|Regions with significant populations|
|Tahaundam, Kachin State|
|Related ethnic groups|
Tibetans in Burma are a relatively unknown and unreached Tibetan population outside of Tibet. They are concentrated primarily in the northernmost village in Burma, Tahaundam. As early into the twentieth century as 1932, Tibetans, along with Chinese traders, conducted raids into the northernmost regions of Burma, often displacing the Derung pygmies who resided there. As recently as 2003, Tibetan Khampa traders still cross the border into Burma to conduct business".
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km (3,651 mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km (1,200 mi) along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size. Its capital city is Naypyidaw, and its largest city and former capital is Yangon (Rangoon). Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) since 1997.
Tahaundam is the northernmost village inhabited year round by ethnic Tibetans of northern Kachin State, in extreme northern Myanmar. The village, at an elevation of 1200 m, is surrounded by snow-capped mountains, rising to the highest peak of Myanmar, Mt. Hkakabo Razi at 5880 m. Tahaundam is briefly described by the WCS. Between Tahaundam and Nogmung are several smaller villages with local ethnic groups.
The Taron or Trone are a small ethnic group in the Himalayan foothills of northern Kachin, Myanmar, whose population is declining to the point where they are in danger of disappearing entirely. They have been referred to as the "Asian pygmies". They are allegedly descended from an ethnic group concentrated in China known as Derung who migrated to Burma from Tibet in the 1880s.
In 2002-2003, P. Christiaan Klieger, anthropologist from California Academy of Sciences, and photographer Dong Lin retraced their previous steps, and succeeded in making the first anthropological survey of the Hkakabo Razi region. On foot they reached Tahaundam, which is inhabited by about 200 Khampa Tibetans, including mountaineer Nyima Gyaltsen (see below).
Hkakabo Razi is believed to be Myanmar's highest mountain, and with its height of 5,881 metres (19,295 ft) the probable highest mountain in South East Asia. It is located in the northern Myanmar state of Kachin in an outlying subrange of the Greater Himalayan mountain system near the border tri-point with India and China. Its highest status has recently been challenged by Gamlang Razi, located about 6.6 kilometres (4.1 mi) WSW on the Chinese border.
Kham is a historical region of Tibet covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China. During the Republic of China's rule over mainland China (1911–1949), most of the region was administratively part of Hsikang. It held the status of "special administrative district" until 1939, when it became an official Chinese province. Its provincial status was nominal and without much cohesion, like most of China's territory during the time of Japanese invasion and civil war. The natives of the Kham region are called Khampas.
In anthropology, pygmy peoples are ethnic groups whose average height is unusually short. The term pygmyism is used to describe the phenotype of endemic short stature for populations in which adult men are on average less than 150 cm tall.
Xikang or Sikang or Hsikang was a province of the Republic of China and early People's Republic of China. It comprised most of the Kham region of traditional Tibet, where the Khampa, a subgroup of the Tibetan people, live. The eastern part of the province was inhabited by a number of different ethnic groups, such as Han Chinese, Yi, Qiang people and Tibetan, while the western part of the province was inhabited by Tibetans. Xikang, then known as Chuanbian (川邊), was a special administrative region of the Republic of China until 1939, when it became an official province. The provincial capital was Kangding from 1939 to 1951 and Ya'an from 1951 to 1955. The province had a population of some 3.4 million in 1954.
The Rawang people are an ethnic group who inhabit far northern Kachin State of Burma (Myanmar). There are one D'rung family and several Anung families found among Lisu tribe people in Arunachal Pradesh in India. However, Nung rawang people and Anung (Lisu) people are two different groups. Anung people speak and write in their own language. The Anung population mixed with Lisu tribe people in China is estimated about 20000. According to cultural research and their own oral traditions, the Nung-Rawang are most likely Mongolian descendants who moved south from the Mongolian steppes to the 3 river region of China. During the second millennium, the Nung-Rawang migrated south west into the Himalayas at the top of Burma, seeking fertile farm lands. They settled in some of the most remote valleys and mountains in all of Burma. The Nung-Rawang are a proud, peaceful, industrious, agriculturally based mountain people known for their stability, hospitality, and colourful traditions. Living in the beautiful and isolated regions of northern Burma, they have also become prosperous through the plentiful supplies of jade and gold in their region. During the British colonial period, their very existence was thought to be a myth, as incoherent reports of "pygmy tribes" in the mountains of north Burma surfaced from time to time. The Drung, a sub tribe of the Nung-Rawang are short in stature, and are known for their crossbow hunting skills, and an extensive anthropological study has been initiated on this remote ethnic group by Dr. P. Christiaan Klieger of the California Academy of Sciences, since 2001.
Khamber Jong, also called Gamba, Kampa, or Khampa Dzong, is a Tibetan hamlet north of Sikkim. In June 1903, Colonel Francis Younghusband, serving as British commissioner to Tibet, led a diplomatic mission consisting of five officers and five hundred troops through Nathu La to Khamber Jong. The objective of the mission was to meet Chinese and Tibetan representatives and discuss mutual non-aggression and trade agreements. After being kept waiting for five months before the Chinese and Tibetan representatives arrived, the mission was recalled.
The 1959 Tibetan uprising or the 1959 Tibetan rebellion began on 10 March 1959, when a revolt erupted in Lhasa, the capital of the Tibet Area, which had been under the effective control of the People's Republic of China since the Seventeen Point Agreement was reached in 1951. Armed conflict between Tibetan guerillas and the People's Liberation Army (PLA) had started in 1956 in the Kham and Amdo regions, which had been subjected to socialist reform. The guerrilla warfare later spread to other areas of Tibet and lasted through 1962.
Nogmung ; sometimes Naung Mung or Naun Mong and combinations) is a town of about 1000 inhabitants (2006) in northern Kachin State. It is the last town encountered when hiking northwards to the Hkakabo Razi National Park and the highest peak of Myanmar, Mt. Hkakabo Razi. Nogmung is also the gateway for Tahaundam, the northernmost village of Myanmar. Nogmung is famous for its birds, and many endemic species are postulated to exist there. Most recently the Naung Mung scimitar babbler was described. The Smithsonian's National Zoo and the Hkakabo Razi National Park Authorities have surveyed the avifauna since 2001 in Putao, Nogmung, and northwards to Tahaundam.
Tibetan literature generally refers to literature written in the Tibetan language or arising out of Tibetan culture. Historically, Tibetan has served as a trans-regional literary language that has been used, at different times, from Tibet to Mongolia, Russia, and present-day Bhutan, Nepal, India, and Pakistan. Today, the term Tibetan literature can also be applied to any work by an ethnic Tibetan person or arising out of Tibetan folk culture; contemporary Tibetan writers sometimes use Chinese, English, or other languages to compose their work.
Tenzin Jigme was a Tibetan tulku and the sixth Reting Rinpoche.
The Ngolok rebellions (1917–1949) were a series of military campaigns against unconquered Ngolok (Golok) tribal Tibetan areas of Qinghai (Amdo), undertaken by two Hui commanders, Gen. Ma Qi and Gen. Ma Bufang, on behalf of the Beiyang and Kuomintang governments of the Republic of China. The campaigns lasted between 1917 and 1949.
George Neilson Patterson also known as Khampa Gyau and Patterson of Tibet, was a Scottish engineer and missionary who served as medical officer and diplomatic representative of the Tibetan resistance movement during the Chinese invasion of Tibet.
Protests and uprisings in Tibet against the government of the People's Republic of China have occurred since 1950, and include the 1959 uprising, the 2008 uprising, and the subsequent self-immolation protests.
The Battle of Chamdo occurred from 6 through 19 October 1950. It was a military campaign by the People's Republic of China (PRC) to retake the Chamdo Region from a de facto independent Tibetan government after months of failed negotiations on the status of Tibet. At the time, most countries of the world, as well as the United Nations, recognized Tibet as a part of the preceding Republic of China (ROC). The campaign aimed not to invade Tibet per se but to capture the Lhasa army occupying Chamdo, demoralize the Lhasa government, and to exert pressure to get Tibetan representatives to agree to negotiations in Beijing and sign terms recognizing China's sovereignty over Tibet. The campaign resulted in the capture of Chamdo and further negotiations between the PRC and Tibetan representatives that eventually resulted in the incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China.
The Tibetan rebellion of 1905 in Yunnan province began with a series of attacks on Christian missionaries and converts and ended with the imperial Chinese government re-asserting control of the province.
The Tibet Improvement Party was a nationalist, revolutionary, anti-feudal and pro-Republic of China political party in Tibet. It was affiliated with the Kuomintang and was supported by mostly Khampas, with the Pandatsang family playing a key role.
Pandatsang Rapga was a Khamba revolutionary during the first half of the 20th century in Tibet. He was pro-Kuomintang and pro-Republic of China, anti-feudal, anti-communist. He believed in overthrowing the Dalai Lama's feudal regime and driving British imperialism out of Tibet, and acted on behalf of Chiang Kai-shek in countering the Dalai Lama. He was later involved in rebelling against communist rule.
The Tibetan Army was the military force of Tibet after its de facto independence in 1912 until the 1950s. As a ground army modernised with the assistance of British training and equipment, it served as the de facto armed forces of the Tibetan government.
Majnu-ka-tilla (MT) is a colony in Delhi, India that was established around 1950. Majnu-ka-tilla is officially called New Aruna Nagar Colony, Chungtown, and Samyeling. It is part of North Delhi district and is located at the bank of the Yamuna River (NH-1) near ISBT Kashmiri Gate.