Demographics of Canada

Last updated
BC
AB
SK
MB
ON
QC
NB
PE
NS
NL
YT
NT
NU
Map of Canada by State's most common ethnic ancestries.PNG
Demographics by province[ clarification needed ]

Statistics Canada conducts a country-wide census that collects demographic data every five years on the first and sixth year of each decade. The 2016 Canadian Census enumerated a total population of 35,151,728, an increase of around 5.0 percent over the 2011 figure. [1] [2] Between 2011 and May 2016, Canada's population grew by 1.7 million people, with immigrants accounting for two-thirds of the increase. [3] Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth. [4] The main drivers of population growth are immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth. [5]

Contents

Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world, [6] driven mainly by economic policy and, to a lesser extent, family reunification. [7] [8] In 2019, a total of 341,180 immigrants were admitted to Canada, mainly from Asia. [9] New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas such as Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. [10] Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees, [11] accounting for over 10 percent of annual global refugee resettlements. [12] [13]

Population

Population density of Canadian provinces and territories Population density per province by Canada gradient map (2016).svg
Population density of Canadian provinces and territories

The Canada 2016 Census had a total population count of 35,151,728 individuals, making up approximately 0.5% of the world's total population. [14] [15]

Provinces and territories

Province or territoryPopulation,

2016 Census

Population,

2011 Census

Population

Change (%),

2011–2016

Total land
area (km2)
Density
(people/km2)
House of
Commons
seats
People per
seat
NumberPercentageNumberPercentage
Flag of Ontario.svg  Ontario 13,448,49438.26%12,851,82138.39%4.64%917,74114.65121111,145
Flag of Quebec.svg  Quebec 8,164,36123.23%7,903,00123.61%3.30%1,365,1285.9878104,671
Flag of British Columbia.svg  British Columbia 4,648,05513.22%4,400,05713.14%5.63%925,1865.0242110,668
Flag of Alberta.svg  Alberta 4,067,17511.57%3,645,25710.89%11.57%642,3176.3334119,623
Flag of Manitoba.svg  Manitoba 1,278,3653.64%1,208,2683.61%5.80%553,5562.311491,312
Flag of Saskatchewan.svg  Saskatchewan 1,098,3523.12%1,033,3813.09%6.29%591,6701.861478,454
Flag of Nova Scotia.svg  Nova Scotia 923,5982.63%921,7272.75%0.20%53,33817.321183,963
Flag of New Brunswick.svg  New Brunswick 747,1012.13%751,1712.24%−0.54%71,45010.461074,710
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg  Newfoundland and Labrador 519,7161.48%514,5361.54%1.01%373,8721.39774,245
Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg  Prince Edward Island 142,9070.41%140,2040.42%1.93%5,66025.25435,727
Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg  Northwest Territories 41,7860.12%41,4620.12%0.78%1,183,0850.04141,786
Flag of Nunavut.svg  Nunavut 35,9440.10%31,9060.09%12.66%1,936,1130.02135,944
Flag of Yukon.svg  Yukon 35,8740.10%33,8970.10%5.83%474,3910.08135,874
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 35,151,728100%33,476,688100%5.00%9,093,5073.87338103,999
Sources: Statistics Canada [16] [17]

Cities

 
Largest cities or towns in Canada
Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.
1 Toronto Ontario 2,731,57111 Quebec City Quebec 531,902
2 Montreal Quebec 1,704,69412 Surrey British Columbia 517,887
3 Calgary Alberta 1,239,22013 Laval Quebec 422,993
4 Ottawa Ontario 934,24314 Halifax Nova Scotia 403,131
5 Edmonton Alberta 932,54615 London Ontario 383,822
6 Mississauga Ontario 721,59916 Markham Ontario 328,966
7 Winnipeg Manitoba 705,24417 Vaughan Ontario 306,233
8 Vancouver British Columbia 631,48618 Gatineau Quebec 276,245
9 Brampton Ontario 593,63819 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 246,376
10 Hamilton Ontario 536,91720 Longueuil Quebec 239,700

Census metropolitan areas

CMA Province PopulationCMAProvincePopulation
Toronto Ontario 5,928,040 London Ontario 494,069
Montreal Quebec 4,098,927 St. CatharinesNiagara Ontario 406,074
Vancouver British Columbia 2,463,431 Halifax Nova Scotia 403,390
Calgary Alberta 1,392,609 Oshawa Ontario 379,848
OttawaGatineau OntarioQuebec 1,323,783 Victoria British Columbia 367,770
Edmonton Alberta 1,321,426 Windsor Ontario 329,144
Quebec Quebec 800,296 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 295,095
Winnipeg Manitoba 778,489 Regina Saskatchewan 236,481
Hamilton Ontario 747,545 Sherbrooke Quebec 212,105
Kitchener
CambridgeWaterloo
Ontario 523,894 St. John's Newfoundland and Labrador 205,955
Growth rate of Canadian provinces Can Provinces by Population Growth Rate.png
Growth rate of Canadian provinces

Population growth rates

According to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/World Bank, the population in Canada increased from 1990 to 2008 with 5.6 million and 20.4% growth in population, compared to 21.7% growth in the United States and 31.2% growth in Mexico. According to the OECD/World Bank population statistics, for the same period the world population growth was 27%, a total of 1,423 million people. [20] However, over the same period, the population of France grew by 8.0%. And from 1991 to 2011, the population of the UK increased by 10.0%.

Total Fertility Rates in the 19th century

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. Source: Statistics Canada. [21] [22]

Years185118711891
Total Fertility Rate in Canada6.566.834.92

Vital statistics

[23] [24] [25] Average populationLive birthsDeathsNatural changeBirth rate (per 1,000)Death rate (per 1,000)Natural change (per 1,000) Total Fertility Rate [lower-alpha 1] [22] [26]
19005,500,000150,00089,00061,00027.216.211.0
19015,600,000175,00079,00096,00031.214.117.1
19025,760,000180,00077,000103,00031.313.417.94.8
19035,930,000186,00078,000108,00031.313.218.1
19046,100,000192,00082,000110,00031.413.517.9
19056,280,000195,00082,000113,00031.013.018.0
19066,460,000193,00085,000108,00029.913.216.7
19076,650,000196,00085,000111,00029.512.816.74.74
19086,850,000208,00086,000122,00030.312.617.7
19097,040,000213,00090,000123,00030.212.817.4
19107,250,000220,00095,000125,00030.413.117.3
19117,460,000225,000100,000125,00030.113.416.74.7
19127,610,000238,00099,000139,00031.313.019.34.62
19137,760,000246,000102,000144,00031.713.119.6
19147,910,000252,000100,000152,00031.912.619.3
19158,060,000257,000101,000156,00031.912.519.4
19168,220,000252,000107,000145,00030.713.017.7
19178,380,000244,000106,000138,00029.112.716.44.26
19188,450,000243,000134,000109,00028.815.912.9
19198,710,000241,000119,000122,00027.713.714.0
19208,880,000259,000118,000141,00029.213.315.9
19219,060,000265,000105,000160,00029.311.617.73.98
19229,230,000261,000107,000154,00028.311.616.73.86
19239,400,000251,000111,000140,00026.711.814.9
19249,560,000255,000104,000151,00026.710.915.8
19259,730,000254,000104,000150,00026.110.715.4
19269,890,000244,000113,000131,00024.711.413.3
192710,040,000244,000110,000134,00024.311.013.33.32
192810,190,000246,000114,000132,00024.111.212.9
192910,350,000243,000118,000125,00023.511.412.13.22
193010,498,000251,000113,000138,00023.910.813.13.28
193110,630,000247,000108,000139,00023.210.213.03.2
193210,794,000243,000108,000135,00022.510.012.53.08
193310,919,000229,000106,000123,00021.09.711.32.86
193411,029,000228,296105,277123,01920.79.511.22.8
193511,135,000228,396109,724118,67220.59.910.62.76
193611,242,000227,980111,111116,86920.39.910.42.70
193711,339,000227,878118,019109,85920.110.49.72.65
193811,448,000237,091110,647126,44420.79.711.02.70
193911,565,000237,991112,729125,26220.69.710.92.65
194011,682,000252,577114,717137,86021.69.811.82.77
194111,810,000263,993118,797145,19622.410.112.32.83
194211,962,000281,569117,110164,45923.59.813.72.96
194312,125,000292,943122,640170,30324.210.114.13.04
194412,291,000283,967120,393163,57424.09.814.23.01
194512,441,000300,570117,319183,25124.39.514.83.02
194612,637,000343,504118,785224,71927.29.417.83.37
194712,919,000372,443121,478250,96528.99.419.53.60
194813,167,000359,860122,974236,88627.39.318.03.44
194913,475,000367,092124,567242,52527.29.218.03.46
195013,737,000372,009124,220247,78927.19.018.03.46
195114,050,000381,092125,823255,26927.19.018.23.50
195214,496,000403,559126,385277,17427.88.719.13.64
195314,886,000417,884127,791290,09328.18.619.53.72
195415,330,000436,198124,855311,34328.58.120.33.83
195515,736,000442,937128,476314,46128.18.220.03.83
195616,123,000450,739131,961318,77828.08.219.83.86
195716,677,000469,093136,579332,51428.18.219.93.93
195817,120,000470,118135,201334,91727.57.919.63.88
195917,522,000479,275139,913339,36227.48.019.43.94
196017,909,000478,551139,693338,85826.77.818.93.895
196118,271,000475,700140,985334,71526.07.718.33.840
196218,614,000469,693143,699325,99425.27.717.53.767
196318,964,000465,767147,367318,40024.67.816.83.694
196419,325,000452,915145,850307,06523.47.515.93.449
196519,678,000418,595148,939269,65621.37.613.73.192
196620,048,000387,710149,863237,84719.37.511.92.749
196720,412,000370,894150,283220,61118.27.410.82.528
196820,744,000364,310153,196211,11417.67.410.22.386
196921,028,000369,647154,477215,17017.67.310.22.334
197021,324,000371,988155,961216,02717.47.310.12.258
197121,962,000362,187157,272204,91516.77.39.52.141
197222,218,000347,319162,413184,90615.87.48.41.98
197322,492,000343,373164,039179,33415.47.48.11.89
197422,808,000350,650166,794178,85115.37.47.91.837
197523,143,000359,323167,176191,91915.67.38.31.824
197623,450,000359,987167,009192,97815.47.28.31.796
197723,726,000361,400167,498193,90215.37.18.21.782
197823,963,000358,852168,179190,67315.07.08.01.768
197924,202,000366,064168,183197,88115.16.98.21.754
198024,516,000370,709171,473199,23615.17.08.11.74
198124,820,000371,346171,029200,31714.96.88.01.7
198225,117,000373,082174,413198,66914.86.97.91.69
198325,367,000373,689174,484199,20514.66.87.81.68
198425,608,000377,031175,727201,30414.66.87.81.65
198525,843,000375,727181,323194,40414.47.07.51.67
198626,101,000372,913184,224188,68914.37.17.21.675
198726,449,000369,742184,953184,78914.07.07.01.68
198826,795,000376,795190,011186,78414.17.17.01.68
198927,282,000392,661190,965201,69614.47.07.41.77
199027,698,000405,486191,973213,51314.66.97.71.83
199128,031,000402,533195,569206,96414.47.07.41.7
199228,367,000398,643196,535202,10814.16.97.11.71
199328,682,000388,394204,912183,48213.57.16.41.7
199428,999,000385,114207,077178,03713.37.16.11.67
199529,302,000378,016210,733167,28312.97.25.71.639
199629,611,000366,200212,880153,32012.47.25.21.592
199729,907,000348,598215,669132,92911.77.24.41.55
199830,157,000342,418218,091124,32711.47.24.11.53
199930,404,000337,249219,530117,71911.17.23.91.51
200030,689,000327,882218,062109,82010.77.13.61.49
200131,021,000333,744219,538114,20610.87.13.71.505
200231,373,000328,802223,603105,19910.57.13.41.52
200331,676,000335,202226,169109,03310.67.13.41.53
200431,941,000337,072226,584110,48810.67.13.51.53
200532,245,000342,176230,132112,04410.67.13.51.54
200632,576,000354,617228,079126,53810.97.03.91.586
200732,930,000367,864235,217132,64711.27.14.01.659
200833,318,000377,886238,617139,26911.37.24.21.681
200933,727,000380,863242,277138,58611.37.24.11.668
201034,127,000377,213247,926129,28711.17.33.81.627
201134,484,000377,636254,731122,90511.07.43.61.61
201234,880,000381,869256,965124,90410.97.43.61.614
201335,293,000380,323252,338127,98510.87.33.51.587
201435,667,000384,100258,821125,27910.87.33.51.582
201535,981,000382,392264,333118,05910.67.33.31.563
201636,503,000383,102267,213115,88910.57.33.21.543
201736,963,000376,291276,64999,64210.27.52.71.496
201837,242,000372,329283,72088,60910.17.62.51.499
2019(p)37,797,500377,246290,40486,84210.07.72.3

Current population growth

[27]

Population projection

Life expectancy at birth from 1831 to 2015

Sources: Our World In Data and the United Nations.

1831–1911 [30]

Year183118411851186118711881189119011911
Life expectancy in Years39.040.341.041.642.644.745.248.652.5

1921–1950

YearLife expectancy in
Years
YearLife expectancy in
Years
YearLife expectancy in
Years
192157.0193160.3194163.7
192257.0193261.4194264.6
192356.9193362.3194364.6
192458.8193462.7194465.3
192559.2193562.4194566.3
192657.2193662.7194666.5
192758.6193761.3194766.7
192858.4193863.3194867.3
192957.9193963.7194967.6
193058.9194064.0195068.2

1950–2015

PeriodLife expectancy in
Years
PeriodLife expectancy in
Years
1950–195569.11985–199076.8
1955–196070.31990–199577.8
1960–196571.31995–200078.6
1965–197072.22000–200579.7
1970–197573.02005–201080.8
1975–198074.32010–201581.8
1980–198575.9

Source: UN World Population Prospects [31]

Age characteristics

Population by age and gender, 2016 [32]
Age groupMaleFemaleTotalPercent
0 to 4 years973,030925,7601,898,790
5 to 9 years1,034,685983,4452,018,130
10 to 14 years985,200937,4451,922,645
15 to 19 years1,039,215986,9402,026,160
20 to 24 years1,144,4951,098,2002,242,690
25 to 29 years1,144,4701,141,5152,285,990
30 to 34 years1,148,2901,181,1102,329,395
35 to 39 years1,118,6351,169,7302,288,365
40 to 44 years1,104,4401,150,6952,255,135
45 to 49 years1,157,7601,202,2102,359,965
50 to 54 years1,318,7551,359,3202,678,075
55 to 59 years1,285,1901,335,0552,620,240
60 to 64 years1,114,8851,175,6302,290,510
65 to 69 years953,0751,019,4051,972,480
70 to 74 years677,975742,9001,420,875
75 to 79 years469,550552,3001,021,850
80 to 84 years325,765423,880749,650
85 years and over268,790501,990770,780
Total16,414,22517,062,46033,476,685
0 to 14 years2,992,9202,846,6455,839,565
15 to 64 years11,576,13011,800,40023,376,530
65 years and over2,695,1503,240,4855,935,630

Other demographics statistics

58.9% of Canadians reported being members of a single ethnic group in the 2016 Census. 31.7% of them stated “Canadian” as their single ethnic origin, followed by Chinese (7.1%), English (5.4%), East Indian (5.4%), French (5.0%), Italian (3.4%), Filipino (3.2%), German (2.8%), First Nations (North American Indian) (2.6%), Scottish (2.3%), and Irish (2.3%). [33]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019. [33]

Population pyramid of Canada in 1950 Canadapop-1950.svg
Population pyramid of Canada in 1950

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated. [26]

Population
35,881,659 (July 2018 est.)
35,623,680 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure
Population pyramid of Canada in 2017 Canadapop.svg
Population pyramid of Canada in 2017
0-14 years: 15.43% (male 2,839,236 /female 2,698,592)
15-24 years: 11.62% (male 2,145,626 /female 2,023,369)
25-54 years: 39.62% (male 7,215,261 /female 7,002,546)
55-64 years: 14.24% (male 2,538,820 /female 2,570,709)
65 years and over: 19.08% (male 3,055,560 /female 3,791,940) (2018 est.)
0-14 years: 15.44% (male 2,819,279/female 2,680,024)
15-24 years: 11.85% (male 2,171,703/female 2,048,546)
25-54 years: 39.99% (male 7,227,145/female 7,020,156)
55-64 years: 14.1% (male 2,492,120/female 2,529,652)
65 years and over: 18.63% (male 2,958,721/female 3,676,334) (2017 est.)
Median age
total: 42.4 years. Country comparison to the world: 31st
male: 41.1 years
female: 43.7 years (2018 est.)
total: 42.2 years.
male: 40.9 years
female: 43.5 years (2017 est.)
total: 40.6 years
male: 39.6 years
female: 41.5 years (2011)
Median age by province and territory, 2011
  1. Newfoundland and Labrador: 44.0
  2. Nova Scotia: 43.7
  3. New Brunswick:43.7
  4. Prince Edward Island: 42.8
  5. Quebec: 41.9
  6. British Columbia: 41.9
  7. Ontario: 40.4
  8. Yukon: 39.1
  9. Manitoba: 38.4
  10. Saskatchewan: 38.2
  11. Alberta: 36.5
  12. Northwest Territories: 32.3
  13. Nunavut: 24.1

Total: 40.6

Sources: Statistics Canada [34]
Birth rate
10.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 189th
Death rate
8.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 67th
Total fertility rate
1.6 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 180th
Net migration rate
5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 20th
5.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Population growth rate
0.72% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 139th
Mother's mean age at first birth
28.1 years (2012 est.)
Ethnic groups

Canadian 32.3%, English 18.3%, Scottish 13.9%, French 13.6%, Irish 13.4%, German 9.6%, Chinese 5.1%, Italian 4.6%, North American Indian 4.4%, East Indian 4%, other 51.6% (2016 est.)
Note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin (2016 est.)

Canadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%, Scottish 14.4%, Irish 13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese 4.5%, North American Indian 4.2%, other 50.9%
Note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin (2011 est.)

Languages

English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)

Population distribution

vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia

Religions

Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
total population: 82 years
male: 79.4 years
female: 84.8 years (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 47.3
youth dependency ratio: 23.5
elderly dependency ratio: 23.8
potential support ratio: 4.2 (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 11.6%. Country comparison to the world: 110th
male: 13.3%
female: 9.9% (2017 est.)
Urbanization
urban population: 81% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010–2015 est.)

Sex ratio:

Infant mortality rate
total: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births. Country comparison to the world: 180th
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)

Ethnicity

Ethnic origin

As data is completely self-reported, and reporting individuals may have varying definitions of "Ethnic origin" (or may not know their ethnic origin), these figures should not be considered an exact record of the relative prevalence of different ethno-cultural ancestries but rather how Canadians self-identify.

Statistics Canada projects that immigrants will represent between 24.5% and 30.0% of Canada's population in 2036, compared with 20.7% in 2011. [35] Statistics Canada further projects that visible minorities among the working-age population (15 to 64 years) will make up 33.7–34.3% of Canada's total population, compared to 22.3% in 2016. [36]

Counting both single and multiple responses, the most commonly identified ethnic origins were (2016):

Ethnic origin [37] % Population
Canadian [lower-alpha 2] 32.32%11,136,134
English 18.34%6,320,085
Scottish 13.93%4,799,010
French 13.55%4,670,595
Irish 13.43%4,627,000
German 9.64%3,322,405
Chinese 5.13%1,769,195
Italian 4.61%1,587,970
First Nations [lower-alpha 3] 4.43%1,525,565
Indian 3.99%1,374,710
Ukrainian 3.95%1,359,655
Dutch 3.23%1,111,655
Polish 3.21%1,106,585
Filipino 2.43%837,130
British, not included elsewhere 1.87%644,695
Russian 1.81%622,445
Métis 1.74%600,000
Portuguese 1.40%482,610
Welsh 1.38%474,805
Norwegian 1.34%463,275
Spanish 1.15%396,460
American 1.10%377,410
Swedish 1.02%349,640
Hungarian 1.01%348,085

The most common ethnic origins per province are as follows in 2006 [38] (total responses; only percentages 10% or higher shown; ordered by percentage of "Canadian"):

Bold indicates either that this response is dominant within this province, or that this province has the highest ratio (percentage) of this response among provinces.

Visible minority population

Visible and non-visible minority populations by group, 1996–2016
Group 1996 [39] [40] 2001 [41] 2006 [42] 2011 [43] 2016 [44]
TotalPct.TotalPct.TotalPct.TotalPct.TotalPct.
Total visible minority population3,197,4803,983,8455,068,0956,264,7507,674,580
South Asian 670,590917,0751,262,8651,567,4001,924,635
Chinese (East Asian)860,1501,029,3951,216,5651,324,7501,577,060
Black 573,860662,215783,795945,6651,198,540
Filipino 234,195308,575410,695619,310780,125
Latin American 176,970216,980304,245381,280447,325
Arab/West Asian 244,665
Arab 194,685265,550380,620523,235
Southeast Asian (except Filipino)172,765198,880239,935312,075313,260
West Asian 109,285156,700206,840264,305
Korean (East Asian)64,835100,660141,890161,130188,710
Japanese (East Asian)68,13573,31581,30087,27092,920
Visible minority, n.i.e.69,74598,91571,420106,475132,090
Multiple visible minorities 61,57573,875133,120171,935232,375
Not a visible minority25,330,64525,655,18526,172,93526,587,57526,785,480
Aboriginal identity (see breakdown below)799,005976,3051,172,7851,400,6851,673,785
European/White 24,531,64024,678,88025,000,15025,186,89025,111,695
Total population in private households28,528,12529,639,03031,241,03032,852,32034,460,065

By province and territory

Visible minority population by province and territory, 2011 [45]
Province/territoryNot a visible minority South Asian Chinese Black Filipino Latin American Arab Southeast Asian West Asian Korean Japanese Visible minority, n.i.e. Multiple visible minoritiesTotal visible minority populationTotal populationPercent visible minority
Alberta [46] 2,690,960156,665133,39074,435106,03541,30534,92041,02516,03015,00012,4156,27018,840656,3253,567,98018.39%
British Columbia [47] 2,911,295313,440438,14033,260126,04035,46514,09051,97038,96053,77038,1206,46531,1601,180,8704,324,45527.31%
Manitoba [48] 824,83025,26517,02519,61059,2209,1403,2357,5652,0403,0451,7451,7653,975153,6251,174,35013.08%
New Brunswick [49] 696,0802,4452,5404,8701,1001,1601,3807303051,8553058536017,135735,8352.33%
Newfoundland and Labrador [50] 464,5401,8551,6451,45535018537032015580602052506,930507,2701.37%
Northwest Territories [51] 16,92018538055589510511523060504575302,72040,8006.67%
Nova Scotia [52] 825,0554,9656,05020,7901,8901,3606,2901,1551,3659604457201,29047,270906,1755.22%
Nunavut [53] 3,8259565120130251530010010051031,7001.61%
Ontario [54] 9,070,800965,990629,140539,205275,380172,560151,645137,875122,53078,29029,08581,13096,7353,279,56512,651,79525.92%
Prince Edward Island [55] 130,8904851,8303908523520020534514021075704,260137,3803.10%
Quebec [56] 6,740,37583,32082,845243,62531,495116,380166,26065,85523,4456,6654,0258,89517,420850,2357,732,52511.00%
Saskatchewan [57] 787,74512,32511,3007,25516,0253,2502,0954,9101,6001,2707207451,77563,2751,008,7606.27%
Yukon [58] 23,5903654001006751100210008035352,02533,3206.08%
Canada [59] 25,186,8901,567,4001,324,750945,665619,310381,280380,620312,075206,840161,13087,270106,475171,9356,264,75032,852,32519.07%

By city over 100,000

Visible minority in Canadian cities over 100,000 people, 2016 [45]
CityPopulationVisible minority Black East Asian Latin American South Asian Southeast Asian West Asian Arab Multiracial Other
Toronto 2,731,57151.5%8.9%13.2%2.9%12.6%7.2%2.2%1.3%1.8%1.4%
Montreal 1,704,69434.2%10.3%3.7%4.1%3.3%3.5%0.9%7.3%0.7%0.3%
Calgary 1,239,22036.2%4.2%8.5%2.1%9.5%7.3%1.0%2.0%1.1%0.4%
Ottawa 934,24326.3%6.6%5.1%1.2%4.2%2.7%1.0%4.5%0.9%0.3%
Edmonton 932,54637.1%5.9%7.3%1.9%9.5%7.7%0.7%2.6%1.1%0.4%
Mississauga 721,59957.2%6.6%8.7%2.3%23.2%7.2%1.1%5.1%1.9%1.3%
Winnipeg 705,22428.0%3.9%3.6%1.0%5.4%11.8%0.4%0.7%0.9%0.4%
Vancouver 631,48651.6%1.0%30.2%1.8%6.0%8.7%1.4%0.5%1.8%0.2%
Brampton 593,63873.3%13.9%1.7%2.4%44.3%4.8%0.9%1.0%1.6%2.7%
Hamilton 536,91719.0%3.8%2.5%1.6%4.2%2.8%0.9%2.0%0.7%0.5%
Quebec City 531,9026.4%2.4%0.5%1.3%0.3%0.5%0.1%1.2%0.1%0.1%
Surrey 517,88758.5%1.8%7.8%1.4%32.8%8.8%0.7%1.1%1.2%0.4%
Laval 422,99326.1%7.8%1.0%3.1%2.1%2.1%1.0%8.2%0.3%0.1%
Halifax 403,13111.4%3.8%2.2%0.3%1.6%0.9%0.3%1.8%0.3%0.1%
London 383,82219.9%3.0%3.8%2.4%3.1%2.1%0.9%3.6%0.6%0.4%
Markham 328,96677.9%2.9%46.8%0.5%17.8%3.8%2.4%1.0%2.1%0.9%
Vaughan 306,23335.4%2.7%8.7%2.4%10.1%5.1%2.9%1.4%1.4%0.8%
Gatineau 276,24513.5%6.1%1.0%1.5%0.4%0.7%0.3%3.1%0.3%0.2%
Longueuil 239,70018.6%7.0%1.4%3.1%0.8%1.3%0.8%3.2%0.4%0.3%
Burnaby 232,75563.6%1.6%38.9%2.0%8.1%7.7%2.2%0.7%2.1%0.3%
Saskatoon 246,37619.8%2.2%3.6%0.8%5.5%5.4%0.5%1.0%0.6%0.2%
Kitchener 233,22221.8%4.1%2.6%2.6%5.0%2.9%1.2%1.8%0.8%0.8%
Windsor 217,18826.9%5.0%3.6%1.2%4.5%3.0%0.6%7.5%0.9%0.6%
Regina 215,10619.2%3.0%6.2%0.6%5.9%5.2%0.3%0.7%0.4%0.2%
Richmond 198,30976.3%0.6%55.6%0.8%7.3%7.9%0.6%0.8%2.4%0.2%
Richmond Hill 195,02260.0%2.0%32.5%0.8%7.7%2.7%10.4%1.8%1.6%0.4%
Oakville 193,83230.8%2.9%9.0%1.9%8.9%2.4%1.1%3.2%1.0%0.4%
Burlington 183,31416.0%2.1%2.9%1.3%4.8%2.0%0.6%1.4%0.6%0.4%
Greater Sudbury 161,5313.8%0.9%0.7%0.2%0.9%0.4%0.1%0.4%0.1%0.0%
Sherbrooke 161,3237.3%2.2%0.4%1.7%0.3%0.4%0.8%1.2%0.2%0.0%
Oshawa 159,45816.0%5.5%2.0%0.8%3.8%1.6%0.4%0.6%0.8%0.8%
Saguenay 145,9491.4%0.5%0.2%0.2%0.1%0.1%0.0%0.2%0.0%0.0%
Lévis 143,4142.2%0.7%0.3%0.4%0.1%0.2%0.0%0.4%0.0%0.0%
Barrie 141,43410.3%2.7%1.8%1.1%2.2%1.4%0.2%0.3%0.4%0.3%
Abbotsford 141,39733.7%1.0%3.0%0.8%25.5%2.2%0.2%0.2%0.5%0.2%
St. Catharines 133,11312.7%2.9%2.7%1.7%1.4%1.8%0.3%1.1%0.7%0.2%
Trois-Rivières 134,4133.5%1.4%0.3%0.8%0.1%0.2%0.0%0.6%0.0%0.0%
Cambridge 129,92015.6%2.5%1.4%1.3%6.2%2.1%0.3%0.8%0.4%0.6%
Coquitlam 139,28450.2%1.1%29.3%1.6%4.5%5.2%5.6%1.0%1.7%0.2%
Kingston 123,7989.7%1.5%2.7%0.7%2.0%1.1%0.4%0.8%0.4%0.1%
Whitby 128,37725.3%8.0%3.1%1.1%6.6%2.4%1.0%0.8%1.5%0.9%
Guelph 131,79418.8%2.2%3.6%1.0%5.0%4.1%1.2%0.6%0.9%0.2%
Kelowna 127,3809.5%0.8%2.9%0.6%2.6%1.6%0.3%0.2%0.3%0.2%
Saanich 114,14822.1%1.0%10.5%0.7%5.0%3.0%0.4%0.6%0.6%0.2%
Ajax 119,67756.7%16.7%3.2%1.4%20.9%5.3%2.4%1.7%2.4%2.7%
Thunder Bay 107,9094.5%0.6%1.1%0.3%0.9%0.8%0.2%0.3%0.2%0.0%
Terrebonne 111,57511.8%4.5%0.4%1.7%0.1%0.6%0.1%1.7%0.1%0.0%
St. John's 108,8607.0%1.4%1.6%0.5%1.5%0.7%0.2%1.0%0.1%0.1%
Langley 117,28518.7%1.0%8.0%0.9%4.4%3.0%0.3%0.3%0.5%0.1%
Chatham-Kent 101,6474.6%2.1%0.6%0.2%0.6%0.5%0.0%0.2%0.2%0.1%
Milton 110,12842.8%4.8%3.1%2.4%21.0%4.7%0.9%3.5%1.4%0.9%
Waterloo 104,98626.4%1.9%10.6%1.4%6.4%1.7%1.1%1.8%0.9%0.6%
Delta 102,23836.0%0.8%9.2%0.8%20.3%3.2%0.3%0.3%0.8%0.3%
Red Deer 100,41815.5%1.8%1.8%1.8%1.7%7.0%0.4%0.5%0.4%0.1%

Aboriginal population

Aboriginal population in Canada, 1996–2016 censuses
Group1996 [39] 2001 [41] 2006 [42] 2011 [43] 2016 [60]
%Total%Total%Total%Total%Total
Total Aboriginal2.8%799,0053.3%976,3053.8%1,172,7854.3%1,400,6854.9%1,673,780
First Nations 1.8%529,0402.1%608,8502.2%698,0252.6%851,5602.8%977,230
Métis 0.7%204,1151.0%292,3051.2%389,7801.4%451,7951.7%587,545
Inuit 0.14%40,2200.16%50,4850.2%59,4450.2%65,025

Note: Inuit, other Aboriginal and mixed Aboriginal groups are not listed as their own, but they are all accounted for in total Aboriginal

By province and territory

Aboriginal population by province and territory, 2011 [45]
Province/territoryNot Aboriginal First Nations Métis Inuit Aboriginal, n.i.e.Multiple Aboriginal identitiesTotal Aboriginal populationTotal population
Alberta [46] 2,690,960116,67096,8701,9853,3001,870220,6953,567,980
British Columbia [47] 2,911,295155,02069,4751,5703,7452,480232,2904,324,455
Manitoba [48] 824,830114,22578,8305801,0551,200195,8951,174,350
New Brunswick [49] 696,08016,1204,8504851,02015022,620735,835
Newfoundland and Labrador [50] 464,54019,3157,6606,2652,30026035,800507,270
Northwest Territories [51] 16,92013,3503,2504,3351854521,16040,800
Nova Scotia [52] 825,05521,89510,05069598022533,850906,175
Nunavut [53] 3,82512513027,070152027,36531,700
Ontario [54] 9,070,800201,10086,0203,3558,0402,910301,43012,651,795
Prince Edward Island [55] 130,8901,5204105523502,230137,380
Quebec [56] 6,740,37582,42540,96012,5704,4151,545141,9157,732,525
Saskatchewan [57] 787,745103,20552,4502901,120675157,7401,008,760
Yukon [58] 23,5906,58584517570257,70533,320
Canada [59] 25,186,890851,560451,79559,44026,47511,4151,400,68532,852,325

All statistics are from the Canada 2011 Census.

By city over 100,000

Aboriginal population in Canadian cities over 100,000 people, 2011 [45]
CityPopulation European Total Aboriginal First Nations Métis
Toronto 2,576,02550.2%0.7%0.5%0.2%
Montreal 1,612,64067.7%0.6%0.3%0.2%
Calgary 1,082,23567.3%2.7%1.2%1.4%
Ottawa 867,09074.2%2.1%1.2%0.7%
Edmonton 795,67564.7%5.3%2.4%2.7%
Mississauga 708,72545.8%0.5%0.3%0.1%
Winnipeg 649,99566.9%11.7%5.9%6.3%
Vancouver 590,21046.2%2.0%1.3%0.6%
Brampton 521,31532.9%0.7%0.4%0.2%
Hamilton 509,64082.3%2.0%1.6%0.3%
Quebec City 502,59595.0%0.9%0.5%0.4%
Surrey 463,34044.5%2.9%1.9%1.0%
Laval 392,72578.7%0.6%0.3%0.2%
Halifax 384,33088.4%2.5%1.5%0.8%
London 360,71582.0%1.9%1.4%0.4%
Markham 300,13527.5%0.2%0.1%0.1%
Vaughan 286,30568.4%0.2%0.1%0.0%
Gatineau 261,66586.2%3.5%1.8%1.5%
Longueuil 227,97084.8%1.0%0.6%0.0%
Burnaby 220,25539.1%1.5%0.9%0.5%
Saskatoon 218,31577.4%10.2%4.9%4.6%
Kitchener 215,95080.1%1.5%0.9%0.5%
Windsor 208,01574.8%2.3%1.3%0.9%
Regina 189,74078.6%9.9%5.8%3.9%
Richmond 189,30528.6%1.0%0.7%0.3%
Richmond Hill 184,37046.9%0.2%0.1%0.0%
Oakville 180,43077.2%0.6%0.4%0.2%
Burlington 173,49587.1%0.9%0.5%0.3%
Greater Sudbury 157,76589.1%8.2%3.8%4.1%
Sherbrooke 150,25593.6%0.9%0.5%0.3%
Oshawa 147,68088.7%2.0%1.2%0.8%
Saguenay 141,33596.6%2.5%0.8%1.6%
Lévis 135,83598.0%0.5%0.2%0.2%
Barrie 133,24089.8%2.6%1.4%1.2%
Abbotsford 130,95066.5%4.0%2.5%1.6%
St. Catharines 128,77088.3%1.9%1.2%0.6%
Trois-Rivières 126,98096.3%1.1%0.6%0.4%
Cambridge 125,06085.4%2.0%1.2%0.6%
Coquitlam 125,01554.1%2.1%1.1%0.9%
Kingston 118,93089.7%2.9%2.0%0.8%
Whitby 120,28579.5%1.2%0.7%0.4%
Guelph 120,55082.7%1.6%1.0%0.6%
Kelowna 114,57087.9%4.5%2.1%2.3%
Saanich 107,85579.3%2.7%1.5%1.1%
Ajax 109,22053.2%1.0%0.7%0.3%
Thunder Bay 105,95087.1%9.5%7.3%2.0%
Terrebonne 105,61091.7%0.7%0.5%0.1%
St. John's 103,90593.3%2.6%1.2%0.8%
Langley 103,14583.2%3.4%1.6%1.7%
Chatham-Kent 101,68093.2%2.9%1.7%0.9%

Future projections

Ethnic origin by regional group
Group2016 [61] 2036 [62] [63]
Number% of 2016 population (34,460,065)Number% of 2036 estimated population (43,816,000)
European origins25,111,69572.9%26,113,00059.6%
South Asian and Middle Eastern origins2,712,1757.9%5,672,00013.0%
East and Southeast Asian origins3,144,2109.1%5,517,00012.6%
Aboriginal origins1,673,7854.9%2,633,0006.0%
African origins1,198,5403.5%2,349,0005.4%
Latin, Central and South American origins780,1251.3%865,0002.0%
Other364,4651.1%666,0001.5%
*Percentages total over 100% due to multiple responses, e.g. German-Indian, Norwegian-Irish.

Languages

Languages in Canada
LanguagePercent
English
58%
French
22%
English and French
11%
others
9%

Language used most often at work: [64]

Languages by language used most often at home: [65]

Languages by mother tongue:

First language Population (2016)% of total population (2016)Population (2011)% of total population (2011)Population (2006)% of total population (2006)Notes
Single language responses33,947,61032,481,63530,848,270
Official languages 26,627,54525,913,95524,700,425
English 19,460,85518,858,98017,882,775
French 7,166,7007,054,9756,817,650
Non-official languages7,321,0706,567,6806,147,840
Combined Chinese Responses 1,227,680n/an/an/an/aCombined responses of Mandarin, Cantonese, Chinese n.o.s. and Min Nan
Mandarin (Standard Chinese)592,035248,705170,950
Cantonese 565,275372,460361,450
Punjabi 501,680430,705367,505
Spanish 458,850410,670345,345
Tagalog (Filipino) 431,385327,445235,615
Arabic 419,895327,870261,640
German 384,040409,200450,570
Italian 375,645407,485455,040
Hindustani 321,465263,345224,045Combined responses of Hindi and Urdu
Portuguese 221,535211,335219,275
Persian (Farsi)214,200170,045134,080
Urdu 210,820172,800145,805
Dravidian languages 189,405n/an/an/an/aCombined responses of Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu and Kannada.
Russian 188,255164,330133,580
Polish 181,705191,645211,175
Vietnamese 156,430144,880141,625
Korean 153,425137,925125,570
Tamil 140,720131,265115,880Most of the Canadian Tamils live in Toronto.
Hindi 110,64590,54578,240
Gujarati 108,77591,45081,465
Greek 106,520108,925117,285
Ukrainian 102,485111,540134,500
Dutch 99,015110,490128,900
Romanian 96,66090,30078,495
Bengali 73,12559,37045,685
Creoles 72,13061,72553,515
Cree, n.o.s. [nb 1] 64,04577,90078,855In the 2006 Census, this language was referred to simply as 'Cree'.
Hungarian 61,23567,92073,335The majority of Hungarian speakers in Canada live in Ontario. A community of Hungarian speakers is found within a part of Windsor, Ontario.
Berber languages (Kabyle)n/an/a57,85525,578
Serbian 57,34556,42051,665
Croatian 48,20049,73055,330
Japanese 43,64039,98540,200
Chinese, n.o.s. [nb 1] 38,575425,210456,705
Somali 36,76031,38027,320
Inuktitut 35,21533,50032,015In the 2006 Census, this language was referred to as 'Inuktitut, n.i.e.'. [nb 2]
Armenian 33,45529,79530,130
Turkish 32,81529,64024,745
Min Nan (Chaochow, Teochow, Fukien, Taiwanese)31,795n/an/an/an/a
Malayalam 28,57016,08011,925
Albanian 26,89523,820n/an/a
Ilocano 26,34517,91513,450
Amharic 22,46518,02014,555
Czech 22,29523,58524,450
Khmer (Cambodian) 20,13019,44019,105
Bulgarian 20,02019,05016,790
Hebrew 19,53018,45017,635
Niger–Congo languages, n.i.e. [nb 1] 19,14014,075n/an/a
Nepali 18,2758,480n/an/a
Ojibway 17,88517,62524,190
Slovak 17,58517,58018,820
Pashto 16,91012,4659,025
Macedonian 16,77017,24518,435
Tigrigna 16,65010,2207,105
Sinhala 16,33514,18510,180
Bisayan languages n/an/a16,24011,240
Telugu 15,6559,3156,625
Finnish 15,29517,41521,030
Yiddish 13,55515,20516,295
Akan (Twi) 13,46012,68012,780
Swahili 13,37510,0907,935
Wu (Shanghainese)12,920n/an/an/an/a
Oji-Cree 12,8559,83511,690
Lao 12,67012,97013,940
Danish 12,63014,14518,735
Malay 12,27510,9109,490
Bosnian 12,21011,68512,790
Sindhi 11,86011,33010,355
Kurdish 11,7059,8057,660
Hakka 10,9105,115n/an/a
Dene 10,70011,2159,745
Afrikaans 10,2608,770n/an/a
Montagnais (Innu) 10,23010,78510,975In the 2006 Census, this language was referred to as 'Montagnais-Naskapi'.
Slovenian 9,78510,77513,135
Taiwanese n/an/a9,6359,620
Serbo-Croatian 9,55510,15512,510
African languages, n.i.e. [nb 2] n/an/a9,125n/an/a
Thai 9,2557,935n/an/a
Marathi 8,2955,830n/an/a
Bantu languages, n.i.e. [nb 2] n/an/a7,150n/an/a
Lithuanian 7,0757,2458,335
Swedish 6,8407,3508,220
Mi'kmaq 6,6907,6357,365
Tibetan6,165n/an/an/an/a
Atikamekw 6,1505,8205,250
Canadian Gaelic n/an/a6,0156,015
Fukien (Fuzhou dialect)n/an/a5,925n/an/a
Rundi (Kirundi)5,8453,975n/an/a
Maltese 5,5656,2206,405
Estonian 5,4456,3858,240
Latvian 5,4556,2007,000
Kinyarwanda (Rwanda)5,2503,895n/an/a
Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e. [nb 2] 5,1805,255n/an/a
Oromo 4,96011,140n/an/a
Norwegian 4,6155,8007,225
Tibetan languages n/an/a4,640n/an/a
Sino-Tibetan languages, n.i.e. [nb 2] n/an/a4,360n/an/a
Sign languages, n.i.e. [nb 2] 4,1253,815n/an/a
Vlaams (Flemish)3,8954,6905,660
Lingala 3,8103,085n/an/a
Burmese 3,5852,985n/an/a
Stoney 3,0253,050n/an/a
Shanghainese n/an/a2,920n/an/a
Blackfoot 2,815<0.01%n/an/a3,085
Slavic languages, n.i.e. [nb 2] 2,4203,630n/an/a
Semitic languages, n.i.e. [nb 2] 2,15516,970n/an/a
Frisian 2,095<0.01%n/an/a2,890
Dogrib (Tlicho)1,645<0.01%n/an/a2,020
Tibeto-Burman languages, n.i.e. [nb 2] 1,405<0.01%n/an/an/an/a
Siouan languages (Dakota/Sioux)1,265<0.01%n/an/a5,585
Algonquin 1,260<0.01%n/an/a1,920
Scottish Gaelic 1,095<0.01%n/an/an/an/a
Welsh 1,075<0.01%n/an/an/an/a
Carrier 1,030<0.01%n/an/a1,560<0.01%
Inuinnaqtun (Inuvialuktun)1,020<0.01%n/an/a365<0.01%
Mohawk 985<0.01%n/an/a290<0.01%
South Slavey 950<0.01%n/an/a1,605
Gitxsan (Gitksan) 880<0.01%n/an/a1,180<0.01%
North Slave (Hare) 765<0.01%n/an/a1,065<0.01%
Chilcotin 655<0.01%n/an/a1,070<0.01%
Celtic languages, n.i.e. [nb 2] 530<0.01%n/an/an/an/a
Chipewyan n/an/an/an/a525<0.01%
Michif 465<0.01%n/an/an/an/a
Shuswap (Secwepemctsin)445<0.01%n/an/a935<0.01%
Nisga'a 400<0.01%n/an/a680<0.01%
Malecite 300<0.01%n/an/a535<0.01%
Kutchin-Gwich’in (Loucheux) 260<0.01%n/an/a360<0.01%
Tlingit 95<0.01%n/an/a80<0.01%
Other languages n/an/a77,890172,650
Multiple language responses818,640639,540392,760
English and French165,335144,68598,630
English and a non-official language533,260396,330240,005
French and a non-official language86,14574,43043,335
English, French, and a non-official language33,90024,09510,790
Total [66] [67] [68] 34,767,25033,121,17531,241,030
  1. 1 2 3 n.o.s. – not otherwise specified
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 n.i.e. – not included elsewhere

Religion

Statistics Canada (StatCan) grouped responses to the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) question on religion into nine core religious categories – Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality, other religions and no religious affiliation. [69] Among these,

Within the 2011 NHS results, StatCan further subcategorized Christianity in nine groups of its own – Anglican, Baptist, Catholic, Christian Orthodox, Lutheran, Pentecostal, Presbyterian, United Church and Other Christian. [69] Among these,

Of the 3,036,785 or

Religion status of the Canadian Population in 2011 [70]
ReligionTotalPercent
Buddhist 366,830
Christian 22,102,745
    Anglican 1,631,845
    Baptist 635,840
    Roman Catholic 12,810,705
    Christian Orthodox 550,690
    Lutheran 478,185
    Pentecostal 478,705
    Presbyterian 472,385
    United Church 2,007,610
   Other Christian3,036,785
Hindu 497,9601.5%
Jewish 329,500
Muslim 1,053,945
Sikh 454,965
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality64,940
Other religions130,835
No religious affiliation7,850,605

See also

BC
AB
SK
MB
ON
QC
NB
PE
NS
NL
YT
NT
NU
Blank map of Canada.svg
Demographics of Canada's provinces and territories

Notes

    1. In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and has been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and the result is that the population decreases.
    2. All citizens of Canada are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada's nationality laws. However, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestry. "Canadian" was included as an example on the English questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire. "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. Respondents generally are visibly European (Anglophones and Francophones), but no-longer self identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage.
      Source 1:Jack Jedwab (April 2008). "Our 'Cense' of Self: the 2006 Census saw 1.6 million 'Canadian'" (PDF). Association for Canadian Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2011. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
      Source 2:Don Kerr (2007). The Changing Face of Canada: Essential Readings in Population. Canadian Scholars' Press. pp. 313–317. ISBN   978-1-55130-322-2.
    3. The category "North American Indian" includes respondents who indicated that their ethnic origins were from a Canadian First Nation, or another non-Canadian North American aboriginal group (excluding Inuit and Métis).
      Source: "How Statistics Canada Identifies Aboriginal Peoples". Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 16, 2011.

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    Further reading