the West Indies. Bermuda is also included within the region even though it is in the west-central Atlantic, due to its common cultural history created by European colonization of the region, and in most of the region by the presence of a significant group of African descent.

Americas landmass comprising the continents of North America and South America

The Americas comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America. Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere and comprise the New World.

United States federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Costa Rica's population, (1961-2003). Costa Rica demography.png
Costa Rica's population, (1961-2003).

Population and ancestry

In 2016, Costa Rica had a population of 4,857,274. The population is increasing at a rate of 1.5% per year. At current trends the population will increase to 9,158,000 in about 46 years. [8] The population density is 94 people per square km, the third highest in Central America.

Approximately 40% lived in rural areas and 60% in urban areas. The rate of urbanization estimated for the period 20052015 is 2.74% per annum, [9] one of the highest among developing countries. About 75% of the population live in the upper lands (above 500 meters) where temperature is cooler and milder.

The 2011 census counted a population of 4.3 million people [10] distributed among the following groups: 83.6% whites or mestizos, 6.7% black mixed race, 2.4% Native American, 1.1% black or Afro-Caribbean; the census showed 1.1% as Other, 2.9% (141,304 people) as None, and 2.2% (107,196 people) as unspecified. [11]

In 2011, there were over 104,000 Native American or indigenous inhabitants, representing 2.4% of the population. Most of them live in secluded reservations, distributed among eight ethnic groups: Quitirrisí (in the Central Valley), Matambú or Chorotega (Guanacaste), Maleku (northern Alajuela), Bribri (southern Atlantic), Cabécar (Cordillera de Talamanca), Guaymí (southern Costa Rica, along the Panamá border), Boruca (southern Costa Rica) and Térraba (southern Costa Rica).

The population includes European Costa Ricans (of European ancestry), primarily of Spanish descent, [12] with significant numbers of Italian, German, English, Dutch, French, Irish, Portuguese, and Polish families, as well a sizable Jewish community. The majority of the Afro-Costa Ricans are Creole English-speaking descendants of 19th century black Jamaican immigrant workers.

Costa Rican school children Ninos costarricenses.JPG
Costa Rican school children

The 2011 census classified 83.6% of the population as white or Mestizo; the latter are persons of combined European and Amerindian descent. The Mulatto segment (mix of white and black) represented 6.7% and indigenous people made up 2.4% of the population. [12] Native and European mixed blood populations are far less than in other Latin American countries. Exceptions are Guanacaste, where almost half the population is visibly mestizo, a legacy of the more pervasive unions between Spanish colonists and Chorotega Amerindians through several generations, and Limón, where the vast majority of the Afro-Costa Rican community lives.

ProvinceProvince populationCityCity population
San José Province 1,345,750 San José 350,535
Alajuela Province 716,286 Alajuela 46,554
Cartago Province 432,395 Cartago 156,600
Puntarenas Province 357,483 Puntarenas 102,504
Heredia Province 354,732 Heredia 42,600
Limón Province 339,395 Puerto Limon 105,000
Guanacaste Province 264,238 Liberia 98,751


According to the United Nations, Costa Rica's literacy rate stands at 95.8%, [13] the fifth highest among American countries. Costa Rica's Education Index in 2006 was 0.882; higher than that of richer countries, such as Singapore and Mexico. Costa Rica's gross enrolment ratio is 73.0%, smaller than that of the neighbors countries of El Salvador and Honduras. [14]

All students must complete primary school and secondary school, between 6 and 15 years. Some students drop out because they must work to help support their families. In 2007 there were 536,436 pupils enrolled in 3,771 primary schools and 377,900 students attended public and private secondary schools. [15]

Costa Rica's main universities are the University of Costa Rica, in San Pedro and the National University of Costa Rica, in Heredia. Costa Rica also has several small private universities.


Costa Rica's emigration is among the smallest in the Caribbean Basin. About 3% of the country's people live in another country as immigrants. The main destination countries are the United States, Spain, Mexico and other Central American countries. In 2005, there were 127,061 Costa Ricans living in another country as immigrants. Remittances were $513,000,000 in 2006 and they represented 2.3% of the country's GDP.


Costa Rica's immigration is among the largest in the Caribbean Basin. According to the 2011 census 385,899 residents were born abroad. [16] The vast majority were born in Nicaragua (287,766). Other countries of origin were Colombia (20,514), United States (16,898), Spain (16,482) and Panama (11,250). Outward Remittances were $246,000,000 in 2006.


According to the World Bank, about 489,200 migrants lived in the country in 2010 mainly from Nicaragua, Panama, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize, while 125,306 Costa Ricans live abroad in the United States, Panama, Nicaragua, Spain, Mexico, Canada, Germany, Venezuela, Dominican Republic, and Ecuador. [17] The number of migrants declined in later years but in 2015, there were some 420,000 immigrants in Costa Rica [4] and the number of asylum seekers (mostly from Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua) rose to more than 110,000, a fivefold increase from 2012. [5] In 2016, the country was called a "magnet" for migrants from South and Central America and other countries who were hoping to reach the U.S. [18] [19]

European Costa Ricans

European Costa Ricans
Total population
c. 3,597,000 [20] [21]
Costa Rican Spanish, English
Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%, Buddhism 2% [22]
Related ethnic groups
White Latin Americans, White Caribbeans

European Costa Ricans are people from Costa Rica whose ancestry lies within the continent of Europe, most notably Spain. According to DNA studies, around 67% [23] of the population have some level of European ancestry. [20]

Percentages of the Costa Rican population by race are known as the national census does have the question of ethnicity included in its form. As for 2012 65.80% of Costa Ricans identify themselves as white/castizo and 13.65% as mestizo, giving around 80% of Caucasian population. This, however, is based in self-identification and not in scientific studies. According to PLoS Genetics Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos study of 2012, Costa Ricans have 67% of European ancestry, 29% aboriginal and 3% African. [24] According to CIA Factbook, Costa Rica has white or mestizo population of the 83.6%. [12]

Cristopher Columbus and crew were the first Europeans ever to set foot on what is now Costa Rica in Columbus last trip when he arrived to Uvita Island (modern day Limón province) in 1502. [25] Costa Rica was part of the Spanish Empire and colonized by Spaniards mostly Castilians, Basque and Sefardi Jews. After the independence large migrations of wealthy Americans, Germans, French and British businessmen [25] came to the country encouraged by the government and followed by their families and employees (many of them technicians and professionals) creating colonies and mixing with the population, especially the high and middle classes. [26] Later, more humble migrations of Italians, Spanish (mostly Catalans) and Arab (mostly Lebanese and Syrians) migrants visit the country escaping economical crisis in their home countries, setting in large, more closed colonies. [25] Polish migrants, mostly Ashkenazi Jews escaping anti-Semitism and nazi persecution in Europe also migrated to the country in large numbers. [25] In 1901 president Ascensión Esquivel Ibarra closes the country to all non-white immigration forbidding the entrance of all Black African, Chinese, Arab, Turkish or Gypsy migration in the country. After the beginning of the Spanish Civil War large migration of Republican refugees also settle in the country, mostly Castilians, Galicians and Asturians, [26] as later Chilean, Mexican and Colombian [25] migrants would leave their countries traveling to Costa Rica escaping from war or dictatorships as Costa Rica is the longest running democracy in Latin America and unlike most of its neighbors had no dictatorship during the 20th century. [25] [26]

Ethnic groups

The following listing is taken from a publication of the Costa Rica 2011 Census: [27]

Vital statistics [28] [29]

Average population (x 1000)Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)TFR
193455823 85810 02013 83844.218.625.6
193557224 93412 63012 30445.222.922.3
193658525 45011 81113 63945.221.024.2
193759925 62411 03214 59244.519.225.3
193861526 83910 42216 41745.517.727.8
193963127 02711 68715 34044.719.325.4
194064828 00411 21116 79345.318.127.2
194166428 82311 42917 39445.518.127.4
194268028 26313 55914 70443.721.022.7
194369730 46811 73418 73446.117.728.4
194471629 93511 29518 64044.216.727.5
194573632 52910 76821 76146.815.531.3
194675932 1599 97122 18845.013.931.1
194778732 60010 96721 63344.714.929.8
194880835 95610 66625 29044.513.231.3
194983236 77410 56626 20844.212.731.5
195096639 94310 48029 46341.310.830.5
195199443 06810 39032 67843.310.532.9
19521 02545 81610 67235 14444.710.434.3
19531 05845 69711 35334 34443.210.732.5
19541 09348 85710 68138 17644.79.834.9
19551 12949 80011 00039 26944.19.734.8
19561 16751 35010 47640 87444.09.035.1
19571 20652 86011 54441 31643.99.634.3
19581 24653 91910 60843 31143.38.534.8
19591 28957 80111 16046 64144.88.736.2
19601 33459 70111 03548 66644.88.336.5
19611 38260 64110 64449 99743.97.736.2
19621 43160 75011 95348 79742.58.434.1
19631 48262 82112 51950 30242.48.534.0
19641 53361 87013 52748 34340.48.831.6
19651 58362 40012 81449 58639.48.131.3
19661 63362 33011 40350 92738.27.031.2
19671 68161 22911 28949 94036.46.729.7
19681 72960 90210 65350 24935.26.229.1
19691 77659 63611 59948 03733.66.527.1
19701 82259 55711 50448 05332.76.326.4
19711 86758 13810 57547 56331.25.725.5
19721 91159 27410 85548 41931.05.725.4
19731 95658 1779 70248 47529.85.024.8
19742 00257 7499 51248 23728.94.824.1
19752 05259 1759 61549 56028.94.724.2
19762 10560 6689 35651 31228.84.424.4
19772 16264 1908 90755 28329.74.125.6
19782 22267 7228 62559 09730.53.926.6
19792 28469 3189 14360 17530.44.026.4
19802 34870 0489 26861 78029.83.926.3
19812 41572 2948 99063 30430.03.726.2
19822 48373 1689 16864 00029.53.725.8
19832 55472 9449 43263 53628.63.724.9
19842 62676 8789 93166 21729.03.825.2
19852 69984 33710 49373 84131.33.927.4
19862 77383 19410 44972 74530.03.826.3
19872 84880 32610 68769 63928.23.824.5
19882 92481 37610 94470 43227.83.724.1
19893 00183 46011 27272 18827.83.824.1
19903 07981 93911 36670 57326.63.722.9
19913 15681 11011 79269 31825.73.722.0
19923 23480 16412 25367 91124.83.821.0
19933 31279 71412 54467 17024.13.820.3
19943 39480 39113 31367 07823.73.919.8
19953 47880 30614 06166 24523.14.019.0
19963 56779 20313 99365 21022.23.918.3
19973 65878 01814 26063 75821.33.917.4
19983 75176 98214 70862 27420.53.916.6
19993 84278 52615 05263 47420.43.916.5
20003 93078 17814 94463 23419.93.816.1
20014 01376 40115 60860 79319.03.915.1
20024 09471 14415 00456 14017.43.713.7
20034 17172 93815 80057 13817.53.813.7
20044 24672 24715 94956 29817.03.813.3
20054 32071 54816 13955 40916.63.712.8
20064 39271 29116 76654 52516.23.812.4
20074 46373 14417 07156 07316.43.812.6
20084 53375 18718 02157 16616.64.012.6
20094 60175 00018 56056 44016.
20104 67070 92219 07751 84515.
20114 73873 45918 80154 65815.
20124 65273 32619 20054 12615.
20134 71370 55019 64750 90315.
20144 77371 79320 55351 24015.04.310.71.86
20154 83271 81921 03950 78014.94.310.61.75
20164 89070 00422 60347 40114.
20174 94768 81623 25145 56513.

Current vital statistics


Structure of the population [31]

Structure of the population (01.07.2017) (Estimates - the source of data is the national household survey):

Age GroupMaleFemaleTotal%
Total2 405 6362 541 0644 946 700100
0-4153 647153 302306 9496,20
5-9180 403179 809360 2127,28
10-14200 123174 821374 9447,57
15-19216 776211 077427 8538,64
20-24215 301205 588420 8898,50
25-29188 815198 789387 6047,83
30-34176 356198 185373 5417,55
35-39161 288174 851336 1397,40
40-44145 430164 672310 1026,26
45-49136 591163 412300 0036,06
50-54146 253168 407314 6606,36
55-59133 924144 718278 6425,63
60-64108 422126 063234 4854,74
65-6983 15292 321175 4733,54
70-7455 49575 098130 5932,64
75-7950 79945 51496 3131,94
80-8428 17631 12659 3021,20
85-8916 16420 77136 9350,74
90-946 15910 18816 3470,33
95+2 3623 3525 7140,11
unknown3 0002 1585 1580,10
Age groupMaleFemaleTotalPercent
0-14522 072498 5201 020 59221,63
15-641 580 1921 676 1213 256 31369,02
65+187 174248 444435 6189,23

Life expectancy at birth

PeriodLife expectancy in


PeriodLife expectancy in



Source: UN World Population Prospects [32]


Nearly all Costa Ricans speak Spanish; but many blacks speak a traditional Jamaican dialect of English, also a few of the Natives speak their own language, such as the case of the Ngobes.


Religion in Costa Rica [33] [34]

   Catholicism (70.5%)
   Protestantism (13.8%)
   Irreligion (11.3%)
   Buddhism (2.1%)
  Other religions (2.2%)

According to the World Factbook the main religions are: Roman Catholic, 76.3%; Evangelical, 13.7%; Jehovah's Witnesses, 1.3%; other Protestant, 0.7%; other, 4.8%; none, 3.2%.

The most recent nationwide survey of religion in Costa Rica , conducted in 2007 by the University of Costa Rica, found that 70.5 percent of the population identify themselves as Roman Catholics (with 44.9 percent practicing, 25.6 percent nonpracticing), 13.8 percent are Evangelical Protestants, 11.3 percent report that they do not have a religion, and 4.3 percent declare that they belong to another religion. [35]

Apart from the dominant Catholic religion, there are several other religious groups in the country. [35] Methodist, Lutheran, Episcopal, Baptist, and other Protestant groups have significant membership. [35] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) claim more than 35,000 members and has a temple in San José that served as a regional worship center for Costa Rica, Panama, Nicaragua, and Honduras. [35] [36]

Although they represent less than 1 percent of the population, Jehovah's Witnesses have a strong presence on the Caribbean coast. [35] Seventh-day Adventists operate a university that attracts students from throughout the Caribbean Basin. [35] The Unification Church maintains its continental headquarters for Latin America in San José. [35]

Non-Christian religious groups, including followers of Judaism, Islam, Taoism, Hare Krishna, Paganism, Wicca, Scientology, Tenrikyo, and the Bahá'í Faith, claim membership throughout the country, with the majority of worshipers residing in the Central Valley (the area of the capital). [35] While there is no general correlation between religion and ethnicity, indigenous peoples are more likely to practice animism than other religions. [35]

Article 75 of the Costa Rican Constitution states that the "Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman Religion is the official religion of the Republic". [37] That same article provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respects this right in practice. [35] The US government found no reports of societal abuses or discrimination based on religious belief or practice in 2007. [35]

Demographic statistics

The Basilica Los Angeles, Cartago, Costa Rica. Basilica los Angeles, Spring 2006.jpg
The Basilica Los Angeles, Cartago, Costa Rica.

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook [38]




Ethnic groups


Median age

Sex ratio

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth


Adult prevalence rate: 0.33%
People living with HIV/AIDS: 10,000
Deaths:200 (2015 est.)


See also

Related Research Articles

Central America central geographic region of the Americas

Central America is located on the southern tip of North America, or is sometimes defined as a subcontinent of the Americas, bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The combined population of Central America has been estimated to be 41,739,000 and 42,688,190.


Ecuadorians are people identified with Ecuador, a country in South America, its citizens or their descendants abroad who identify with the Ecuadorian culture and descent. Ecuador is a multiethnic society, a home to people of various ethnic origins; as a result, Ecuadorians do not equate their nationality with their ethnicity, but rather their allegiance or affinity for Ecuador. Majority of Ecuadorians trace their origins to one or more of three geographical sources of human migrations to the territory of modern Ecuador: the pre-Hispanic indigenous populations who settled the region over 15,000 years ago, the Europeans who arrived over five centuries ago, and ultimately the sub-Saharan Africans who were imported to New Spain as slaves during the same period. The mixing of two or more of these three groups established other mixed ethnic groups.

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Equatorial Guinea, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Nicaragua, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Uruguay, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Culture of Costa Rica

Costa Rican culture has been heavily influenced by Spanish culture ever since the Spanish colonization of the Americas including the territory which today forms Costa Rica. Parts of the country have other strong cultural influences, including the Caribbean province of Limón and the Cordillera de Talamanca which are influenced by Jamaican immigrants and indigenous native people, respectively.

Afro-Latin American or Black Latin American refers to Latin Americans of significant African ancestry. The term may also refer to historical or cultural elements in Latin America thought to have emanated from this community.

Nicaraguans People of Nicaragua

Nicaraguans are people inhabiting in, originating or having significant heritage from Nicaragua. Most Nicaraguans live in Nicaragua, although there is also a significant Nicaraguan diaspora, particularly in Costa Rica and the United States with smaller communities in other countries around the world. There are also people living in Nicaragua who are not Nicaraguans because they were not born or raised in Nicaragua nor have they gained citizenship.

Latin Americans are the citizens of the Latin American countries and dependencies. Latin American countries are multi-ethnic, home to people of different ethnic and national backgrounds. As a result, some Latin Americans do not take their nationality as an ethnicity, but identify themselves with both their nationality and their ancestral origins. Aside from the indigenous Amerindian population, all Latin Americans or their ancestors immigrated since 1492. Latin America has the largest diasporas of Spaniards, Portuguese, Black Africans, Italians, Lebanese and Japanese in the world. The region also has large German, French, and Jewish diasporas.

Ethnic groups in Central America

Central America is a region of North America formed by six Latin American countries and one (officially) Anglo-American country, Belize. As an isthmus it connects South America with the remainder of mainland North America, and comprises the following countries : Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.

Outline of Costa Rica Overview of and topical guide to Costa Rica

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Costa Rica:

Religion in Costa Rica

Christianity is the largest religion in Costa Rica, with Roman Catholics having the most adherents.

Afro-Costa Ricans are Costa Ricans of African ancestry.

Demographics of Colombia

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Colombia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. It is the second-most populous country in South America after Brazil.

Jamaicans ethnic group

Jamaicans are the citizens of Jamaica and their descendants in the Jamaican diaspora. Most Jamaicans are of African descent, with smaller minorities of Europeans, East Indians, Chinese and others or mixed ancestry. The bulk of the Jamaican diaspora resides in other Anglophone countries, namely Australia, Canada, United States and the United Kingdom and, to a lesser extent, other Caribbean countries and Commonwealth realms. Outside of Anglophone countries, the largest diaspora of Jamaicans lies in Costa Rica, where Jamaicans make up a significant percentage of the population.

Afro-Nicaraguan Nicaraguans of African descent

Afro-Nicaraguans are Nicaraguans of African descent in Nicaragua. They make up 9% of the population and they're the largest group of African descent in in Central America. Numbering almost 600,000, according to the CIA factbook (2011), they primarily live on the southeastern coast, the Mosquito Coast, Bluefields and Managua. The 1990 Nicaraguan national census recorded 25,000 or 1% of the population. Creoles are from the Anglo-Caribbean and speak a dialect of Jamaican patois known as Miskito Coast Creole. Nicaragua also has a Garifuna population.

Costa Ricans People from the country of Costa Rica

Costa Ricans, also called Ticos, are a group of people from a multiethnic Spanish speaking nation in Central America called Costa Rica. Costa Ricans are predominantly whites, castizos, harnizos and mestizo, but their country is considered a multiethnic society, which means that it is home to people of many different ethnic backgrounds. As a result, modern-day Costa Ricans do not consider their nationality as an ethnicity but as a citizenship with various ethnicities. Costa Rica has four small minority groups: Mulattoes, Blacks, Asians, and Amerindians. In addition to the "Indigenas", whites, mestizos, blacks and mulattoes, Costa Rica is also home to thousands of Asians. Most of the Chinese and Indians now living in the country are descendants of those that arrived during the 19th century as migrant workers.

Panamanian people or Panamanians are people identified with Panama, a country in Central America, whose connection may be residential, legal, historical, or cultural. For most Panamanians, several or all of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their Panamanian identity. Panama is a multilingual and multicultural society, home to people of many different ethnicities and religions. Therefore, many Panamanians do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship and allegiance to Panama. The overwhelming majority of Panamanians are the product of varying degrees of admixture between European ethnic groups with native Amerindians who are indigenous to Panama’s modern territory.


  1. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  2. 1 2 Costa Rica es multirracial, último censo lo pone en evidencia
  3. "Principal". 27 March 2012. Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  4. 1 2 "International Migrants by Country". 10 November 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  5. 1 2 Holpuch, Amanda (26 July 2016). "US partners with Costa Rica to protect Central American refugees". Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  6. Cherry, Andrew; Mary Dillon (2014). International Handbook of Adolescent Pregnancy: Medical, Psychosocial, and Public Health Responses. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 258. ISBN   978-1-4899-8026-7 . Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  7. Costa Rica - Emigrantes totales (in Spanish) Según los últimos datos publicados Costa Rica tiene 133.185 emigrantes, lo que supone un 2,77% de la población de Costa Rica. Si miramos el ranking de emigrantes vemos que tiene un porcentaje de emigrantes medio, ya que está en el puesto 44º de los 195 del ranking de emigrantes.
  8. "World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision, Highlights, Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.202" (PDF). United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. New York. 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  9. "Field listing: Urbanization: Costa Rica". The World Factbook . Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  10. "Costa Rica Population Statistics". 30 September 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  11. "Live Costa Rica Population Clock 2017 - Population of Costa Rica Today". Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  12. 1 2 3 Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Costa Rica". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency . Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  13. "Human development indices" (PDF). 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2008.
  14. "Human Development Report 2009: Costa Rica". Archived from the original on 11 October 2009.
  15. "Costa Rica". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.
  16. Censo 2011 Archived November 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  17. "Costa Rica country profile (from the Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011)" (PDF). World Bank . Retrieved 2011-08-17.
  18. "Costa Rica Becomes A Magnet For Migrants". Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  19. "Nicaragua, Trump, Deportations and the Affect on Family Remittances - Havana". Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  20. 1 2 "Ticos tenemos más de africanos y chinos de lo que se pensaba" [Costa Rica has more Africans and Chinese than was thought]. 12 October 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  22. "Costa Rica". The World Factbook. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  23. Wang, S; Ray, N; Rojas, W; et al. (March 21, 2008). "Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos". PLOS Genetics. 4 (3): e1000037. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000037. PMC   2265669 . PMID   18369456.
  24. Wang, S; Ray, N; Rojas, W; et al. (March 2008). "Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos Tabla". PLoS Genetics. 4 (3): e1000037. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000037. PMC   2265669 . PMID   18369456.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Costa Rica". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  26. 1 2 3 "OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION (Costa Rica)". SICREM. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  27. "Costa Rica: Población total por autoidentificación étnica-racial, según provincia y sexo. (Spanish)". Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (Costa Rica). Retrieved 2016-11-19.
  28. "United Nations Demographic Yearbooks". Retrieved 2 September 2016.
  29. "Principal". Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
  30. "Estadísticas vitales". Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos - INEC. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  31. "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics" (PDF). Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  32. "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations" . Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  33. International Religious Freedom Report 2008: Costa Rica. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (September 14, 2007)
  34. Johnson, Terrence (5 August 2012). "Buddhism in Costa Rica". Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Costa Rica: International Religious Freedom Report 2008". United States Department of State . 2008. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  36. "Costa Rica". Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 13 December 2008.
  37. "Title VI: Religion: Article 75 (As amended with regard to its number by Article 1, Law No. 5703)". 6 June 1975. Archived from the original on 21 April 2001.
  38. "Central America and Caribbean: Costa Rica: People and Society". The World Factbook. Retrieved 4 November 2016.

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition" .