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Latin: Multis e Gentibus Vires [1]
("Strength from Many Peoples")
Coordinates: 54°00′00″N106°00′02″W / 54.00000°N 106.00056°W / 54.00000; -106.00056 Coordinates: 54°00′00″N106°00′02″W / 54.00000°N 106.00056°W / 54.00000; -106.00056
Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from NWT) (8th/9th, simultaneously with Alberta)
Capital Regina
Largest city Saskatoon
Largest metro Saskatoon metropolitan area
  Type Parliamentary constitutional monarchy
   Lieutenant governor Russell Mirasty
   Premier Scott Moe (Saskatchewan Party)
Legislature Legislature of Saskatchewan
Federal representation Parliament of Canada
House seats 14 of 338 (4.1%)
Senate seats 6 of 105 (5.7%)
  Total651,900 km2 (251,700 sq mi)
  Land591,670 km2 (228,450 sq mi)
  Water59,366 km2 (22,921 sq mi)  9.1%
Area rank Ranked 7th
 6.5% of Canada
  Total1,098,352 [2]
(2021 Q1)
1,178,832 [3]
  Rank Ranked 6th
  Density1.86/km2 (4.8/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Saskatchewanian (official) [4]
Official languages English [ citation needed ]
   Rank 5th
  Total (2015)CA$79.415 billion [5]
  Per capitaCA$70,138 (4th)
  HDI (2018)0.912 [6] Very high (4th)
Time zones
year-round in most areas UTC−06:00 (Central)
Lloydminster and nearby areas UTC−07:00 (Mountain)
  Summer (DST) UTC−06:00 (Mountain DST)
Postal abbr.
Postal code prefix
ISO 3166 code CA-SK
Flower Western red lily
Tree Paper birch
Bird Sharp-tailed grouse
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Saskatchewan ( /səˈskæəwən,sæ-,-wɒn/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) sə-SKATCH-ə-wən; Canadian French:  [saskatʃəwan] ) is a prairie and boreal province in Canada, the only province without a natural border. It has an area of 651,900 square kilometres (251,700 sq mi), nearly 10% of which (59,366 square kilometres (22,900 sq mi)) is fresh water, composed mostly of rivers, reservoirs, and the province's 100,000 lakes.


Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, to the northeast by Nunavut, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota. As of Q1 2020, Saskatchewan's population was estimated at 1,181,987. [7] Residents primarily live in the southern prairie half of the province, while the northern boreal half is mostly forested and sparsely populated. Of the total population, roughly half live in the province's largest city Saskatoon or the provincial capital Regina. Other notable cities include Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Yorkton, Swift Current, North Battleford, Melfort, and the border city Lloydminster (partially within Alberta). [8]

Saskatchewan is a landlocked province with large distances to moderating bodies of waters. As a result, its climate is extremely continental, rendering severe winters throughout the province. Southern areas have very warm or hot summers. Midale and Yellow Grass (both near the U.S. border) are tied for the highest ever recorded temperatures in Canada, with 45 °C (113 °F) observed at both locations on July 5, 1937. [9] [10] In winter, temperatures below −45 °C (−49 °F) are possible even in the south during extreme cold snaps.

Saskatchewan has been inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous groups. Europeans first explored the area in 1690 and first settled in the area in 1774. It became a province in 1905, carved out from the vast North-West Territories, which had until then included most of the Canadian Prairies. In the early 20th century the province became known as a stronghold for Canadian social democracy; North America's first social-democratic government was elected in 1944. The province's economy is based on agriculture, mining, and energy.

The former Lieutenant Governor, Thomas Molloy, died in office on July 2, 2019. [11] On July 17, 2019, the federal government announced the appointment of Russell Mirasty, former Assistant Commissioner with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, as the new Lieutenant Governor. [12] The current premier is Scott Moe.

In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic land claim agreement with First Nations in Saskatchewan. [13] The First Nations received compensation and were permitted to buy land on the open market for the bands; they have acquired about 3,079 square kilometres (761,000 acres; 1,189 sq mi), now reserve lands. Some First Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban areas, including Saskatoon. [13]


Its name derived from the Saskatchewan River. The river is known as ᑭᓯᐢᑳᒋᐘᓂ ᓰᐱᐩkisiskāciwani-sīpiy ("swift flowing river") in the Cree language. [14] Henday's spelling was Keiskatchewan, with the modern rendering, Saskatchewan, being officially adopted in 1882 when a portion of the present-day province was designated a provisional district of the North-West Territories. [15]


A topographic map of Saskatchewan, showing cities, towns, rural municipality borders, and natural features. Saskatchewan Topographic.png
A topographic map of Saskatchewan, showing cities, towns, rural municipality borders, and natural features.

As Saskatchewan's borders largely follow the geographic coordinates of longitude and latitude, the province is roughly a quadrilateral, or a shape with four sides. However, the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th northern border appear curved on globes and many maps. Additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is partially crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program (1880–1928).

Saskatchewan is part of the Western Provinces and is bounded on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the north-east by Nunavut, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota. Saskatchewan has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features (i.e. they are all parallels and meridians). Along with Alberta, Saskatchewan is one of only two land-locked provinces.

The overwhelming majority of Saskatchewan's population is located in the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel.

Saskatchewan contains two major natural regions: the Boreal Forest in the north and the Prairies in the south. They are separated by an aspen parkland transition zone near the North Saskatchewan River on the western side of the province, and near to south of the Saskatchewan River on the eastern side. Northern Saskatchewan is mostly covered by forest except for the Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes, the largest active sand dunes in the world north of 58°, and adjacent to the southern shore of Lake Athabasca. Southern Saskatchewan contains another area with sand dunes known as the "Great Sand Hills" covering over 300 square kilometres (120 sq mi). The Cypress Hills, located in the southwestern corner of Saskatchewan and Killdeer Badlands (Grasslands National Park), are areas of the province that were unglaciated during the last glaciation period, the Wisconsin glaciation.

The province's highest point, at 1,392 metres (4,567 ft), is located in the Cypress Hills less than 2 km from the provincial boundary with Alberta. [16] The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213 metres (699 ft). The province has 14 major drainage basins made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. [17]


Koppen climate types of Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Koppen.svg
Köppen climate types of Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan receives more hours of sunshine than any other Canadian province. [18] The province lies far from any significant body of water. This fact, combined with its northerly latitude, gives it a warm summer, corresponding to its humid continental climate (Köppen type Dfb) in the central and most of the eastern parts of the province, as well as the Cypress Hills; drying off to a semi-arid steppe climate (Köppen type BSk) in the southwestern part of the province. Drought can affect agricultural areas during long periods with little or no precipitation at all. The northern parts of Saskatchewan – from about La Ronge northward – have a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) with a shorter summer season. Summers can get very hot, sometimes above 38 °C (100 °F) during the day, and with humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the plains and intermontane regions of the Western United States during much of July and August, very cool or hot but changeable air masses often occur during spring and in September. Winters are usually bitterly cold, with frequent Arctic air descending from the north. [19] with high temperatures not breaking −17 °C (1 °F) for weeks at a time. Warm chinook winds often blow from the west, bringing periods of mild weather. Annual precipitation averages 30 to 45 centimetres (12 to 18 inches) across the province, with the bulk of rain falling in June, July, and August. [20]

Saskatchewan is one of the most tornado-active parts of Canada, averaging roughly 12 to 18 tornadoes per year, some violent. In 2012, 33 tornadoes were reported in the province. The Regina Cyclone took place in June 1912 when 28 people died in an F4 Fujita scale tornado. Severe and non-severe thunderstorm events occur in Saskatchewan, usually from early spring to late summer. Hail, strong winds and isolated tornadoes are a common occurrence.

The hottest temperature ever recorded anywhere in Canada happened in Saskatchewan. The temperature rose to 45 °C (113 °F) in Midale and Yellow Grass. The coldest ever recorded in the province was −56.7 °C (−70.1 °F) in Prince Albert, which is north of Saskatoon.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Saskatchewan [21]
CityJuly (°C)July (°F)January (°C)January (°F)
Maple Creek 27/1181/52−5/−1623/4
Estevan 27/1381/55−9/−2016/−4
Weyburn 26/1279/54−10/−2114/−6
Moose Jaw 26/1279/54−8/−1918/−2
Regina 26/1179/52−10/−2214/−8
Saskatoon 25/1177/52−12/−2210/−8
Melville 25/1177/52−12/−2310/−9
Swift Current 25/1177/52−7/−1719/1
Humboldt 24/1175/52−12/−2310/−9
Melfort 24/1175/52−14/−237/−9
North Battleford 24/1175/52−12/−2210/−8
Yorkton 24/1175/52−13/−239/−9
Lloydminster 23/1173/52−10/−1914/−2
Prince Albert 24/1175/52−13/−259/−13

Climate change

The effects of climate change in Saskatchewan are now being observed in parts of the province. There is evidence of reduction of biomass in Saskatchewan's boreal forests [ citation needed ] (as with those of other Canadian prairie provinces) is linked by researchers to drought-related water stress, stemming from global warming, most likely caused by greenhouse gas emissions. While studies, as early as 1988 (Williams, et al., 1988) have shown climate change will affect agriculture, [22] whether the effects can be mitigated through adaptations of cultivars, or crops, is less clear. Resiliency of ecosystems may decline with large changes in temperature. [23] The provincial government has responded to the threat of climate change by introducing a plan to reduce carbon emissions, "The Saskatchewan Energy and Climate Change Plan", in June 2007.


Henry Kelsey observing a herd of bison on the western plains. Kelsey is believed to be the first European to visit Saskatchewan. Henry Kelsey sees the buffalo on the western plains.jpg
Henry Kelsey observing a herd of bison on the western plains. Kelsey is believed to be the first European to visit Saskatchewan.

Saskatchewan has been populated by various indigenous peoples of North America, including members of the Sarcee, Niitsitapi, Atsina, Cree, Saulteaux, Assiniboine (Nakoda), Lakota and Sioux. The first known European to enter Saskatchewan was Henry Kelsey in 1690, who travelled up the Saskatchewan River in hopes of trading fur with the region's indigenous peoples. The first permanent European settlement was a Hudson's Bay Company post at Cumberland House, founded in 1774 by Samuel Hearne. [24] The southern part of the province was part of Spanish Louisiana from 1762 until 1802. [25]

19th century

In 1803 the Louisiana Purchase transferred from France to the United States part of what is now Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1818 the U.S. ceded the area to Britain. Most of what is now Saskatchewan was part of Rupert's Land and controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company, which claimed rights to all watersheds flowing into Hudson Bay, including the Saskatchewan River, Churchill, Assiniboine, Souris, and Qu'Appelle River systems.

In the late 1850s and early 1860s, scientific expeditions led by John Palliser and Henry Youle Hind explored the prairie region of the province.

In 1870, Canada acquired the Hudson's Bay Company's territories and formed the North-West Territories to administer the vast territory between British Columbia and Manitoba. The Crown also entered into a series of numbered treaties with the indigenous peoples of the area, which serve as the basis of the relationship between First Nations, as they are called today, and the Crown. Since the late twentieth century, land losses and inequities as a result of those treaties have been subject to negotiation for settlement between the First Nations in Saskatchewan and the federal government, in collaboration with provincial governments.

In 1876, following their defeat of United States Army forces at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana Territory in the United States, the Lakota Chief Sitting Bull led several thousand of his people to Wood Mountain. Survivors and descendants founded Wood Mountain Reserve in 1914.

The North-West Mounted Police set up several posts and forts across Saskatchewan, including Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills, and Wood Mountain Post in south-central Saskatchewan near the United States border.

The Battle of Batoche was a battle during the North-West Rebellion. Battle of Batoche Print by Seargent Grundy.jpg
The Battle of Batoche was a battle during the North-West Rebellion.

Many Métis people, who had not been signatories to a treaty, had moved to the Southbranch Settlement and Prince Albert district north of present-day Saskatoon following the Red River Rebellion in Manitoba in 1870. In the early 1880s, the Canadian government refused to hear the Métis' grievances, which stemmed from land-use issues. Finally, in 1885, the Métis, led by Louis Riel, staged the North-West Rebellion and declared a provisional government. They were defeated by a Canadian militia brought to the Canadian prairies by the new Canadian Pacific Railway. Riel, who surrendered and was convicted of treason in a packed Regina courtroom, was hanged on November 16, 1885. Since then, the government has recognized the Métis as an aboriginal people with status rights and provided them with various benefits.

European settlements

The national policy set by the federal government, the Canadian Pacific Railway, the Hudson's Bay Company and associated land companies encouraged immigration. The Dominion Lands Act of 1872 permitted settlers to acquire one quarter of a square mile of land to homestead and offered an additional quarter upon establishing a homestead. In 1874, the North-West Mounted Police began providing police services. In 1876, the North-West Territories Act provided for appointment, by the Ottawa, of a Lieutenant Governor and a Council to assist him. [26]

An ad to attract immigrants to Western Canada, 1898 Ad to attract Immigrants to wheat belt in 1898.jpg
An ad to attract immigrants to Western Canada, 1898

Highly optimistic advertising campaigns promoted the benefits of prairie living. Potential immigrants read leaflets which described Canada as a favourable place to live and downplayed the need for agricultural expertise. Ads in The Nor'-West Farmer by the Commissioner of Immigration implied that western land was blessed with water, wood, gold, silver, iron, copper, and cheap coal for fuel, all of which were readily at hand. Reality was far harsher, especially for the first arrivals who lived in sod houses. However eastern money poured in and by 1913, long term mortgage loans to Saskatchewan farmers had reached $65 million. [27]

The dominant groups comprised British settlers from eastern Canada and Britain, who comprised about half of the population during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. They played the leading role in establishing the basic institutions of plains society, economy and government. [28]

20th century

Gender roles were sharply defined. Men were primarily responsible for breaking the land; planting and harvesting; building the house; buying, operating and repairing machinery; and handling finances. At first, there were many single men on the prairie, or husbands whose wives were still back east, but they had a hard time. They realized the need for a wife. In 1901, there were 19,200 families, but this surged to 150,300 families only 15 years later. Wives played a central role in settlement of the prairie region. Their labour, skills, and ability to adapt to the harsh environment proved decisive in meeting the challenges. They prepared bannock, beans and bacon, mended clothes, raised children, cleaned, tended the garden, helped at harvest time and nursed everyone back to health. While prevailing patriarchal attitudes, legislation, and economic principles obscured women's contributions, the flexibility exhibited by farm women in performing productive and nonproductive labour was critical to the survival of family farms, and thus to the success of the wheat economy. [29] [30]

A banquet being held to commemorate the creation of Saskatchewan, 1905 Banquet celebrating new province of Saskatchewan.jpg
A banquet being held to commemorate the creation of Saskatchewan, 1905

On September 1, 1905, Saskatchewan became a province, with inauguration day held September 4. Its political leaders at the time proclaimed its destiny was to become Canada's most powerful province. Saskatchewan embarked on an ambitious province-building program based on its Anglo-Canadian culture and wheat production for the export market. Population quintupled from 91,000 in 1901 to 492,000 to 1911, thanks to heavy immigration of farmers from Ukraine, U.S., Germany and Scandinavia. Efforts were made to assimilate the newcomers to British Canadian culture and values. [31]

In the 1905 provincial elections, Liberals won 16 of 25 seats in Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan government bought out Bell Telephone Company in 1909, with the government owning the long-distance lines and left local service to small companies organized at the municipal level. [32] Premier Walter Scott preferred government assistance to outright ownership because he thought enterprises worked better if citizens had a stake in running them; he set up the Saskatchewan Cooperative Elevator Company in 1911. Despite pressure from farm groups for direct government involvement in the grain handling business, the Scott government opted to loan money to a farmer-owned elevator company. Saskatchewan in 1909 provided bond guarantees to railway companies for the construction of branch lines, alleviating the concerns of farmers who had trouble getting their wheat to market by wagon. [33] The Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association, was the dominant political force in the province until the 1920s; it had close ties with the governing Liberal party. In 1913, the Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association was established with three goals: to watch over legislation; to forward the interests of the stock growers in every honourable and legitimate way; and to suggest to parliament legislation to meet changing conditions and requirements. [34]

Farmers at work in 1907. The introduction of Marquis wheat saw wheat output soar in the province. Maury Geography 073A Saskatchewan.jpg
Farmers at work in 1907. The introduction of Marquis wheat saw wheat output soar in the province.

Immigration peaked in 1910, and in spite of the initial difficulties of frontier life – distance from towns, sod homes, and backbreaking labour – new settlers established a European-Canadian style of prosperous agrarian society. The long-term prosperity of the province depended on the world price of grain, which headed steadily upward from the 1880s to 1920, then plunged down. Wheat output was increased by new strains, such as the "Marquis wheat" strain which matured 8 days sooner and yielded 7 more bushels per acre (0.72 m3/ha) than the previous standard, "Red Fife". The national output of wheat soared from 8 million imperial bushels (290,000 m3) in 1896, to 26 million imperial bushels (950,000 m3) in 1901, reaching 151 million imperial bushels (5,500,000 m3) by 1921. [35]

Urban reform movements in Regina were based on support from business and professional groups. City planning, reform of local government, and municipal ownership of utilities were more widely supported by these two groups, often through such organizations as the Board of Trade. Church-related and other altruistic organizations generally supported social welfare and housing reforms; these groups were generally less successful in getting their own reforms enacted. [36]

The province responded to the First World War in 1914 with patriotic enthusiasm and enjoyed the resultant economic boom for farms and cities alike. Emotional and intellectual support for the war emerged from the politics of Canadian national identity, the rural myth, and social gospel progressivism The Church of England was especially supportive. However, there was strong hostility toward German-Canadian farmers. [37] Recent Ukrainian immigrants were enemy aliens because of their citizenship in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A small fraction were taken to internment camps. Most of the internees were unskilled unemployed labourers who were imprisoned "because they were destitute, not because they were disloyal". [38] [39]

A memorial stone for Ukrainian Canadians interred during the First World War at the Saskatchewan Railway Museum Hawker-Eaton-InternmentCamp.jpg
A memorial stone for Ukrainian Canadians interred during the First World War at the Saskatchewan Railway Museum

The price of wheat tripled and acreage seeded doubled. The wartime spirit of sacrifice intensified social reform movements that had predated the war and now came to fruition. Saskatchewan gave women the right to vote in 1916 and at the end of 1916 passed a referendum to prohibit the sale of alcohol.

In the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan, imported from the United States and Ontario, gained brief popularity in nativist circles in Saskatchewan and Alberta. The Klan, briefly allied with the provincial Conservative party because of their mutual dislike for Premier James G. "Jimmy" Gardiner and his Liberals (who ferociously fought the Klan), enjoyed about two years of prominence. It declined and disappeared, subject to widespread political and media opposition, plus internal scandals involving the use of the organization's funds.

Post–Second World War

In 1970, the first annual Canadian Western Agribition was held in Regina. This farm-industry trade show, with its strong emphasis on livestock, is rated as one of the five top livestock shows in North America, along with those in Houston, Denver, Louisville and Toronto.

An equestrian statue of Elizabeth II in Regina. The statue was unveiled by the Queen in 2005. Queen and burmese.jpg
An equestrian statue of Elizabeth II in Regina. The statue was unveiled by the Queen in 2005.

The province celebrated the 75th anniversary of its establishment in 1980, with Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, presiding over the official ceremonies. [40] [41] In 2005, 25 years later, her sister, Queen Elizabeth II, attended the events held to mark Saskatchewan's centennial. [42]

Since the late 20th century, First Nations have become more politically active in seeking justice for past inequities, especially related to the taking of indigenous lands by various governments. The federal and provincial governments have negotiated on numerous land claims, and developed a program of "Treaty Land Entitlement", enabling First Nations to buy land to be taken into reserves with money from settlements of claims.

"In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic land claim agreement with Saskatchewan First Nations. Under the Agreement, the First Nations received money to buy land on the open market. As a result, about 761,000 acres have been turned into reserve land and many First Nations continue to invest their settlement dollars in urban areas", including Saskatoon. The money from such settlements has enabled First Nations to invest in businesses and other economic infrastructure. [13]


According to the Canada 2011 Census, the largest ethnic group in Saskatchewan is German (28.6%), followed by English (24.9%), Scottish (18.9%), Canadian (18.8%), Irish (15.5%), Ukrainian (13.5%), French (Fransaskois) (12.2%), First Nations (12.1%), Norwegian (6.9%), and Polish (5.8%). [43]

Population density of Saskatchewan Canada Saskatchewan Density 2016.png
Population density of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan census statistics

Languages of Saskatchewan (2016): [44]

  English (82.4%)
  French (1.4%)
  Other language (14.5%)
  Multiple (1.7%)

Indigenous and visible minority identity (2016): [45] [46]

   European Canadian (72.9%)
   Visible minority (10.8%)
   First Nations (10.7%)
   Métis (5.4%)
  Other Indigenous (0.2%)


Historically, Saskatchewan's economy was primarily associated with agriculture, with wheat being the precious symbol on the province's flag. Increasing diversification has resulted in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting only making up 8.9% of the province's GDP in 2018. Saskatchewan grows a large portion of Canada's grain. [47] In 2017, the production of canola surpassed the production of wheat, which is Saskatchewan's most familiar crop and the one most often associated with the province. Total net income from farming was $3.3 billion in 2017, which was $0.9 billion less than the income in 2016. [48] Other grains such as flax, rye, oats, peas, lentils, canary seed, and barley are also produced in the province. Saskatchewan is the world's largest exporter of mustard seed. [49] Beef cattle production by a Canadian province is only exceeded by Alberta. In the northern part of the province, forestry is also a significant industry. [50]

A PotashCorp mine in Patience Lake. The province is the world's largest exporter of potash. PotashCorporationOfSaskatchewanPatienceLakeMine.jpg
A PotashCorp mine in Patience Lake. The province is the world's largest exporter of potash.
Distribution of GDP of Saskatchewan, by industry(2018) [51] [52]
 % Share of GDPSector
8.9agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting
14.2finance, insurance, real estate, leasing
2.5Professional, scientific and food services
11.51education, health, social services
1.74Accommodation and food services
1.46Information and cultural industries
5.96government services
17.05mining, quarrying, oil and gas extraction
8.05transportation, communications, utilities
10.19wholesale and retail trade

Mining is a major industry in the province, with Saskatchewan being the world's largest exporter of potash and uranium. [53] Oil and natural gas production is also a very important part of Saskatchewan's economy, although the oil industry is larger. Among Canadian provinces, only Alberta exceeds Saskatchewan in overall oil production. [54] Heavy crude is extracted in the Lloydminster-Kerrobert-Kindersley areas. Light crude is found in the Kindersley-Swift Current areas as well as the Weyburn-Estevan fields. Natural gas is found almost entirely in the western part of Saskatchewan, from the Primrose Lake area through Lloydminster, Unity, Kindersley, Leader, and around Maple Creek areas. [55]

A list of the companies includes The Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan (defunct in December 2017), Federated Cooperatives Ltd. and IPSCO. [56]

Major Saskatchewan-based Crown corporations are Saskatchewan Government Insurance (SGI), SaskTel, SaskEnergy (the province's main supplier of natural gas), and SaskPower. Bombardier runs the NATO Flying Training Centre at 15 Wing, near Moose Jaw. Bombardier was awarded a long-term contract in the late 1990s for $2.8 billion from the federal government for the purchase of military aircraft and the running of the training facility. SaskPower since 1929 has been the principal supplier of electricity in Saskatchewan, serving more than 451,000 customers and managing $4.5 billion in assets. SaskPower is a major employer in the province with almost 2,500 permanent full-time staff located in 71 communities.


Publicly funded elementary and secondary schools in the province are administered by the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education. Public elementary and secondary schools either operate as secular or as a separate schools. Nearly all school divisions, except one operate as an English first language school board. The Division scolaire francophone No. 310 is the only school division that operates French first language schools. In addition to elementary and secondary schools, the province is also home to several post-secondary institutions.

The first education on the prairies took place within the family groups of the First Nation and early fur trading settlers. There were only a few missionary or trading post schools established in Rupert's Land – later known as the North West Territories. The first 76 North-West Territories school districts and the first Board of Education meeting formed in 1886. The pioneering boom formed ethnic bloc settlements. Communities were seeking education for their children similar to the schools of their home land. Log cabins, and dwellings were constructed for the assembly of the community, school, church, dances and meetings.

The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties and the success of farmers in proving up on their homesteads helped provide funding to standardize education. [ citation needed ] Textbooks, normal schools for educating teachers, formal school curricula and state of the art school house architectural plans provided continuity throughout the province. English as the school language helped to provide economic stability because one community could communicate with another and goods could be traded and sold in a common language. The number of one-room schoolhouse districts across Saskatchewan totalled approximately 5,000 at the height of this system of education in the late 1940s. [57]

Following World War II, the transition from many one-room schoolhouses to fewer and larger consolidated modern technological town and city schools occurred as a means of ensuring technical education. School buses, highways, and family vehicles create ease and accessibility of a population shift to larger towns and cities. Combines and tractors mean the farmer could manage more than a quarter section of land, so there was a shift from family farms and subsistence crops to cash crops grown on many sections of land. School vouchers have been newly proposed as a means of allowing competition between rural schools and making the operation of co-operative schools practicable in rural areas.


The Royal University Hospital is one of several hospitals operating in Saskatchewan. Royal University Hospital.jpg
The Royal University Hospital is one of several hospitals operating in Saskatchewan.

Saskatchewan's Ministry of Health is responsible for policy direction, sets and monitors standards, and provides funding for regional health authorities and provincial health services. Saskatchewan's medical health system is widely and inaccurately characterized as "socialized medicine": medical practitioners in Saskatchewan, as in other Canadian provinces, are not civil servants but remit their accounts to the publicly funded Saskatchewan Medical Care Insurance Plan rather than to patients (i.e. a single-payer system). [58]

Saskatchewan medical health system has faced criticism due to a lack of accessibility to the midwifery program. According to Leanne Smith, the director for maternal services in the Saskatoon Health Region declared half of the women who apply for the midwifery program are turned away. [59] Ministry of Health data shows midwives saw 1,233 clients in the 2012–13 fiscal year (which runs April to March). But in that fourth quarter, 359 women were still on waiting lists for immediate or future care. [59] The provincial Health Ministry received 47 letters about midwifery services in 2012, most of which asked for more midwives. [59] As a continuing problem in the Saskatchewan health care system, more pressure has been placed to recruit more midwives for the province.

Government and politics

The Saskatchewan Legislative Building serves as the meeting place for the province's legislative assembly. Saskatchewan Legislative Building Front.JPG
The Saskatchewan Legislative Building serves as the meeting place for the province's legislative assembly.

Saskatchewan has the same form of government [60] as the other Canadian provinces with a lieutenant-governor (who is the representative of the Queen in Right of Saskatchewan), premier, and a unicameral legislature.

During the 20th century, Saskatchewan was one of Canada's more left-wing provinces, reflecting the slant of its many rural citizens which distrusted the distant capital government and which favored a strong local government to attend to their issues. In 1944 Tommy Douglas became premier of the first avowedly socialist regional government in North America. Most of his Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) represented rural and small-town ridings. Under his Cooperative Commonwealth Federation government, Saskatchewan became the first province to have Medicare. In 1961, Douglas left provincial politics to become the first leader of the federal New Democratic Party. In the 21st century, Saskatchewan began to drift to the right-wing, generally attributed to the province's economy shifting toward oil and gas production. In the 2015 federal election, the Conservative Party of Canada won ten of the province's fourteen seats, followed by the New Democratic Party with three and the Liberal Party of Canada with one; in the 2019 election, the Conservatives won in all of Saskatchewan's 14 seats, sweeping their competition.

Provincial politics in Saskatchewan is dominated by the social-democratic Saskatchewan New Democratic Party and the centre-right Saskatchewan Party, with the latter holding the majority in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan since 2007. The current Premier of Saskatchewan is Scott Moe, who took over the leadership of the Saskatchewan Party in 2018 following the resignation of Brad Wall. Numerous smaller political parties also run candidates in provincial elections, including the Green Party of Saskatchewan, Liberal Party of Saskatchewan, and the Progressive Conservative Party of Saskatchewan, but none is currently represented in the Legislative Assembly (federal Conservatives and Liberals generally favour the Saskatchewan Party in provincial elections).

No Prime Minister of Canada has been born in Saskatchewan, but two (William Lyon Mackenzie King and John Diefenbaker) represented the province in the House of Commons of Canada during their tenures as head of government.

Administrative divisions

Distribution of Saskatchewan's 466 urban, 296 rural and 24 northern municipalities (2013) Saskatchewan Municipalities.png
Distribution of Saskatchewan's 466 urban, 296 rural and 24 northern municipalities (2013)

Below the provincial level of government, Saskatchewan is divided into urban and rural municipalities. The Government of Saskatchewan's Ministry of Municipal Relations recognizes three general types of municipalities and seven sub-types urban municipalities (cities, towns, villages and resort villages), rural municipalities and northern municipalities (northern towns, northern villages and northern hamlets). [61] The vast majority of the land mass of Northern Saskatchewan is within the unorganized Northern Saskatchewan Administration District. Cities are formed under the provincial authority of The Cities Act, which was enacted in 2002. [62] Towns, villages, resort villages and rural municipalities are formed under the authority of The Municipalities Act, enacted in 2005. [63] The three sub-types of northern municipalities are formed under the authority of The Northern Municipalities Act, enacted in 2010. [64] As provincial laws, these three acts were passed by the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan with royal assent granted by the Lieutenant Governor.

In 2016, Saskatchewan's 774 municipalities covered

These 774 municipalities are local government "creatures of provincial jurisdiction" with natural persons power. [66] One of the key purposes of Saskatchewan's municipalities are "to provide services, facilities and other things that, in the opinion of council, are necessary or desirable for all or a part of the municipality". [66] Other purposes are to: "provide good government"; "develop and maintain a safe and viable community"; "foster economic, social and environmental well-being" and "provide wise stewardship of public assets." [66]


Transportation in Saskatchewan includes an infrastructure system of roads, highways, freeways, airports, ferries, pipelines, trails, waterways and railway systems serving a population of approximately 1,003,299 (according to 2007 estimates) inhabitants year-round. It is funded primarily with local and federal government funds. The Saskatchewan Department of Highways and Transportation estimates 80% of traffic is carried on the 5,031-kilometre principal system of highways. [67]

The CanAm Highway near Buffalo Pound Lake QuAppelleRiverHwy2.jpg
The CanAm Highway near Buffalo Pound Lake

The Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure operates over 26,000 kilometres (16,000 mi) of highways and divided highways. There are also municipal roads which comprise different surfaces. Asphalt concrete pavements comprise almost 9,000 kilometres (5,600 mi), granular pavement almost 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi), non structural or thin membrane surface TMS are close to 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi) and finally gravel highways make up over 5,600 kilometres (3,500 mi) through the province. In the northern sector, ice roads which can only be navigated in the winter months comprise another approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) of travel. [68]

Saskatchewan has over 250,000 kilometres (150,000 mi) of roads and highways, the highest length of road surface of any Canadian province. [69] The major highways in Saskatchewan are the Trans Canada expressway, Yellowhead Highway northern Trans Canada route, Louis Riel Trail, CanAm Highway, Red Coat Trail, Northern Woods and Water route, and Saskota travel route.

The first Canadian transcontinental railway was constructed by the Canadian Pacific Railway between 1881 and 1885. [70] After the great east–west transcontinental railway was built, north–south connector branch lines were established. The 1920s saw the largest rise in rail line track as the CPR and CNR fell into competition to provide rail service within ten kilometres. In the 1960s there were applications for abandonment of branch lines. [71] Today the only two passenger rail services in the province are The Canadian and Winnipeg–Churchill train, both operated by Via Rail. The Canadian is a transcontinental service linking Toronto with Vancouver.

The main Saskatchewan waterways are the North Saskatchewan River or South Saskatchewan River routes. In total, there are 3,050 bridges maintained by the Department of Highways in Saskatchewan. [72] There are currently twelve ferry services operating in the province, all under the jurisdiction of the Department of Highways.

Ferries of Saskatchewan
Estuary connecting Estuary and Laporte South Saskatchewan River [73]
Lemsford North of Lemsford connecting 32 and 30 South Saskatchewan River [73]
Lancer North of Lancer connecting 32 and 30 South Saskatchewan River [73]
Riverhurst Highway 42 and Highway 373 Lake Diefenbaker [73]
Clarkboro Between Warman and Aberdeen on 784 South Saskatchewan River [73]
Hague Between Hague and Aberdeen South Saskatchewan River [73]
St. Laurent East of Duck Lake, 11 and Batoche 225 South Saskatchewan River [73]
Fenton Between 25 and 3 on Grid Road South Saskatchewan River [73]
Weldon Between 3, Weldon via 682 and 302, Prince Albert South Saskatchewan River [73]
Paynton Between 16 and 26 via 764 North Saskatchewan River [73]
Wingard East of Marcelin, 40 connecting to 11 Wingard North Saskatchewan River [73]
Cecil Between 302 and 55 east of Prince Albert North Saskatchewan River [73]

The Saskatoon Airport (YXE) was initially established as part of the Royal Canadian Air Force training program during World War II. It was renamed the John G. Diefenbaker Airport in the official ceremony, June 23, 1993. [74] Roland J. Groome Airfield is the official designation for the Regina International Airport (YQR) as of August 3, 2005; the airport was established in 1930. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP), [75] twenty Service Flying Training Schools (RAF) were established at various Saskatchewan locations in World War II. [76] 15 Wing Moose Jaw is home to the Canadian Forces formation aerobatics team, the Snowbirds. [75]

Airlines offering service to Saskatchewan are Air Canada, WestJet Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Transwest Air, Sunwing Airlines, Norcanair Airlines, La Ronge Aviation Services Ltd, La Loche Airways, Osprey Wings Ltd, Buffalo Narrows Airways Ltd, Île-à-la-Crosse Airways Ltd, Voyage Air, Pronto Airways, Venture Air Ltd, Pelican Narrows Air Service, Jackson Air Services Ltd, and Northern Dene Airways Ltd. [77]

The Government of Canada has agreed to contribute $20 million for two new interchanges in Saskatoon. One of them being at the Sk Hwy 219/Lorne Ave intersection with Circle Drive, the other at the Senator Sid Buckwold Bridge (Idylwyld Freeway) and Circle Drive. This is part of the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to improve access to the Canadian National Railway's intermodal freight terminal thereby increasing Asia-Pacific trade. Also, the Government of Canada will contribute $27 million to Regina to construct a Canadian Pacific Railway CPR intermodal facility and improve infrastructure transportation to the facility from both national highway networks, Sk Hwy 1, the TransCanada Highway and Sk Hwy 11, Louis Riel Trail. This also is part of the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to improve access to the CPR terminal and increase Asia-Pacific trade. [78]


The Royal Saskatchewan Museum is a natural history museum based in Saskatchewan. RoyalSaskMuseum Front.jpg
The Royal Saskatchewan Museum is a natural history museum based in Saskatchewan.

Saskatchewan is home to a number of museums. The Royal Saskatchewan Museum serves as the provincial museum of the province. Other museums include Diefenbaker House, Evolution of Education Museum, Museum of Antiquities, the RCMP Heritage Centre, Rotary Museum of Police and Corrections, Saskatchewan Science Centre, Saskatchewan Western Development Museum, and the T.rex Discovery Centre.


The province is home to several art galleries, including MacKenzie Art Gallery, and Remai Modern. The province is also home to several performing arts centres including the Conexus Arts Centre in Regina, and TCU Place in Saskatoon. PAVED Arts, a new media artist-run space, is also located in Saskatoon.


The province is presently home to several concert orchestras, the Regina Symphony Orchestra, the Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra, and the Saskatoon Youth Orchestra. The Regina Symphony Orchestra is at the Conexus Arts Centre, while the Saskatoon perform at TCU Place.


A leading writer from Saskatchewan is W. O. Mitchell (1914–1998), born in Weyburn. His best-loved novel is Who Has Seen the Wind (1947), which portrays life on the Canadian Prairies and sold almost a million copies in Canada. [79] As a broadcaster, he is known for his radio series Jake and the Kid, which aired on CBC Radio between 1950 and 1956 and was also about life on the Prairies.


Mosaic Stadium is the home stadium for the Saskatchewan Roughriders, a professional Canadian football team. Mosaic Stadium Exterior.jpg
Mosaic Stadium is the home stadium for the Saskatchewan Roughriders, a professional Canadian football team.

The Saskatchewan Roughriders Canadian football team is the province's professional football franchise (playing in the Canadian Football League), and are extremely popular across Saskatchewan. The team's fans are also found to congregate on game days throughout Canada, and collectively they are known as "Rider Nation". The province's other major sport franchise is the Saskatchewan Rush of the National Lacrosse League. In their first year of competition, 2016, the Rush won both their Division Title and the League Championship.

Hockey is the most popular sport in the province. More than 490 NHL players [80] have been born in Saskatchewan, the highest per capita output of any Canadian province, U.S. state, or European country. [81] Notable NHL figures born in Saskatchewan include Keith Allen, Gordie Howe, Bryan Trottier, Bernie Federko, Clark Gillies, Fern Flaman, Bert Olmstead, Harry Watson, Elmer Lach, Max Bentley, Sid Abel, Doug Bentley, Eddie Shore, Clint Smith, Bryan Hextall, Johnny Bower, Emile Francis, Glenn Hall, Chuck Rayner, Brad McCrimmon, Patrick Marleau, Dave Manson, Theo Fleury, Terry Harper, Wade Redden, Brian Propp, Scott Hartnell, Ryan Getzlaf, and Chris Kunitz. Saskatchewan does not have an NHL or minor professional franchise, but five teams in the junior Western Hockey League are located in the province: the Moose Jaw Warriors, Prince Albert Raiders, Regina Pats, Saskatoon Blades and Swift Current Broncos.

A pond hockey rink set up on Emma Lake Emma Lake area 2014-12-31 16-03-32 0039 KC (15556369354).jpg
A pond hockey rink set up on Emma Lake

In 2015, Budweiser honoured Saskatchewan for their abundance of hockey players by sculpting a 12-foot-tall hockey player monument in ice for Saskatchewan's capital city of Regina. [82] The company then filmed this frozen monument for a national television commercial, thanking the province for creating so many goal scorers throughout hockey's history. Budweiser also gifted the “hockey player” province a trophy made of white birch—Saskatchewan's provincial tree—which bears the name of every pro player in history. Sitting atop the trophy was a golden Budweiser Red Light, synched to every current Saskatchewan player in the pros. This trophy can currently be seen at Victoria Bar in Regina.

Historically, Saskatchewan has been one of the strongest curling provinces. Teams from Saskatchewan have finished in the top three places at 38 briers and Saskatchewan has more women's championships than any other province with 11. Notable curlers from Saskatchewan include Sandra Schmirler, Ernie Richardson, and Vera Pezer. In a 2019 TSN poll, experts ranked Schmirler's Saskatchewan team, which won a gold medal at the 1998 Olympics, as the greatest women's team in Canada's history. [83]


The official tartan of Saskatchewan, created in 1961 Tartan of Saskatchewan.png
The official tartan of Saskatchewan, created in 1961

The flag of Saskatchewan was officially adopted on September 22, 1969. [84] The flag features the provincial shield in the upper quarter nearest the staff, with the floral emblem, the Prairie Lily, in the fly. The upper green (in forest green) half of the flag represents the northern Saskatchewan forest lands, while the golden lower half of the flag symbolizes the southern wheat fields and prairies. A province-wide competition was held to design the flag, and drew over 4,000 entries. The winning design was by Anthony Drake, then living in Hodgeville. [85]

In 2005, Saskatchewan Environment held a province-wide vote to recognize Saskatchewan's centennial year, receiving more than 10,000 online and mail-in votes from the public. The walleye was the overwhelming favourite of the six native fish species nominated for the designation, receiving more than half the votes cast. [86] Other species in the running were the lake sturgeon, lake trout, lake whitefish, northern pike and yellow perch.

Saskatchewan's other symbols include the tartan, the license plate, and the provincial flower. Saskatchewan's official tartan was registered with the Court of Lord Lyon King of Arms in Scotland in 1961. It has seven colours: gold, brown, green, red, yellow, white and black. The provincial licence plates display the slogan "Land of Living Skies". The provincial flower of Saskatchewan is the western red lily.

Centennial celebrations

In 2005, Saskatchewan celebrated its centennial. To honour it, the Royal Canadian Mint issued a commemorative five-dollar coin depicting Canada's wheat fields as well as a circulation 25-cent coin of a similar design. Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip visited Regina, Saskatoon, and Lumsden, and the Saskatchewan-reared Joni Mitchell issued an album in Saskatchewan's honour.

See also

Maple Leaf (from roundel).svg   Canadaportal


  1. The remaining

Related Research Articles

Prince Albert, Saskatchewan City in Saskatchewan, Canada

Prince Albert is the third-largest city in Saskatchewan, Canada, after Saskatoon and Regina. It is situated near the centre of the province on the banks of the North Saskatchewan River. The city is known as the "Gateway to the North" because it is the last major centre along the route to the resources of northern Saskatchewan. Prince Albert National Park is located 51 km (32 mi) north of the city and contains a huge wealth of lakes, forest, and wildlife. The city itself is located in a transition zone between the aspen parkland and boreal forest biomes. Prince Albert is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Prince Albert No. 461, of which it is the seat of but is politically separate.

Melfort, Saskatchewan City in Saskatchewan, Canada

Melfort is a city in Saskatchewan, Canada, located approximately 95 km (59 mi) southeast of Prince Albert, 172 km (107 mi) northeast of Saskatoon and 280 km (170 mi) north of Regina.

Indian Head, Saskatchewan Town in Saskatchewan, Canada

Indian Head is a town in southeast Saskatchewan, Canada, 69 kilometres (43 mi) east of Regina on the Trans-Canada Highway. It "had its beginnings in 1882 as the first settlers, mainly of Scottish origin, pushed into the area in advance of the railroad, most traveling by ox-cart from Brandon." "Indian" refers to Aboriginal Canadians. The town is known for its federally operated experimental farm and tree nursery, which has produced and distributed seedlings for shelter belts since 1901. For many years the program was run by the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA).

Rosetown, Saskatchewan Town in Saskatchewan, Canada

Rosetown is a town in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, at the junction of provincial Highway 7 and Highway 4, approximately 115 km southwest of Saskatoon.


Fransaskois or Franco-Saskatchewanians are French Canadians or Canadian francophones living in the province of Saskatchewan. According to the 2016 Canadian Census, approximately 17,735 residents of the province stated that French was their mother tongue. In the same census, 125,810 Saskatchewanians claimed full or partial French ancestry. There are several Fransaskois communities in the Saskatchewan, although the majority of francophones in Saskatchewan reside in the province's three largest cities, Saskatoon, Regina, and Prince Albert.

Martensville City in Saskatchewan, Canada

Martensville is a city located in Saskatchewan, Canada, just 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) north of Saskatoon, and 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) southwest of Clarkboro Ferry which crosses the South Saskatchewan River. It is a bedroom community of Saskatoon. It is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344. The community is served by the Saskatoon/Richter Field Aerodrome located immediately west of the city across Highway 12.

Saskatchewan Highway 16 Highway in Saskatchewan, Canada

Highway 16 is a provincial highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It is the Saskatchewan section of the Yellowhead Highway, and also the Trans-Canada Highway Yellowhead section. The main purpose of this highway is to connect Saskatchewan with Canadian cities such as Edmonton and Winnipeg. The highway runs from the Alberta boundary in Lloydminster to the Manitoba boundary near Marchwell. Major cities it passes through are Saskatoon, North Battleford in the central part of the province, Yorkton in the far east and Lloydminster to the far west.

Saskatchewan Highway 11 Highway in Saskatchewan, Canada

Highway 11 is a major north-south highway in Saskatchewan, Canada that connects the province's three largest cities: Regina, Saskatoon and Prince Albert. It is a structural pavement major arterial highway which is approximately 391 kilometres (243 mi) long. It is also known as the Louis Riel Trail (LRT) after the 19th century Métis leader. It runs from Highway 1 in Regina until Highway 2 south of Prince Albert. Historically the southern portion between Regina and Saskatoon was Provincial Highway 11, and followed the Dominion Survey lines on the square, and the northern portion between Saskatoon and Prince Albert was Provincial Highway 12.

History of Saskatchewan

History of Saskatchewan encompasses the study of past human events and activities of the province of Saskatchewan, the middle of Canada's three prairie provinces. Archaeological studies give some clues as to the history and lifestyles of the Palaeo-Indian, Taltheilei, and Shield Archaic Traditions who were the first occupants of the prehistoric era of this geographical area. They evolved into the history of the first nations people who kept their history alive in oral tradition. The First Nation bands that were a part of this area were the Chipewyan, Cree, Saulteaux, Assiniboine, Atsina and Sioux.

Geography of Saskatchewan Geography of the prairie and boreal province of Saskatchewan, Canada

The geography of Saskatchewan is unique among the provinces and territories of Canada in some respects. It is one of only two landlocked regions and it is the only region whose borders are not based on natural features like lakes, rivers or drainage divides. The borders of Saskatchewan, which make it very nearly a trapezoid, were determined in 1905 when it became a Canadian province. Saskatchewan has a total area of 651,036 square kilometres (251,366 sq mi) of which 591,670 km2 (228,450 sq mi) is land and 59,366 km2 (22,921 sq mi) is water.

Highway 6 is a paved undivided major provincial highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from Montana Highway 16 at the Canada–US border near the Canada customs port of Regway to Highway 55 near Choiceland. Highway 6 is about 523 km (325 mi) long. The CanAm Highway comprises Saskatchewan Highways from south to north: SK 35, Sk 39, Sk 6, Sk 3, as well as Sk 2. 330 kilometres (210 mi) of Saskatchewan Highway 6 contribute to the CanAm Highway between Corinne and Melfort.

Saskatchewan Highway 35 Highway in Saskatchewan

Highway 35 is a paved undivided provincial highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from the US Border near Port of Oungre to a dead end near the north shore of Tobin Lake. Saskatchewan Highway 35 (SK Hwy 35) is about 569 kilometres (354 mi) long. The CanAm Highway comprises Saskatchewan Highways 35, SK Hwy 39, SK Hwy 6, SK Hwy 3, SK Hwy 2 and U.S. Route 85. 74.6 kilometres (46.4 mi) of SK Hwy 35 contribute to the CanAm Highway between Port of Oungre on the Canada – United States border and Weyburn. Mudslides, and spring flooding were huge road building and maintenance problems around Nipawin as well as along the southern portion of the route named the Greater Yellow Grass Marsh. Over 20 early dams were built until the problem was addressed with the Rafferty-Alameda Project on the Souris River and the construction of the Qu'Appelle River Dam which have helped to eliminate washed out roads and flooded communities. The highway through the homesteading community followed the Dominion Land Survey on the square until reaching the Saskatchewan River at Nipawin. The completion of the combined railway and traffic bridge over the Saskatchewan River at Nipawin in the late 1920s retired the ferry and basket crossing for traffic north of Nipawin. The E.B. Campbell Dam built in 1963 northeast of Nipawin created Tobin Lake, and Codette Lake was formed with the construction of the Francois-Finlay Hydroelectric dam at Nipawin. The railway/traffic bridge that formed part of Highway 35 was the only crossing utilized at Nipawin until a new traffic bridge was constructed in 1974. The new bridge then became part of the combined Highway 35 and 55 until the highway parts just east of White Fox. Highway 35 then continued north along the west side of Tobin Lake. The railway/traffic bridge continues to be utilized for one lane vehicle traffic controlled by traffic lights, and continues as the "old highway 35" on the west side of the river until it joins with the current Highway 35/55.

Saskatchewan Highway 39 Highway in Saskatchewan

Highway 39 is a provincial, paved, undivided highway located in the southern portion of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan connecting North Portal and Moose Jaw in the north. This is a primary Saskatchewan highway maintained by the provincial and national governments and providing a major trucking and tourism route between the United States via Portal, Burke County, North Dakota, and North Portal, Saskatchewan. On July 3, 2000, Highways and Transportation Minister Maynard Sonntag officiated at the ribbon cutting ceremony opening the new duty-free shop and the twinned highway at Saskatchewan's busiest border crossing. Highway 39 is one of Canada's busiest highways, facilitating transport for $6 billion in trade goods via approximately 100,000 trucks over the year. The entire length of highway 39 is paved. The CanAm Highway comprises Saskatchewan Highways Hwy 35, Hwy 39, Hwy 6, Hwy 3, as well as Hwy 2. 44.3 miles (71.3 km) of Saskatchewan Highway 39 contribute to the CanAm Highway between Weyburn and Corinne. Highway 39 is divided or twinned in two areas at North Portal as well as north of Weyburn for 1.7 kilometres (1.1 mi). The junction of Hwy 39 with the Trans–Canada divided four-lane highway is done via a "Parclo" or partial cloverleaf interchange.

Transportation in Saskatchewan is the movement of people and goods from one place to another within the province. Transportation in Saskatchewan includes an infrastructure system of roads, highways, freeways, airports, ferries, pipelines, trails, waterways and railway systems serving a population of approximately 1,003,299 inhabitants year-round. It is funded primarily with local, rural municipality and federal government funds.

80% of traffic is carried on our principal system of highways which is 5,031 km in length.

Clair, Saskatchewan Unincorporated community in Saskatchewan, Canada

Clair is a community in Saskatchewan, Canada located north of the provincial capital city of Regina, Saskatchewan. It is also 116.26 miles (187.10 km) east of Saskatoon. Prince Albert is 132.68 miles (213.53 km) north west of Clair and Yorkton is 101.93 miles (164.04 km) south east of Clair. It is on Saskatchewan Highway 5. Clair is located in the Saskatchewan prairies.

The economy of Saskatchewan has been associated with agriculture resulting in the moniker "Bread Basket of Canada" and Bread Basket of the World. According to the Government of Saskatchewan, approximately 95% of all items produced in Saskatchewan, depend on the basic resources available within the province. Various grains, livestock, oil and gas, potash, uranium, wood and their spin off industries fuel the economy.

Flora of Saskatchewan

The native flora of Saskatchewan includes vascular plants, plus additional species of other plants and plant-like organisms such as algae, lichens and other fungi, and mosses. Non-native species of plants are recorded as established outside of cultivation in Saskatchewan, of these some non-native species remain beneficial for gardening, and agriculture, where others have become invasive, noxious weeds. Saskatchewan is committed to protecting species at risk in Canada. The growing season has been studied and classified into plant hardiness zones depending on length of growing season and climatic conditions. Biogeographic factors have also been divided into vegetative zones, floristic kingdoms, hardiness zones and ecoregions across Saskatchewan, and natural vegetation varies depending on elevation, moisture, soil type landforms, and weather. The study of ethnobotany uncovers the interrelation between humans and plants and the various ways people have used plants for economic reasons, food, medicine and technological developments. The Government of Saskatchewan has declared 3 indigenous plants as provincial symbols.

Outline of Saskatchewan Overview of and topical guide to Saskatchewan

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Saskatchewan:

Western Canada geographical region of Canada

Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region of Canada that includes the four provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. British Columbia is culturally, economically, geographically, and politically distinct from the other parts of Western Canada and is often referred to as the "west coast", while Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba sometimes form a subset together as the Prairie Provinces.

Rural Municipality of Mountain View No. 318 Rural municipality in Saskatchewan, Canada

The Rural Municipality of Mountain View No. 318 is a rural municipality (RM) in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan within Census Division No. 12 and SARM Division No. 6.


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Further reading

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