|Regions with significant populations|
|Tibetic languages, Canadian English, Canadian French|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Tibetans, Tibetan Americans|
Tibetan Canadians are Canadian citizens of Tibetan ancestry. Although Tibetan Canadians comprise a small portion of Asian Canadians, Canada holds one of the largest concentrations of Tibetans outside of Asia. Tibetans began immigrating to Canada as early as the early 1970s.
In 2016, the Tibetan population in Canada was recorded as being 8,040.
The majority of Tibetan-Canadians live in the Toronto metropolitan area. In 2016, there were 6,035 Tibetan-Canadians living in the Greater Toronto Area.There is a sizable Tibetan community with Tibetan businesses and restaurants, known as Little Tibet, in the Parkdale neighborhood in Toronto, in the area bound by Queen St. W. to the north, the Gardiner Expressway to the west and south, and Atlantic Ave. to the east. There is also a growing Tibetan community in South Etobicoke.
Tibetans that have migrated to Canada and other countries have been subjected to a complex and violent history. Being under the rule of the Dalai Lama, Tibet was seen as a contained region on the global scale. This was true between the years 1912 to 1950 when China was in WW1, WW2, and Civil War.During the same period of time, this was independent Tibet even the 14th Dalai Lama was approved by China to be exempted from lot-drawing process using Golden Urn in 1940.
The official religion of Tibet which was formally incorporated into the jurisdiction of China in the Yuan Dynasty in the 13th century, was Buddhism Tibet.
On 1 October 1949, the 10th Panchen Lama wrote telegraph to congratulate the liberation of the Northwest, and the establishment of People's Republic of China, he was excited to see the liberation of Tibet.In 1950, China occupied Tibet causing the Tibetan government to also be under Chinese jurisdiction. Throughout the years, culture and religion took an impact from Chinese control which was expressed through the ruination of religious statues of Tibet and the destruction of buildings that represented the Tibetan culture
In 1959, around 87,000 were killed during Chinese rule.Tibetans that practiced their religion were killed. At least 80 000 Tibetans and the Dalai Lama left Tibet to Nepal but were denied access. Then they found refuge in India. India took them, however had difficulty to give imperative services and help needed to Tibetan refugees. However, there were more migration patterns towards India in the 1980s and 1990s.
During the United Nations Convention on the Status of Refugees in 1951, India did not sign this convention. This entailed that Tibetans living in India had little rights and hence tried to find another place for resettlement.
Tibetan's nomadic lifestyle was notably present when China had a significant control over the geographical area of Tibet, the Chinese occupation. Therefore, Tibetans started to move and not submitting to this control.This means Tibetans were being displaced within their borders.
In 1970 and 1971, 240 Tibetan refugees settled into Canada from India. The resettlement of Tibetan refugees was viewed by the Canadian government as a pilot project to evaluate what the country would do in the future regarding refugee aid. It was after a direct plea from the Dalai Lama to Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson in 1966 that launched Canada's slow process to bring 60 families into their country. The first Tibetans to arrive from the resettlement group were Tsering Dorjee Wangkhang and Jampa Dorjee Drongotsang when they landed in Toronto on October 15, 1970. The two settled in Batawa, Ontario where the first Tibetan community was planned to be located. Wangkhang and Drongotsang both started working at the Bata shoe factory. Factory owner Thomas Bata had gone to India, one of the countries where Tibetans were exiled, and took the initiative to employ three to four refugees in his company.
In 2007, a two-year immigration program to bring 2,000 Tibetan refugees to Canada was organized by Prime Minister Stephen Harper after a plea by the Dalai Lama. The first 21 Tibetans flew from India to Vancouver International Airport and were expected to settle into the Toronto, Ottawa, Vancouver and Sunshine Coast areas.
Canada originally declined Tibetan refugees to settle as a group, however this changed with consultations and national meeting with the Prime minister, Pierre Elliot Trudeau. This involved the one of the previous high commissioners to India called James George. James George's impact on Pierre Elliot Trudeau helped immigration officials to be more lenient with refuge policies for Tibetans.
In the 1960s, the Canadian government accepts Tibetan refugees under a few conditions. These conditions were set under the Tibetan Refugee program. This was an experimental program that would let 228 Tibetans enter Canada quickly and at a lower cost.
It took a decade for the first Tibetan migrants to set foot in Canada. The Canadian government officials did not want Tibetans to settle in a group but on individual basis and family basis. This means that only young families and single people coming as laborers were approved to seek refuge in Canada. Additionally, Canadian immigration officials were concerned about Tibetans nomadic lifestyles and establishing/settling themselves as a group. This would pose a challenge on the integration process. If group settlement had been approved, the integration process would have been much more difficult and permanency of integration would also be a challenge for newcomers and pose issues on the governmental level.Canadian immigration officials were worried that it would pose problems. Such problems were isolation and dependence within members of the same ethnic community. Additionally, learning one of the official languages of Canada was another problem that could arise and could affect integration directly (Logan & Murdie, 2014). Moreover, immigration officials chose younger Tibetan immigrants over older immigrant groups because integration would be easier regarding the process of learning one of the official languages. Therefore, finding a job and reaching out if one needs help or services would also be affected positively.
Tibetan immigrants were also selected from towns and villages because knowing their nomadic lifestyle, immigrant officials wanted Tibetans that had sedentary patterns. Tibetans also needed to have a certain level of high education.
Integration was facilitated through “group processing” which involves refugees and the state work together to aid resettlement into Canada.
The neighbourhood of Parkdale in Toronto contains the largest concentration of Tibetan immigrants and refugees in Canada. As of the 2006 Canadian Census, around 11% of Parkdale residents were of Tibetan ethnicity, comprising 1,985 persons (62% of Toronto's total Tibetan population and 42% of Tibetans in all of Canada).According to global population estimates, this makes the Parkdale Tibetan community the largest outside of Tibet and its surrounding area.
Most of the housing in the area consists of high-rise apartment buildings and single-family homes. Compared to much of the Toronto core, rent prices in Parkdale are affordable, and the area provides many amenities and services to recent immigrants and at-risk populations. Additionally, public transit offers accessibility to the city centre of Toronto.
Parkdale's existing Tibetan community and cultural institutions encourage the continued immigration of Tibetans to the neighbourhood, with 64% of Tibetan immigrants citing the existing presence of other Tibetans as a major factor in their decision to settle in the area.Little Tibet is centred around a series of blocks on Queen Street West, consisting of a number of Tibetan restaurants and shops with diverse influences from India, Nepal and China.
Within Parkdale, a significant concern among Tibetan Canadian families is reunification with their relatives. Tibetans living in Canada that have already obtained permanent residency have found difficulty bringing their family members into Canada. Many of the relatives that have been unable to come to Canada live in Nepal and India. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) states that the Nepalese government is blocking Tibetan peoples that found refuge in Nepal after 1989 from exiting the country. India imposes that Tibetans must have a valid Identity Certificate to exit the country, and the process of obtaining this document can take several years.
The Central Tibetan Administration, often referred to as the Tibetan Government in Exile, is a non-profit political organization based in Dharamshala, India. Its organization is modeled after elective parliamentary government, composed of a judiciary branch, a legislative branch, and an executive branch.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, often shortened to Tibet or Xizang, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China in Southwest China. It was overlayed on the traditional Tibetan regions of Ü-Tsang and Kham.
Tibetan Americans are Americans of Tibetan ancestry. As of 2020, more than 26,700 Americans are estimated to have Tibetan ancestry. The majority of Tibetan Americans reside in Queens, New York.
The Seventeen Point Agreement is a short form of the Agreement of the Central People's Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, or the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet which was signed by the plenipotentiaries of the Tibetan Local Government and the plenipotentiaries of the Central People's Government on 23 May 1951, and ratified by the 14th Dalai Lama in the form of a telegram on 24 October 1951.
Zhao Erfeng (1845–1911), courtesy name Jihe, was a late Qing Dynasty official and Han Chinese bannerman, who belonged to the Plain Blue Banner. He was an assistant amban in Tibet at Chamdo in Kham. He was appointed in March, 1908 under Lien Yu, the main amban in Lhasa. Formerly Director-General of the Sichuan-Hubei Railway and acting viceroy of Sichuan province, Zhao was the much-maligned Chinese general of the late imperial era who led military campaigns throughout Kham and eventually reaching Lhasa in 1910, earning himself the nickname "the Butcher of Kham" and "Zhao the Butcher".
The history of Tibet from 1950 to the present includes the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1950, and the Battle of Chamdo. Before then, Tibet had been a "de facto" independent nation. In 1951, Tibetan representatives in Beijing signed the Seventeen-point Agreement under duress, which affirmed China's sovereignty over Tibet while it simultaneously provided for an autonomous administration led by Tibet's spiritual leader, and then-political leader, the 14th Dalai Lama. During the 1959 Tibetan uprising, when Tibetans arose to prevent his possible assassination, the Dalai Lama escaped from Tibet to northern India where he established the Central Tibetan Administration, which rescinded the Seventeen-point Agreement. The majority of Tibet's land mass, including all of U-Tsang and areas of Kham and Amdo, was officially established in 1965 as Tibet Autonomous Region, within China.
Taktser or Tengtser or Hongya Village is a village in Shihuiyao Township, Ping'an District, Haidong, in the east of Qinghai province, China,. Tibetan, Han and Hui Chinese people populate the village which is notable as the birthplace of the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso.
Wang Lixiong is a Chinese writer and scholar, best known for his political prophecy fiction, Yellow Peril, and for his writings on Tibet and provocative analysis of China's western region of Xinjiang.
The Golden Urn refers to a method introduced by the Qing dynasty of China in 1793 to prevent the occurring cheating and corruption in the selection process of rinpoches or lamas including the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama, and other high offices within Tibetan Buddhism. The process includes drawing a lot from names held inside Golden Urn. It was institutionalized in the 29-Article Ordinance for the More Effective Governing of Tibet. Article 1 states that the purpose of Golden Urn is to ensure prosperity of Gelug, and to prevent cheating and corruption in the selection process. In 1792, the Qianlong Emperor published the article The Discourse of Lama to explain the history of lamas and the cases of cheating and corruption in the reincarnation system, while also explaining why he thought the Golden Urn would be a fair system of choosing reincarnated rinpoches or lamas, as opposed to choosing reincarnated rinpoches or lamas based on private designation, or based on one person's decision and to stop a single family with multiple reincarnated rinpoches or lamas.
The Sikyong is the political leader of the Central Tibetan Administration, a Tibetan exile organisation also known as the Tibetan Government-in-Exile. The title was created in 2011 after the 14th Dalai Lama decided not to assume any political and administrative authority as the head of the Tibetan Administration for Tibetans-in-exile.
The Kashag, was the governing council of Tibet during the rule of the Qing dynasty and post-Qing period until the 1950s. It was created in 1721, and set by Qianlong Emperor in 1751 for the Ganden Phodrang in the 13-Article Ordinance for the More Effective Governing of Tibet《酌定西藏善后章程十三条》. In that year the Tibetan government was reorganized after the riots in Lhasa of the previous year. The civil administration was represented by Council (Kashag) after the post of Desi was abolished by the Qing imperial court. The Qing imperial court wanted the 7th Dalai Lama to hold both religious and administrative rule, while strengthening the position of the High Commissioners.
The 14th Dalai Lama, known as Gyalwa Rinpoche to the Tibetan people, is the current Dalai Lama, the highest spiritual leader of Tibet, and a retired political leader of the nation. Born on 6 July 1935, or in the Tibetan calendar, in the Wood-Pig Year, 5th month, 5th day, he is considered a living Bodhisattva; specifically, an emanation of Avalokiteśvara. He is also the leader of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism, formally headed by the Ganden Tripa. The central government of Tibet, the Ganden Phodrang, invested the Dalai Lama with temporal duties until his exile in 1959. On 29 April 1959, the Dalai Lama established the independent Tibetan government in exile in the north Indian hill station of Mussoorie, which then moved in May 1960 to Dharamshala, where he resides. He retired as political head in 2011 to make way for a democratic government, the Central Tibetan Administration.
The polity of Tibet was a de facto independent state between the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912 and the annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China in 1951.
The Tibetan diaspora are the diaspora of Tibetan people living outside Tibet.
The 2008 Tibetan unrest was a series of protests and demonstrations, met by excessive force, focused on the persecution of Tibetans in the buildup to the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. There was a mixture of outrage and understanding from leading figures abroad.
The present 14th Dalai Lama has suggested different possibilities to identify the next (15th) Dalai Lama, but has not publicly specified the ritual qualifications and alleged mystical signs upon the method of rebirth would occur. On February 5th 1940, request to exempt Lhamo Thondup from lot-drawing Golden Urn process to become the 14th Dalai Lama was approved by the Central Government.
China Tibet Broadcasting is a broadcast network headquartered in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. Its radio programmes were founded in 1959. Its English language audio broadcast is called Holy Tibet, broadcasts at 07:00 and 16:00 UTC every day.
Lhade Namloyak is a Tibetan-Australian poet.
Tibet–India relations are said to have begun during the spread of Buddhism to Tibet from India during the 7th and 8th centuries AD. In 1959, the Dalai Lama fled to India after the failed 1959 Tibetan uprising. Since then, Tibetans-in-exile have been given asylum in India, with the Indian government accommodating them into 45 residential settlements across 10 states in the country. From around 150,000 Tibetan refugees in 2011, the number fell to 85,000 in 2018, according to government data. Many Tibetans are now leaving India to go back to Tibet and other countries such as United States or Germany. The Government of India, soon after India's independence in 1947, treated Tibet as a de facto independent country. However, more recently India's policy on Tibet has been mindful of Chinese sensibilities, and has recognized Tibet as a part of China.
People's Government of Tibet Autonomous Region is the provincial administrative agency of Tibet, People 's Republic of China. The provincial government consists of the Tibet Autonomous Regional People's Congress, the TAR People's Congress Standing Committee, and has a mandate to frame local laws and regulations, such as the use of the Tibetan language in the region. Additionally, rules for adapting national laws to the province are also the responsibility of the People's Government.
"北京中央人民政府毛主席、中国人民解放军朱德司令钧鉴：钧座以大智大勇之略，成救国救民之业，义师所至，全国欢腾，班禅世受国恩，备荷优崇。二十余年来，为了西藏领土主权之完整，呼吁奔走，未尝稍懈。第以未获结果，良用疚心。刻下羁留青海，待命返藏。兹幸在钧座领导之下，西北已获解放，中央人民政府成立，凡有血气，同声鼓舞。今后人民之康乐可期，国家之复兴有望。西藏解放，指日可待。班禅谨代表全藏人民，向钧座致崇高无上之敬意，并矢拥护爱戴之忱。”—十世班禅致中华人民共和国中央人民政府电报 [To President Mao of the Central People's Government of Beijing and Commander Zhu De of the Chinese People's Liberation Army: The scorpion is based on the wisdom of the great wisdom and the courage to save the country and the people. The whole country is full of joy, and the Panchen Lama is blessed by the country. For more than 20 years, I have been dealing with integrity of Tibet territorial sovereignty, without rest. Since result has not been obtained, I felt guilty. I will stay in Qinghai and wait for possible return. Fortunately, under your leadership, the northwest has been liberated, and the Central People’s Government has been established, we're all excited. In the future, the people’s well-being can be expected, and the country’s revival is expected. The liberation of Tibet is just around the corner. On behalf of the entire Tibetan people, please accept my supreme respect and support. " ---- The 10th Panchen Lama to the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China]