Saskatchewan

Last updated

Saskatchewan
Motto(s): 
Latin: Multis e Gentibus Vires [1]
("Strength from Many Peoples")
CountryCanada
Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from NWT) (8th/9th, simultaneously with Alberta)
Capital Regina
Largest city Saskatoon
Largest metro Saskatoon metropolitan area
Government
  Type Constitutional monarchy
   Lieutenant governor Russell Mirasty
   Premier Scott Moe (Saskatchewan Party)
Legislature Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan
Federal representation(in Canadian Parliament)
House seats 14 of 338 (4.1%)
Senate seats 6 of 105 (5.7%)
Area
  Total651,900 km2 (251,700 sq mi)
  Land591,670 km2 (228,450 sq mi)
  Water59,366 km2 (22,921 sq mi)  9.1%
Area rank Ranked 7th
 6.5% of Canada
Population
 (2016)
  Total1,098,352 [2]
  Estimate 
(2019 Q2)
1,169,131 [3]
  Rank Ranked 6th
  Density1.86/km2 (4.8/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Saskatchewanian (official), [4] also Saskatchewanite
Official languages English [ citation needed ]
GDP
   Rank 5th
  Total (2015)C$79.415 billion [5]
  Per capitaC$70,138 (4th)
Time zone Central: UTC−6, year-round in most areas
Mountain: UTC-7/-6, Lloydminster and nearby areas
Postal abbr.
SK
Postal code prefix S
ISO 3166 code CA-SK
Flower Western red lily
Tree Paper birch
Bird Sharp-tailed grouse
Website www.saskatchewan.ca
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Saskatchewan ( /səˈskæəwən, sæ-, -wɒn/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without a natural border. It has an area of 651,900 square kilometres (251,700 sq mi), nearly 10 percent of which (59,366 square kilometres (22,900 sq mi)) is fresh water, composed mostly of rivers, reservoirs, and the province's 100,000 lakes.

Canadian Prairies geographical region of Canada

The Canadian Prairies is a region in Western Canada. It includes the Canadian portion of the Great Plains and the Prairie Provinces, namely Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. These provinces are partially covered by grasslands, plains, and lowlands, mostly in the southern regions. The northernmost reaches of the Canadian Prairies are less well known. They are marked by forests and more variable topology. If the region is defined to include areas only covered by prairie land, the corresponding region is known as the Interior Plains. Geographically, the Canadian prairies extend to northeastern British Columbia, but this province is not included in a political manner.

Boreal forest of Canada Canadian biome characterized by coniferous forests

Canada's Boreal forest comprises about one third of the circumpolar boreal forest that rings the Northern Hemisphere, mostly north of the 50th parallel. Other countries with boreal forest, include Russia, which contains the majority, the United States in its northern most state of Alaska, and the Scandinavian or Northern European countries. In Europe, the entire boreal forest is referred to as taiga, not just the northern fringe where it thins out near the tree line. The boreal region in Canada covers almost 60% of the country's land area. The Canadian boreal region spans the landscape from the most easterly part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the border between the far northern Yukon and Alaska. The area is dominated by coniferous forests, particularly spruce, interspersed with vast wetlands, mostly bogs and fens. The boreal region of Canada includes eight ecozones. While the biodiversity of regions varies, each ecozone has a characteristic native flora and fauna.

Provinces and territories of Canada Top-level subdivisions of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, and the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area.

Contents

Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, to the northeast by Nunavut, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota. As of Q2 2019, Saskatchewan's population was estimated at 1,169,131. [6] Residents primarily live in the southern prairie half of the province, while the northern boreal half is mostly forested and sparsely populated. Of the total population, roughly half live in the province's largest city Saskatoon, or the provincial capital Regina. Other notable cities include Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Yorkton, Swift Current, North Battleford, Melfort, and the border city Lloydminster (partially within Alberta). [7]

Alberta Province of Canada

Alberta is a province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces. Its area is about 660,000 square kilometres (250,000 sq mi). Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905. The premier is Jason Kenney as of April 30, 2019.

Northwest Territories Territory of Canada

The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada. At a land area of approximately 1,144,000 km2 (442,000 sq mi) and a 2016 census population of 41,786, it is the second-largest and the most populous of the three territories in Northern Canada. Its estimated population as of 2018 is 44,445. Yellowknife became the territorial capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission.

Manitoba Province of Canada

Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is often considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres (250,900 sq mi) with a widely varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States. The province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, and Northwest Territories to the northwest, and the U.S. states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south.

Saskatchewan is a landlocked province with large distances to moderating bodies of waters. As a result, its climate is extremely continental, rendering severe winters throughout the province. Southern areas have very warm or hot summers. Midale and Yellow Grass near the U.S. border are tied for the highest ever recorded temperatures in Canada with 45 °C (113 °F) observed at both locations on July 5, 1937. [8] [9] In winter, temperatures below −45 °C (−49 °F) are possible even in the south during extreme cold snaps.

Continental climate

Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature. They tend to occur in the middle latitudes, where prevailing winds blow overland, and temperatures are not moderated by bodies of water such as oceans or seas. Continental climates occur mostly in the Northern Hemisphere, which has the kind of large landmasses on temperate latitudes required for this type of climate to develop. Most of northern and northeastern China, eastern and southeastern Europe, central and southeastern Canada, and the central and northeastern United States have this type of climate.

Midale Town in Saskatchewan, Canada

Midale, Saskatchewan is located on Highway 39, midway between the cities of Weyburn and Estevan. The population of Midale is 562. It is 160 kilometres southeast of Regina, Saskatchewan.

Yellow Grass Town in Saskatchewan, Canada

Yellow Grass is a town in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. It is located in the Rural Municipality of Scott No. 98, approximately 25 km northwest of Weyburn, at the junction of provincial Highway 39 and 621. The town is located on the Canadian Pacific Railway Soo Line, at an elevation of 572 metres above sea level.

Saskatchewan has been inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous groups, and first explored by Europeans in 1690 and settled in 1774. It became a province in 1905, carved out from the vast North-West Territories, which had until then included most of the Canadian Prairies. In the early 20th century the province became known as a stronghold for Canadian social democracy; North America's first social-democratic government was elected in 1944. The province's economy is based on agriculture, mining, and energy.

The history of the Northwest Territories begins with the population of the region by First Nations peoples, and proceeds through the transformation of it into provinces and territories of the nation of Canada, including the modern administrative unit of the Northwest Territories. When Europeans settlers began to divide the continent, the Northwest Territories included much of the sparsely populated regions of what is now western Canada. Over time, the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba were formed out of the territories. In 1898, the Yukon territory became a separate entity and in 1999 Nunavut was formed from the eastern section.

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation former political party in Canada

The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a social-democratic and democratic socialist political party in Canada. The CCF was founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, agrarian, co-operative, and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. In 1944, the CCF formed the first social-democratic government in North America when it was elected to form the provincial government in Saskatchewan. In 1961, the CCF was succeeded by the New Democratic Party (NDP). The full, but little used, name of the party was Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (Farmer-Labour-Socialist).

1944 Saskatchewan general election

The Saskatchewan general election of 1944 was the tenth provincial election in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It was held on June 15, 1944 to elect members of the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan.

The former Lieutenant Governor, Thomas Molloy, died in office on July 2, 2019. [10] On July 17, 2019, the federal government announced the appointment of Russell Mirasty, former Assistant Commissioner with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, as the new Lieutenant Governor. [11] The current premier is Scott Moe.

William Thomas Molloy was a Canadian lawyer, treaty negotiator, and Chancellor of the University of Saskatchewan. He was the 22nd Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan. His appointment as Lieutenant Governor was made by Governor General of Canada Julie Payette on the Constitutional advice of Prime Minister of Canada Justin Trudeau on January 22, 2018, to succeed Vaughn Solomon Schofield. Molloy was sworn in on March 21, 2018, at the Saskatchewan Legislative Building. He was the viceregal representative of Queen Elizabeth II of Canada in the Province of Saskatchewan.

Russell Mirasty is the current Lieutenant Governor of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. His appointment as Lieutenant Governor was made by Governor General of Canada Julie Payette on the Constitutional advice of Prime Minister of Canada Justin Trudeau on on July 17, 2019, filling the vacancy in the position left when the former Lieutenant Governor, W. Thomas Molloy, died in office on July 2, 2019. Mirasty was sworn in on July 18, 2019. He is the first Indigenous person appointed as Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police mounted police force in Canada

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is the federal and national police force of Canada. The RCMP provides law enforcement at the federal level. It also provides provincial policing in eight of Canada's provinces and local policing on contract basis in the three territories and more than 150 municipalities, 600 aboriginal communities, and three international airports. The RCMP does not provide provincial or municipal policing in Ontario or Quebec.

In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic land claim agreement with First Nations in Saskatchewan. [12] The First Nations received compensation and were permitted to buy land on the open market for the bands; they have acquired about 3,079 square kilometres (761,000 acres; 1,189 sq mi), now reserve lands. Some First Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban areas, including Saskatoon. [12]

First Nations in Saskatchewan constitute many Native Canadian band governments. First Nations ethnicities in the province include the Cree, Assiniboine, Saulteaux, Dene and Dakota. Historically, the Atsina and Blackfoot could also be found at various times.

Saskatoon City in Saskatchewan, Canada

Saskatoon is the largest city in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It straddles a bend in the South Saskatchewan River in the central region of the province. It is located along the Trans-Canada Yellowhead Highway, and has served as the cultural and economic hub of central Saskatchewan since it was founded in 1882 as a Temperance colony.

Etymology

Its name derived from the Saskatchewan River. The river was known as kisiskāciwani-sīpiy ("swift flowing river") in the Cree language. [13]

Geography

As Saskatchewan's borders largely follow the geographic coordinates of longitude and latitude, the province is roughly a quadrilateral, or a shape with four sides. However, the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th northern border appear curved on globes and many maps. Additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is partially crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program (1880–1928).

Topographic map of Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Topographic.png
Topographic map of Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan is part of the Western Provinces and is bounded on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the north-east by Nunavut, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota. Saskatchewan has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features (i.e. they are all parallels and meridians). Along with Alberta, Saskatchewan is one of only two land-locked provinces.

The overwhelming majority of Saskatchewan's population is located in the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel.

Saskatchewan contains two major natural regions: the Boreal Forest in the north and the Prairies in the south. They are separated by an aspen parkland transition zone near the North Saskatchewan River on the western side of the province, and near to south of the Saskatchewan River on the eastern side. Northern Saskatchewan is mostly covered by forest except for the Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes, the largest active sand dunes in the world north of 58°, and adjacent to the southern shore of Lake Athabasca. Southern Saskatchewan contains another area with sand dunes known as the "Great Sand Hills" covering over 300 square kilometres (120 sq mi). The Cypress Hills, located in the southwestern corner of Saskatchewan and Killdeer Badlands (Grasslands National Park), are areas of the province that were unglaciated during the last glaciation period, the Wisconsin glaciation.

The province's highest point, at 1,392 metres (4,567 ft), is located in the Cypress Hills less than 2 km from the provincial boundary with Alberta. [14] The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213 metres (699 ft). The province has 14 major drainage basins made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. [15]

Climate

Koppen climate types of Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Koppen.svg
Köppen climate types of Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan receives more hours of sunshine than any other Canadian province. [16] The province lies far from any significant body of water. This fact, combined with its northerly latitude, gives it a warm summer, corresponding to its humid continental climate (Köppen type Dfb) in the central and most of the eastern parts of the province, as well as the Cypress Hills; drying off to a semi-arid steppe climate (Köppen type BSk) in the southwestern part of the province. Drought can affect agricultural areas during long periods with little or no precipitation at all. The northern parts of Saskatchewan – from about La Ronge northward – have a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) with a shorter summer season. Summers can get very hot, sometimes above 38 °C (100 °F) during the day, and with humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the plains and intermontane regions of the Western United States during much of July and August, very cool or hot but changeable air masses often occur during spring and in September. Winters are usually bitterly cold, with frequent Arctic air descending from the north. [17] with high temperatures not breaking −17 °C (1 °F) for weeks at a time. Warm chinook winds often blow from the west, bringing periods of mild weather. Annual precipitation averages 30 to 45 centimetres (12 to 18 inches) across the province, with the bulk of rain falling in June, July, and August. [18]

Saskatchewan is one of the most tornado-active parts of Canada, averaging roughly 12 to 18 tornadoes per year, some violent. In 2012, 33 tornadoes were reported in the province. The Regina Cyclone took place in June 1912 when 28 people died in an F4 Fujita scale tornado. Severe and non-severe thunderstorm events occur in Saskatchewan, usually from early spring to late summer. Hail, strong winds and isolated tornadoes are a common occurrence.

The hottest temperature ever recorded anywhere in Canada happened in Saskatchewan. The temperature rose to 45 °C (113 °F) in Midale and Yellow Grass. The coldest ever recorded in the province was −56.7 °C (−70.1 °F) in Prince Albert, which is north of Saskatoon.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Saskatchewan [19]
CityJuly (°C)July (°F)January (°C)January (°F)
Maple Creek 27/1181/52−5/−1623/4
Estevan 27/1381/55−9/−2016/−4
Weyburn 26/1279/54−10/−2114/−6
Moose Jaw 26/1279/54−8/−1918/−2
Regina 26/1179/52−10/−2214/−8
Saskatoon 25/1177/52−12/−2210/−8
Melville 25/1177/52−12/−2310/−9
Swift Current 25/1177/52−7/−1719/1
Humboldt 24/1175/52−12/−2310/−9
Melfort 24/1175/52−14/−237/−9
North Battleford 24/1175/52−12/−2210/−8
Yorkton 24/1175/52−13/−239/−9
Lloydminster 23/1173/52−10/−1914/−2
Prince Albert 24/1175/52−13/−259/−13

History

Henry Kelsey sees a buffalo herd on the western plains. Henry Kelsey sees the buffalo on the western plains.jpg
Henry Kelsey sees a buffalo herd on the western plains.

Saskatchewan has been populated by various indigenous peoples of North America, including members of the Sarcee, Niitsitapi, Atsina, Cree, Saulteaux, Assiniboine (Nakoda), Lakota and Sioux. The first known European to enter Saskatchewan was Henry Kelsey in 1690, who travelled up the Saskatchewan River in hopes of trading fur with the region's indigenous peoples. The first permanent European settlement was a Hudson's Bay Company post at Cumberland House, founded in 1774 by Samuel Hearne. [20] In 1762 the south of the province was part of the Spanish Louisiana until 1802. [21]

Part of Alberta and Saskatchewan were traded from the United States, which in return received part of Rupert's Land, today part of North Dakota and Minnesota. UnitedStatesExpansion.png
Part of Alberta and Saskatchewan were traded from the United States, which in return received part of Rupert's Land, today part of North Dakota and Minnesota.
Cree Pipe Stem Carrier, a painting of a Plains Cree warrior by Paul Kane. Cree pipe stem carrier-Cree warrior.jpg
Cree Pipe Stem Carrier, a painting of a Plains Cree warrior by Paul Kane.

In 1803 the Louisiana Purchase transferred from France to the United States part of what is now Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1818 the U.S. ceded the area to Britain. Most of what is now Saskatchewan was part of Rupert's Land and controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company, which claimed rights to all watersheds flowing into Hudson Bay, including the Saskatchewan River, Churchill, Assiniboine, Souris, and Qu'Appelle River systems.

In the late 1850s and early 1860s, scientific expeditions led by John Palliser and Henry Youle Hind explored the prairie region of the province.

In 1870, Canada acquired the Hudson's Bay Company's territories and formed the North-West Territories to administer the vast territory between British Columbia and Manitoba. The Crown also entered into a series of numbered treaties with the indigenous peoples of the area, which serve as the basis of the relationship between First Nations, as they are called today, and the Crown. Since the late twentieth century, land losses and inequities as a result of those treaties have been subject to negotiation for settlement between the First Nations in Saskatchewan and the federal government, in collaboration with provincial governments.

In 1876, following their defeat of United States Army forces at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana Territory in the United States, the Lakota Chief Sitting Bull led several thousand of his people to Wood Mountain. Survivors and descendants founded Wood Mountain Reserve in 1914.

The Battle of Batoche, 1885 The Capture of Batoche.jpg
The Battle of Batoche, 1885

The North-West Mounted Police set up several posts and forts across Saskatchewan, including Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills, and Wood Mountain Post in south-central Saskatchewan near the United States border.

Many Métis people, who had not been signatories to a treaty, had moved to the Southbranch Settlement and Prince Albert district north of present-day Saskatoon following the Red River Rebellion in Manitoba in 1870. In the early 1880s, the Canadian government refused to hear the Métis' grievances, which stemmed from land-use issues. Finally, in 1885, the Métis, led by Louis Riel, staged the North-West Rebellion and declared a provisional government. They were defeated by a Canadian militia brought to the Canadian prairies by the new Canadian Pacific Railway. Riel, who surrendered and was convicted of treason in a packed Regina courtroom, was hanged on November 16, 1885. Since then, the government has recognized the Métis as an aboriginal people with status rights and provided them with various benefits.

European settlements

National policy set by the federal government, the Canadian Pacific Railway, the Hudson's Bay Company and associated land companies encouraged immigration. The Dominion Lands Act of 1872 permitted settlers to acquire one quarter of a square mile of land to homestead and offered an additional quarter upon establishing a homestead. In 1874, the North-West Mounted Police began providing police services. In 1876, the North-West Territories Act provided for appointment, by the Ottawa, of a Lieutenant Governor and a Council to assist him. [22]

Highly optimistic advertising campaigns promoted the benefits of prairie living. Potential immigrants read leaflets information painted Canada as a veritable garden of Eden and downplayed the need for agricultural expertise. Ads in The Nor'-West Farmer by the Commissioner of Immigration implied that western land was blessed with water, wood, gold, silver, iron, copper, and cheap coal for fuel, all of which were readily at hand. Reality was far harsher, especially for the first arrivals who lived in sod houses. However eastern money poured in and by 1913, long term mortgage loans to Saskatchewan farmers had reached $65 million. [23]

The dominant groups comprised British settlers from eastern Canada and Britain, who comprised about half of the population during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. They played the leading role in establishing the basic institutions of plains society, economy and government. [24]

Gender roles were sharply defined. Men were primarily responsible for breaking the land; planting and harvesting; building the house; buying, operating and repairing machinery; and handling finances. At first, there were many single men on the prairie, or husbands whose wives were still back east, but they had a hard time. They realized the need for a wife. In 1901, there were 19,200 families, but this surged to 150,300 families only 15 years later. Wives played a central role in settlement of the prairie region. Their labor, skills, and ability to adapt to the harsh environment proved decisive in meeting the challenges. They prepared bannock, beans and bacon, mended clothes, raised children, cleaned, tended the garden, helped at harvest time and nursed everyone back to health. While prevailing patriarchal attitudes, legislation, and economic principles obscured women's contributions, the flexibility exhibited by farm women in performing productive and nonproductive labor was critical to the survival of family farms, and thus to the success of the wheat economy. [25]

Immigration peaked in 1910, and in spite of the initial difficulties of frontier life – distance from towns, sod homes, and backbreaking labour – new settlers established a European-Canadian style of prosperous agrarian society.

20th century

On September 1, 1905, Saskatchewan became a province, with inauguration day held September 4. Its political leaders at the time proclaimed its destiny was to become Canada's most powerful province. Saskatchewan embarked on an ambitious province-building program based on its Anglo-Canadian culture and wheat production for the export market. Population quintupled from 91,000 in 1901 to 492,000 to 1911, thanks to heavy immigration of farmers from the Ukraine, U.S., Germany and Scandinavia. Efforts were made to assimilate the newcomers to British Canadian culture and values. [26]

The long-term prosperity of the province depended on the world price of grain, which headed steadily upward from the 1880s to 1920, then plunged down. Wheat output was increased by new strains, such as the "Marquis wheat" strain which matured 8 days sooner and yielded 7 more bushels per acre than the previous standard, "Red Fife". The national output of wheat soared from 8 million bushels in 1896, to 26 million in 1901, reaching 151 million by 1921. [27]

In the 1905 provincial elections, Liberals won 16 of 25 seats in Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan government bought out Bell Telephone Company in 1909, with the government owning the long-distance lines and left local service to small companies organized at the municipal level. [28] Premier Walter Scott preferred government assistance to outright ownership because he thought enterprises worked better if citizens had a stake in running them; he set up the Saskatchewan Cooperative Elevator Company in 1911. Despite pressure from farm groups for direct government involvement in the grain handling business, the Scott government opted to loan money to a farmer-owned elevator company. Saskatchewan in 1909 provided bond guarantees to railway companies for the construction of branch lines, alleviating the concerns of farmers who had trouble getting their wheat to market by wagon. [29] The Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association, was the dominant political force in the province until the 1920s; it had close ties with the governing Liberal party. In 1913, the Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association was established with three goals: to watch over legislation; to forward the interests of the stock growers in every honourable and legitimate way; and to suggest to parliament legislation to meet changing conditions and requirements. [30]

Urban reform movements in Regina were based on support from business and professional groups. City planning, reform of local government, and municipal ownership of utilities were more widely supported by these two groups, often through such organizations as the Board of Trade. Church-related and other altruistic organizations generally supported social welfare and housing reforms; these groups were generally less successful in getting their own reforms enacted. [31]

1914–39

The province responded to the First World War in 1914 with patriotic enthusiasm and enjoyed the resultant economic boom for farms and cities alike. Emotional and intellectual support for the war emerged from the politics of Canadian national identity, the rural myth, and social gospel progressivism The Church of England was especially supportive. However, there was strong hostility toward German-Canadian farmers. [32] Recent Ukrainian immigrants were enemy aliens because of their citizenship in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A small fraction were taken to internment camps. Most of the internees were unskilled unemployed labourers who were imprisoned "because they were destitute, not because they were disloyal." [33] [34]

The price of wheat tripled and acreage seeded doubled. The wartime spirit of sacrifice intensified social reform movements that had predated the war and now came to fruition. Saskatchewan gave women the right to vote in 1916 and at the end of 1916 passed a referendum to prohibit the sale of alcohol.

Bennett buggies, automobiles pulled by horses, were used during the Great Depression by farmers with too little cash to purchase gasoline. 35bennettbuggy.jpg
Bennett buggies, automobiles pulled by horses, were used during the Great Depression by farmers with too little cash to purchase gasoline.

In the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan, imported from the United States and Ontario, gained brief popularity in nativist circles in Saskatchewan and Alberta. The Klan, briefly allied with the provincial Conservative party because of their mutual dislike for Premier James G. "Jimmy" Gardiner and his Liberals (who ferociously fought the Klan), enjoyed about two years of prominence. It declined and disappeared, subject to widespread political and media opposition, plus internal scandals involving the use of the organization's funds.

Recent history

In 1970, the first annual Canadian Western Agribition was held in Regina. This farm-industry trade show, with its strong emphasis on livestock, is rated as one of the five top livestock shows in North America, along with those in Houston, Denver, Louisville and Toronto.

The province celebrated the 75th anniversary of its establishment in 1980, with Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, presiding over the official ceremonies. [35] [36] In 2005, 25 years later, her sister, Queen Elizabeth II, attended the events held to mark Saskatchewan's centennial. [37]

Since the late 20th century, First Nations have become more politically active in seeking justice for past inequities, especially related to government taking of indigenous lands. The federal and provincial governments have negotiated on numerous land claims, and developed a program of "Treaty Land Entitlement", enabling First Nations to buy land to be taken into reserves with money from settlements of claims.

"In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed an historic land claim agreement with Saskatchewan First Nations. Under the Agreement, the First Nations received money to buy land on the open market. As a result, about 761,000 acres have been turned into reserve land and many First Nations continue to invest their settlement dollars in urban areas", including Saskatoon. The money from such settlements has enabled First Nations to invest in businesses and other economic infrastructure. [12]

Demographics

According to the Canada 2011 Census, the largest ethnic group in Saskatchewan is German (28.6%), followed by English (24.9%), Scottish (18.9%), Canadian (18.8%), Irish (15.5%), Ukrainian (13.5%), French (Fransaskois) (12.2%), First Nations (12.1%), Norwegian (6.9%), and Polish (5.8%). [38]

Population density of Saskatchewan Canada Saskatchewan Density 2016.png
Population density of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan census statistics

Mother tongue (2016 [39] )

  English (82.4%)
  French (1.4%)
  Other language (14.5%)
  Multiple (1.7%)

Indigenous and visible minority identity (2016 [40] [41] )

   European Canadian (72.9%)
   Visible minority (10.8%)
   First Nations (10.7%)
   Métis (5.4%)
  Other Indigenous (0.2%)

Religious affiliation (2011 [42] )

  Christian (72.1%)
  Sikh (0.2%)
  Buddhist (0.4%)
  Muslim (1.0%)
  Jewish (0.1%)
  Hindu (0.4%)
  Aboriginal spirituality (1.2%)
  Other religions (0.3%)
  Irreligious (24.4%)

Christian sub-affiliation (2011 [43] )

  Roman Catholic (41.0%)
  United Church (18.5%)
  Lutheran (8.8%)
  Anglican (7.5%)
  Baptist (2.2%)
  Pentecostal (2.2%)
  Orthodox (1.8%)
  Presbyterian (1.1%)
  Other Christian (16.9%)
Saskatchewan's population since 1901 Saskatchewan population growth.png
Saskatchewan's population since 1901
YearPopulationFive-year
% change
Ten-year
% change
Rank among
provinces
190191,279n/an/a8
1911492,432n/a439.53
1921757,510n/a53.83
1931921,785n/a21.73
1941895,992n/a−2.83
1951831,728n/a−7.25
1956880,6655.9n/a5
1961925,1815.111.25
1966955,3443.38.56
1971926,242−3.00.16
1976921,325−0.53.66
1981968,3135.14.56
19861,009,6134.39.66
1991988,928−2.02.16
1996976,615−1.2−3.36
2001978,9330.2−1.06
2006985,3860.70.96
20111,053,9607.07.66
20161,098,3526.311.46

[44] [45]

The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Roman Catholic Church with 286,815 (30%); the United Church of Canada with 187,450 (20%); and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada with 78,520 (8%). 148,535 (15.4%) responded "no religion". [46]

Municipalities

Saskatoon Skyline in Winter.jpg
Saskatoon skyline and the South Saskatchewan River

Ten largest municipalities by population

Municipality2001200620112016
Saskatoon 196,861202,340222,189246,376
Regina 178,225179,246193,100215,106
Prince Albert 34,29134,13835,12935,926
Moose Jaw 32,13132,13233,27433,890
Swift Current 14,82114,94615,50316,604
Yorkton 15,10715,03815,66916,343
North Battleford 13,69213,19013,88814,315
Estevan 10,24210,08411,05411,483
Warman 3,4814,7647,10411,020
Weyburn 9,5349,43310,48410,870

This list does not include Lloydminster, which has a total population of 31,410 but straddles the Alberta–Saskatchewan border. As of 2016, 11,765 people lived on the Saskatchewan side, which would make it Saskatchewan's 8th largest municipality. All of the listed communities are considered cities by the province; municipalities in the province with a population of 5,000 or more can receive official city status.

Economy

Fields of canola and flax on the Saskatchewan Prairie. Prairie Rainbow Canola Flax.jpg
Fields of canola and flax on the Saskatchewan Prairie.

Historically, Saskatchewan's economy was primarily associated with agriculture. However, increasing diversification has resulted in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting only making up 6.8% of the province's GDP. Saskatchewan grows a large portion of Canada's grain. [47] Wheat is the most familiar crop and the one most often associated with the province (there are sheafs of wheat depicted on the coat of arms of Saskatchewan), but other grains like canola, flax, rye, oats, peas, lentils, canary seed, and barley are also produced. Saskatchewan is the world's largest exporter of mustard seed. [48] Beef cattle production by a Canadian province is only exceeded by Alberta. In the northern part of the province, forestry is also a significant industry.

Mining is a major industry in the province, with Saskatchewan being the world's largest exporter of potash and uranium. [49]

Oil and natural gas production is also a very important part of Saskatchewan's economy, although the oil industry is larger. Among Canadian provinces, only Alberta exceeds Saskatchewan in overall oil production. [50] Heavy crude is extracted in the Lloydminster-Kerrobert-Kindersley areas. Light crude is found in the Kindersley-Swift Current areas as well as the Weyburn-Estevan fields. Natural gas is found almost entirely in the western part of Saskatchewan, from the Primrose Lake area through Lloydminster, Unity, Kindersley, Leader, and around Maple Creek areas. [51]

Saskatchewan's GDP in 2006 was approximately C$45.922 billion, [52] with economic sectors breaking down in the following way:

%Sector
17.1finance, insurance, real estate, leasing
13.0mining, petroleum
11.9education, health, social services
11.7wholesale and retail trade
9.1transportation, communications, utilities
7.7manufacturing
6.8agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting
6.5business services
5.8government services
5.1construction
5.3other

A list of the top 100 companies includes The Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan (defunct in December 2017), Federated Cooperatives Ltd. and IPSCO.

Major Saskatchewan-based Crown corporations are Saskatchewan Government Insurance (SGI), SaskTel, SaskEnergy (the province's main supplier of natural gas), and SaskPower. Bombardier runs the NATO Flying Training Centre at 15 Wing, near Moose Jaw. Bombardier was awarded a long-term contract in the late 1990s for $2.8 billion from the federal government for the purchase of military aircraft and the running of the training facility. SaskPower since 1929 has been the principal supplier of electricity in Saskatchewan, serving more than 451,000 customers and managing $4.5 billion in assets. SaskPower is a major employer in the province with almost 2,500 permanent full-time staff located in 71 communities.

Provincial finances

Fiscal YearPopulation1Gov't Debt2Crown Debt3Budget SurplusGFSF BalancePers. Inc. Tax RevenueCorp. Inc. Tax Revenue4PST Revenue5Resource RevenueHealth ExpenseCredit Rating6
2015–20161,134,4024,798,5627,589,0011,520,00002,537,3491,002,5461,288,9211,761,2655,109,545AAA (neg)
2014–20151,122,5883,799,9706,892,75762,000131,2692,546,577848,4691,358,2052,614,4784,981,636AAA
2013–20141,093,8803,803,0065,955,899589,000446,2692,470,0561,017,1881,326,4032,520,9644,834,932AAA
2012–20131,073,1073,804,8174,981,69316,000666,0002,406,254838,2751,284,8932,515,8694,575,589AAA
2011–20121,053,9603,807,5904,193,54155,000708,0001,897,409793,7901,322,1612,821,9574,400,159AAA
2010–20111,041,7294,135,2263,744,62796,0001,006,0001,795,7881,155,2731,186,9222,527,7994,202,106AA+
2009–20101,025,6384,140,4823,618,953167,705958,0001,890,848881,4241,084,0011,910,6243,934,231AA+
2008–20091,010,2184,145,2863,390,1751,969,9331,215,0001,844,226591,9301,108,6284,612,4083,976,241AA+
2007–2008996,1306,824,3233,172,9031,282,8691,528,9341,938,258673,641995,9952,325,1163,504,333AA
2006–2007991,2607,244,9383,398,647397,794887,5001,668,5381,067,4591,079,7941,694,2523,202,965AA
2005–2006994,9967,197,2233,444,783539,466887,5001,447,905918,2791,112,3501,721,1002,990,625AA
2004–2005997,2637,545,5743,319,737765,117748,5001,329,081638,968985,0791,474,1912,773,961AA-
2003–2004995,8488,031,6373,171,093210,017366,0001,245,763682,052854,4801,140,9622,515,823AA-
2002–2003997,8057,821,4263,084,57982,860577,0001,429,757557,360813,9321,243,6492,342,835A+
2001–20021,001,6437,561,8993,166,992278,902495,0001,196,410507,542770,984903,0442,199,723A+

The Tabulated Data covers each fiscal year (e.g. 2015–2016 covers April 1, 2015 – March 31, 2016). All data is in $1,000s.

1 These values reflect the estimated population at the beginning of the fiscal year.

2 These values reflect the debt of the General Revenue Fund alone at the end of the fiscal year.

3 These values reflect the combined debt of the three major Government Service Enterprises (Crown Corporations) at the end of the fiscal year. As of March 31, 2016, SaskPower, SaskEnergy, and SaskTel accounted for 88.4% of Crown Debt.

4 The highest rate of provincial corporate income tax was reduced from 17% to 14% on July 1, 2006. It was further reduced to 13% on July 1, 2007, and finally to 12% on July 1, 2008. The tax on paid-up capital was reduced from 0.6% to 0.3% on July 1, 2006, to 0.15% on July 1, 2007, and abolished altogether on July 1, 2008. These displayed values were obtained by adding the corporate income tax for each year with the corporate capital tax.

5 The Provincial Sales Tax (PST) rate was reduced from 7% to 5% on October 28, 2006.

6 These values are the credit ratings from Standard & Poor's as of the end of the Fiscal Year.

Source: Government of Saskatchewan. [53]

Government and politics

Saskatchewan has the same form of government [54] as the other Canadian provinces with a lieutenant-governor (who is the representative of the Queen in Right of Saskatchewan), premier, and a unicameral legislature.

For many years, Saskatchewan was one of Canada's more progressive provinces, reflecting many of its citizens' feelings of alienation from the interests of large capital. In 1944 Tommy Douglas became premier of the first avowedly socialist regional government in North America. Most of his Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) represented rural and small-town ridings. Under his Cooperative Commonwealth Federation government, Saskatchewan became the first province to have Medicare. In 1961, Douglas left provincial politics to become the first leader of the federal New Democratic Party.

Provincial politics in Saskatchewan is dominated by the social-democratic Saskatchewan New Democratic Party and the centre-right Saskatchewan Party, with the latter holding the majority in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan since 2007. The current Premier of Saskatchewan is Scott Moe, who took over the leadership of the Saskatchewan Party in 2018 following the resignation of Brad Wall. Numerous smaller political parties also run candidates in provincial elections, including the Green Party of Saskatchewan, Liberal Party of Saskatchewan, and the Progressive Conservative Party of Saskatchewan, but none is currently represented in the Legislative Assembly (federal Conservatives and Liberals generally favour the Saskatchewan Party in provincial elections).

Recent federal elections in Saskatchewan have been dominated by the Conservative Party of Canada. In the 2015 federal election, the Conservatives won ten of the province's fourteen seats, followed by the New Democratic Party with three and the Liberal Party of Canada with one.

No Prime Minister of Canada has been born in Saskatchewan, but two (William Lyon Mackenzie King and John Diefenbaker) represented the province in the House of Commons of Canada during their tenures as head of government.

Law enforcement

Police agencies
  • Saskatchewan Highway Patrol
  • Canadian Forces Military Police (15 Wing Moose Jaw / CFD Dundurn)
  • Canadian National Railway Police Service
  • Canadian Pacific Railway Police Service
  • Caronport Police Service
  • Corman Park Police Service
  • Dalmeny Police Service
  • Estevan Police Service
  • File Hills First Nation Police Service
  • Global Transportation Hub Enforcement (Special Constables)
  • Luseland Police Service
  • Moose Jaw Police Service
  • Prince Albert Police Service
  • Regina Police Service
  • Royal Canadian Mounted Police
  • Saskatchewan Conservation Officer (Special Constables)
  • Saskatoon Police Service
  • University of Regina (Special Constables)
  • University of Saskatchewan Department of Campus Safety (Special Constables)
  • Vanscoy Police Service
  • Wascana Centre Police (Special Constables)
  • Weyburn Police Service
  • Wilton Police Service
Correctional facilities

Education

The first education on the prairies took place within the family groups of the First Nation and early fur trading settlers. There were only a few missionary or trading post schools established in Rupert's Land – later known as the North West Territories.

The first 76 North-West Territories school districts and the first Board of Education meeting formed in 1886. The pioneering boom formed ethnic bloc settlements. Communities were seeking education for their children similar to the schools of their home land. Log cabins, and dwellings were constructed for the assembly of the community, school, church, dances and meetings.

The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties and the success of farmers in proving up on their homesteads helped provide funding to standardize education. [ citation needed ] Textbooks, normal schools for educating teachers, formal school curricula and state of the art school house architectural plans provided continuity throughout the province. English as the school language helped to provide economic stability because one community could communicate with another and goods could be traded and sold in a common language. The number of one-room schoolhouse districts across Saskatchewan totalled approximately 5,000 at the height of this system of education in the late 1940s. [55]

Following World War II, the transition from many one-room schoolhouses to fewer and larger consolidated modern technological town and city schools occurred as a means of ensuring technical education. School buses, highways, and family vehicles create ease and accessibility of a population shift to larger towns and cities. Combines and tractors mean the farmer could manage more than a quarter section of land, so there was a shift from family farms and subsistence crops to cash crops grown on many sections of land.

School vouchers have been newly proposed as a means of allowing competition between rural schools and making the operation of co-operative schools practicable in rural areas.

Healthcare

Saskatchewan's Ministry of Health is responsible for policy direction, sets and monitors standards, and provides funding for regional health authorities and provincial health services.

Saskatchewan's medical health system is widely and inaccurately characterized as "socialized medicine": medical practitioners in Saskatchewan, as in other Canadian provinces, are not civil servants but remit their accounts to the publicly funded Saskatchewan Medical Care Insurance Plan rather than to patients (i.e. a single-payer system). [56]

Saskatchewan medical health system has faced criticism due to a lack of accessibility to the midwifery program. According to Leanne Smith, the director for maternal services in the Saskatoon Health Region declared half of the women who apply for the midwifery program are turned away. [57] Ministry of Health data shows midwives saw 1,233 clients in the 2012–13 fiscal year (which runs April to March). But in that fourth quarter, 359 women were still on waiting lists for immediate or future care. [57] The provincial Health Ministry received 47 letters about midwifery services in 2012, most of which asked for more midwives. [57] As a continuing problem in the Saskatchewan health care system, more pressure has been placed to recruit more midwives for the province.

Transportation

Trans Canada 1 TransCanadaRegina-PilotButte.jpg
Trans Canada 1
Eatonia Railway Station Eatonia Railway Station pre1940.JPG
Eatonia Railway Station

Transportation in Saskatchewan includes an infrastructure system of roads, highways, freeways, airports, ferries, pipelines, trails, waterways and railway systems serving a population of approximately 1,003,299 (according to 2007 estimates) inhabitants year-round. It is funded primarily with local and federal government funds. The Saskatchewan Department of Highways and Transportation estimates 80% of traffic is carried on the 5,031-kilometre principal system of highways. [58]

The Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure operates over 26,000 kilometres (16,000 mi) of highways and divided highways. There are also municipal roads which comprise different surfaces. Asphalt concrete pavements comprise almost 9,000 kilometres (5,600 mi), granular pavement almost 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi), non structural or thin membrane surface TMS are close to 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi) and finally gravel highways make up over 5,600 kilometres (3,500 mi) through the province. In the northern sector, ice roads which can only be navigated in the winter months comprise another approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) of travel. [59]

Saskatchewan has over 250,000 kilometres (150,000 mi) of roads and highways, the highest length of road surface of any Canadian province. [60] The major highways in Saskatchewan are the Trans Canada expressway, Yellowhead Highway northern Trans Canada route, Louis Riel Trail, CanAm Highway, Red Coat Trail, Northern Woods and Water route, and Saskota travel route.

The first Canadian transcontinental railway was constructed by the Canadian Pacific Railway between 1881 and 1885. [61] After the great east-west transcontinental railway was built, north-south connector branch lines were established. The 1920s saw the largest rise in rail line track as the CPR and CNR fell into competition to provide rail service within ten kilometres. In the 1960s there were applications for abandonment of branch lines. [62] Today the only two passenger rail services in the province are The Canadian and Winnipeg–Churchill train, both operated by Via Rail. The Canadian is a transcontinental service linking Toronto with Vancouver.

The main Saskatchewan waterways are the North Saskatchewan River or South Saskatchewan River routes. In total, there are 3,050 bridges maintained by the Department of Highways in Saskatchewan. [63] There are currently twelve ferry services operating in the province, all under the jurisdiction of the Department of Highways.

Ferries of Saskatchewan
FerryLocationWaterwayReference
Estuary connecting Estuary and Laporte South Saskatchewan River [64]
Lemsford North of Lemsford connecting 32 and 30 South Saskatchewan River [64]
Lancer North of Lancer connecting 32 and 30 South Saskatchewan River [64]
Riverhurst Highway 42 and Highway 373 Lake Diefenbaker [64]
Clarkboro Between Warman and Aberdeen on 784 South Saskatchewan River [64]
Hague Between Hague and Aberdeen South Saskatchewan River [64]
St. Laurent East of Duck Lake, 11 and Batoche 225 South Saskatchewan River [64]
Fenton Between 25 and 3 on Grid Road South Saskatchewan River [64]
Weldon Between 3, Weldon via 682 and 302, Prince Albert South Saskatchewan River [64]
Paynton Between 16 and 26 via 764 North Saskatchewan River [64]
Wingard East of Marcelin, 40 connecting to 11 Wingard North Saskatchewan River [64]
Cecil Between 302 and 55 east of Prince Albert North Saskatchewan River [64]

The Saskatoon Airport (YXE) was initially established as part of the Royal Canadian Air Force training program during World War II. It was renamed the John G. Diefenbaker Airport in the official ceremony, June 23, 1993. [65] Roland J. Groome Airfield is the official designation for the Regina International Airport (YQR) as of August 3, 2005; the airport was established in 1930. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP), [66] twenty Service Flying Training Schools (RAF) were established at various Saskatchewan locations in World War II. [67] 15 Wing Moose Jaw is home to the Canadian Forces formation aerobatics team, the Snowbirds. [66]

Airlines offering service to Saskatchewan are Air Canada, WestJet Airlines, United Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Transwest Air, Sunwing Airlines, Norcanair Airlines, La Ronge Aviation Services Ltd, La Loche Airways, Osprey Wings Ltd, Buffalo Narrows Airways Ltd, Île-à-la-Crosse Airways Ltd, Voyage Air, Pronto Airways, Venture Air Ltd, Pelican Narrows Air Service, Jackson Air Services Ltd, and Northern Dene Airways Ltd. [68]

The Government of Canada has agreed to contribute $20 million for two new interchanges in Saskatoon. One of them being at the Sk Hwy 219 / Lorne Ave intersection with Circle Drive, the other at the Senator Sid Buckwold Bridge (Idylwyld Freeway) and Circle Drive. This is part of the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to improve access to the Canadian National Railway's intermodal freight terminal thereby increasing Asia-Pacific trade. Also, the Government of Canada will contribute $27 million to Regina to construct a Canadian Pacific Railway CPR intermodal facility and improve infrastructure transportation to the facility from both national highway networks, Sk Hwy 1, the TransCanada Highway and Sk Hwy 11, Louis Riel Trail. This also is part of the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to improve access to the CPR terminal and increase Asia-Pacific trade. [69]

Arts and culture

Museums and galleries
Orchestras
Artist-run centres
Artists

Sports

The Saskatchewan Roughriders Canadian football team is the province's professional football franchise (playing in the Canadian Football League), and are extremely popular across Saskatchewan. The team's fans are also found to congregate on game days throughout Canada, and collectively they are known as "Rider Nation".

The province's other major sport franchise is the Saskatchewan Rush of the National Lacrosse League. In their first year of competition, 2016, the Rush won both their Division Title and the League Championship.

Hockey is the most popular sport in the province. More than 490 NHL players [70] have been born in Saskatchewan, the highest per capita output of any Canadian province, U.S. state, or European country. [71] Notable NHL figures born in Saskatchewan include Keith Allen, Gordie Howe, Bryan Trottier, Bernie Federko, Clark Gillies, Fern Flaman, Bert Olmstead, Harry Watson, Elmer Lach, Max Bentley, Sid Abel, Doug Bentley, Eddie Shore, Clint Smith, Bryan Hextall, Johnny Bower, Emile Francis, Glenn Hall, Chuck Rayner, Brad McCrimmon, Patrick Marleau, Dave Manson, Theo Fleury, Terry Harper, Wade Redden, Brian Propp, Scott Hartnell, Ryan Getzlaf, and Chris Kunitz. Saskatchewan does not have an NHL or minor professional franchise, but five teams in the junior Western Hockey League are located in the province: the Moose Jaw Warriors, Prince Albert Raiders, Regina Pats, Saskatoon Blades and Swift Current Broncos.

In 2015, Budweiser honoured Saskatchewan for their abundance of hockey players by sculpting a 12-foot-tall hockey player monument in ice for Saskatchewan's capital city of Regina. [72] The company then filmed this frozen monument for a national television commercial, thanking the province for creating so many goal scorers throughout hockey's history. Budweiser also gifted the “hockey player” province a trophy made of white birch—Saskatchewan's provincial tree—which bears the name of every pro player in history. Sitting atop the trophy was a golden Budweiser Red Light, synched to every current Saskatchewan player in the pros. This trophy can currently be seen at Victoria Bar in Regina.

Historically, Saskatchewan has been one of the strongest curling provinces. Teams from Saskatchewan have finished in the top three places at 38 briers and Saskatchewan has more women's championships than any other province with 11. Notable curlers from Saskatchewan include Sandra Schmirler, Ernie Richardson, and Vera Pezer. In a 2019 TSN poll, experts ranked Schmirler's Saskatchewan team, which won a gold medal at the 1998 Olympics, as the greatest women's team in Canada's history. [73]

Provincial symbols

The official tartan of Saskatchewan, created in 1961. Tartan of Saskatchewan.png
The official tartan of Saskatchewan, created in 1961.

The flag of Saskatchewan was officially adopted on September 22, 1969. [74] The flag features the provincial shield in the upper quarter nearest the staff, with the floral emblem, the Prairie Lily, in the fly. The upper green (in forest green) half of the flag represents the northern Saskatchewan forest lands, while the golden lower half of the flag symbolizes the southern wheat fields and prairies. A province-wide competition was held to design the flag, and drew over 4,000 entries. The winning design was by Anthony Drake, then living in Hodgeville. [75]

In 2005, Saskatchewan Environment held a province-wide vote to recognize Saskatchewan's centennial year, receiving more than 10,000 online and mail-in votes from the public. The walleye was the overwhelming favourite of the six native fish species nominated for the designation, receiving more than half the votes cast. [76] Other species in the running were the lake sturgeon, lake trout, lake whitefish, northern pike and yellow perch.

Saskatchewan's other symbols include the tartan, the license plate, and the provincial flower. Saskatchewan's official tartan was registered with the Court of Lord Lyon King of Arms in Scotland in 1961. It has seven colours: gold, brown, green, red, yellow, white and black. The provincial licence plates display the slogan "Land of Living Skies". The provincial flower of Saskatchewan is the Western Red Lily.

Centennial celebrations

In 2005, Saskatchewan celebrated its centennial. To honour it, the Royal Canadian Mint issued a commemorative five-dollar coin depicting Canada's wheat fields as well as a circulation 25-cent coin of a similar design. Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip visited Regina, Saskatoon, and Lumsden, and the Saskatchewan-reared Joni Mitchell issued an album in Saskatchewan's honour.

Climate

The effects of climate change in Saskatchewan are now being observed in parts of the province. There is evidence of reduction of biomass in Saskatchewan's boreal forests [ citation needed ] (as with those of other Canadian prairie provinces) is linked by researchers to drought-related water stress, stemming from global warming, most likely caused by greenhouse gas emissions. While studies, as early as 1988 (Williams, et al., 1988) have shown climate change will affect agriculture, [77] whether the effects can be mitigated through adaptations of cultivars, or crops, is less clear. Resiliency of ecosystems may decline with large changes in temperature. [78] The provincial government has responded to the threat of climate change by introducing a plan to reduce carbon emissions, "The Saskatchewan Energy and Climate Change Plan," in June 2007.

See also

Related Research Articles

Regina, Saskatchewan Provincial capital city in Saskatchewan, Canada

Regina is the capital city of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The city is the second-largest in the province, after Saskatoon, and a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan. It is governed by Regina City Council. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Sherwood No. 159.

Prince Albert, Saskatchewan City in Saskatchewan, Canada

Prince Albert is the third-largest city in Saskatchewan, Canada, after Saskatoon and Regina. It is situated near the centre of the province on the banks of the North Saskatchewan River. The city is known as the "Gateway to the North" because it is the last major centre along the route to the resources of northern Saskatchewan. Prince Albert National Park is located 51 km (32 mi) north of the city and contains a huge wealth of lakes, forest, and wildlife. The city itself is located in a transition zone between the aspen parkland and boreal forest biomes. Prince Albert is bordered by the Rural Municipality of Prince Albert No. 461 and the Rural Municipality of Buckland No. 491.

Rural Municipality of Aberdeen No. 373 Rural municipality in Saskatchewan, Canada

Aberdeen No. 373 is a rural municipality in north-central Saskatchewan, Canada on the South Saskatchewan River encompassing 673.43 square kilometers in area. It is located in census Division No. 15. The rural municipality has within its boundaries the Town of Aberdeen which has its own municipal council. Edenburg, Laniwci, Strawberry Hills, and Strawberry Ridge are a part of the R.M. for civic matters. The rural municipality in conjunction with the provincial government is in charge of maintenance of highways in its area. As well, the municipality provides policing, fire protection and municipal governance for the rural district, with a reeve as its administrator.

Martensville City in Saskatchewan, Canada

Martensville is a city located in Saskatchewan, Canada, just 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) north of Saskatoon, and 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) south west of Clarkboro Ferry which crosses the South Saskatchewan River. It is sometimes considered a bedroom community of Saskatoon. It is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344. The community is served by the Saskatoon/Richter Field Aerodrome located immediately west of the city across Highway 12.

Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344 Rural municipality in Saskatchewan, Canada

The Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344 is a rural municipality (RM) that surrounds the City of Saskatoon in central Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed in 1970 through the amalgamation of three smaller RMs – the RM of Cory No. 344, the RM of Warman No. 374, and the RM of Park No. 375. The RM is bisected by the South Saskatchewan River while the North Saskatchewan River forms part of its northwest boundary. The RM works closely with the Meewasin Valley Authority to protect the South Saskatchewan River valley.

SaskPower is the principal electric utility in Saskatchewan, Canada. Established in 1929 by the provincial government, it serves more than 522,000 customers and manages over $10 billion in assets. SaskPower is a major employer in the province with over 3,150 permanent full-time staff located in approximately 70 communities.

Highway 1 is the Saskatchewan section of the Trans-Canada Highway mainland route. The total distance of the Trans-Canada Highway in Saskatchewan is 647.9 kilometres (402.6 mi). The highway traverses Saskatchewan from the western border with Alberta, from Highway 1, to the Manitoba border where it continues as PTH 1. The Trans–Canada Highway Act was passed on December 10, 1949. The Saskatchewan segment was completed August 21, 1957. The speed limit along the majority of the route is 110 kilometres per hour (70–mph) with urban area thoroughfares slowing to a speed of 90–100 kilometres per hour (55–65 mph). Portions of the highway—the section through Swift Current, an 8-kilometer section east of Moose Jaw, and the Regina Ring Road—are controlled-access. Highway 1 serves as a major east-west transport route for commercial traffic. It is the main link between southern Saskatchewan's largest cities, and also serves as the province's main link to the neighbouring provinces of Alberta and Manitoba.

Saskatchewan Highway 16 highway in Saskatchewan

Highway 16 is a provincial highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It is the Saskatchewan section of the Yellowhead Highway, and also the Trans-Canada Highway Yellowhead section. The main purpose of this highway is to connect Saskatchewan with Canadian cities such as Edmonton and Winnipeg. The highway runs from the Alberta boundary in Lloydminster to the Manitoba boundary near Marchwell. Major cities it passes through are Saskatoon, North Battleford in the central part of the province, Yorkton in the far east and Lloydminster to the far west.

Rural Municipality of Antelope Park No. 322 Rural municipality in Saskatchewan, Canada

Antelope Park No. 322 is a rural municipality in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Named for the ubiquitous pronghorn antelope, the municipality was established on December 11, 1911, along the border with Alberta. Today, Antelope Park is administered from Marengo, Saskatchewan, making it one of the few RMs whose council convenes outside its boundaries.

Saskatchewan Highway 11 highway in Saskatchewan

Highway 11 is a major north-south highway in Saskatchewan, Canada that connects the province's three largest cities: Regina, Saskatoon and Prince Albert. It is a structural pavement major arterial highway which is approximately 406 kilometres (252 mi) long. It is also known as the Louis Riel Trail (LRT) after the 19th century Métis leader. It runs from Highway 6 north of Regina until Highway 2 south of Prince Albert. Historically the southern portion between Regina and Saskatoon was Provincial Highway 11, and followed the Dominion Survey lines on the square, and the northern portion between Saskatoon and Prince Albert was Provincial Highway 12.

Geography of Saskatchewan Geography of the prairie and boreal province of Saskatchewan, Canada

The geography of Saskatchewan (suskăchuwun"), is unique among the provinces and territories of Canada in some respects. It is one of only two landlocked regions and it is the only region whose borders are not based on natural features like lakes, rivers or drainage divides. The borders of Saskatchewan, which make it very nearly a trapezoid, were determined in 1905 when it became a Canadian province. Saskatchewan has a total area of 651,036 square kilometres (251,366 sq mi) of which 591,670 km2 (228,450 sq mi) is land and 59,366 km2 (22,921 sq mi) is water.

Highway 6 is a paved undivided major provincial highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from Montana Highway 16 at the Canada–US border near the Canada customs port of Regway to Highway 55 near Choiceland. Highway 6 is about 523 km (325 mi) long. The CanAm Highway comprises Saskatchewan Highways from south to north: SK 35, Sk 39, Sk 6, Sk 3, as well as Sk 2. 330 kilometres (210 mi) of Saskatchewan Highway 6 contribute to the CanAm Highway between Corinne and Melfort.

Highway 20 is a major road intended for travel by the public between Highway 11 Lumsden to Highway 3 at Birch Hills. Saskatchewan's main roadways are located in the central/southern geographical land area of rolling prairie and grass land in a western Canadian prairie province. This highway is one which runs south to north and is located just east of Saskatoon and just north of Regina. At the northern extremity near Lanigan, the highway helps to service the PCS Lanigan potash mining operation. Down south, the highway is popular for tourists heading out to the Qu'Appelle Valley and resorts and beaches of Last Mountain Lake.

Highway 33 is a highway in the southern portion of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan connecting Regina to Stoughton; the highway is divided near Regina. Highway 33 is about 139 km (86 mi) long.

The economy of Saskatchewan has been associated with agriculture resulting in the moniker "Bread Basket of Canada" and Bread Basket of the World. According to the Government of Saskatchewan, approximately 95% of all items produced in Saskatchewan, depend on the basic resources available within the province. Various grains, livestock, oil and gas, potash, uranium, wood and their spin off industries fuel the economy.

Outline of Saskatchewan Overview of and topical guide to Saskatchewan

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Saskatchewan:

The timeline of Regina history shows the significant events in the history of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Western Canada geographical region of Canada

Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region of Canada that includes the four provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia. British Columbia is culturally, economically, geographically, and politically distinct from the other parts of Western Canada and is often referred to as the "west coast" or "Pacific Canada", while Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba are grouped together as the Prairie Provinces and most commonly known as "The Prairies".

References

  1. "Emblems of Saskatchewan". Government of Saskatchewan. Archived from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
  2. "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses". Statistics Canada . February 2, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  3. "Population by year of Canada of Canada and territories". Statistics Canada. September 26, 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
  4. Saskatchewanian is the prevalent demonym, and is used by the Government of Saskatchewan. According to the Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage ( ISBN   0-19-541619-8; p. 335), Saskatchewaner is also in use.
  5. "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory (2015)". Statistics Canada. November 9, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  6. "Estimates of population, Canada, provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. December 18, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
  7. "Statistics Canada, Quarterly demographic estimates, 2009". Statcan.gc.ca. December 23, 2009. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  8. "Midale Climate Normals 1971–2000". Environment Canada. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  9. "Yellow Grass Climate Normals 1971–2000". Environment Canada. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  10. Thomas Piller, "Saskatchewan Lt.-Gov. W. Thomas Molloy passes away" Global News, July 2, 2019.
  11. Ethan Williams, "Russ Mirasty named Lieutenant-Governor, Sask.'s first Indigenous LG", Regina Leader Post, July 17, 2019.
  12. 1 2 3 "Treaty Land Entitlement – The English River Story, Saskatchewan" Archived July 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine , Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, accessed November 25, 2011
  13. "Government of Canada". Geonames.nrcan.gc.ca. September 18, 2007. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  14. "Saskatchewan High Point". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
  15. Hydrology from The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
  16. "National Climate Data". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
  17. Bray, Tim (December 23, 2008). "2008/12/23, Four PM" . Retrieved February 28, 2008. English just doesn’t have words to describe cold of that intensity. I was appropriately dressed but am still a mild-climate West Coast Wimp, and the cold hurt me wherever it touched me; and it tried really hard to find chinks in my clothing's armor to penetrate and hurt.
  18. "Average Weather for Saskatoon, SK – Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. July 29, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  19. "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment Canada. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
  20. Houston, C. S.; Houston, S. (2000). "The first smallpox epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the fur-traders' words". The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 11 (2): 112–115. PMC   2094753 . PMID   18159275.
  21. "Louisiana Purchase". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  22. Howard A. Leeson (2001). Saskatchewan Politics: Into the Twenty-first Century. U of Regina Press. p. 116. ISBN   9780889771314.
  23. Sandra Rollings-Magnusson, "Canada's Most Wanted: Pioneer Women on the Western Prairies." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 2000 37(2): 223–238; W. T. Easterbrook, Farm Credit in Canada 1938.
  24. Peter Bush, Western Challenge: The Presbyterian Church in Canada's Mission on the Prairies and North, 1885–1925. (2000); Marjory Harper, "Probing the Pioneer Questionnaires: British Settlement in Saskatchewan, 1887–1914." Saskatchewan History 2000 52(2): 28–46. Issn: 0036-4908
  25. Sandra Rollings-Magnusson, "Canada's Most Wanted: Pioneer Women on the Western Prairies." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology (2000) 37#2: 223–238; E. Rowles, "Bannock, beans and bacon: An investigation of pioneer diet." Saskatchewan History, (1952) 1#1 pp. 1–16.
  26. James M. Pitsula, "Disparate Duo" Beaver 2005 85(4): 14–24.
  27. Arthur Henry Reginald Buller (1919). Essays on Wheat: Including the Discovery and Introduction of Marquis Wheat, the Early History of Wheatgrowing in Manitoba, Wheat in Western Canada, the Origin of Red Bobs and Kitchener, and the Wild Wheat of Palestine. pp. 218–20.
  28. Ronald S. Love, "'A Harebrained Plan': Saskatchewan and the Formation of a Provincial Telephone Policy, 1906–1912." Saskatchewan History 2005 57(1): 15–33.
  29. Kevin H. Burley, The Development of Canada's Staples 1867–1939: A Documentary Collection (1970) pp 139–43.
  30. "Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association", Official Website
  31. Girard Hengen, "A Case Study in Urban Reform: Regina Before the First World War." Saskatchewan History (1988) 41#1: 19–34
  32. James M. Pitsula, For All We Have and Are: Regina and the Experience of the Great War (U of Manitoba Press, 2008), p 280. online review
  33. Pitsula, For All We Have and Are p 41.
  34. Lubomyr Luciuk, In Fear of the Barbed Wire Fence: Canada's First National Internment Operations and the Ukrainian Canadians, 1914–1920 (Kingston: Kashtan Press, 2001).
  35. Archer, John H. (1996). "Regina: A Royal City". Monarchy Canada Magazine. Spring 1996. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
  36. "Government of Saskatchewan > About Government > News Releases > February 2002 > Province Honours Princess Margaret". Queen's Printer for Saskatchewan. February 11, 2002. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
  37. "Royal couple touches down in Saskatchewan". CTV. May 18, 2005. Archived from the original on October 1, 2005. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
  38. "Saskatchewan Ethnic Origins, Visible Minorities & Immigration" (PDF). Government of Saskatchewan.
  39. "Language Highlight Tables". 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  40. "Aboriginal Peoples Highlight Tables". 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  41. "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  42. "Religion (108) for the Population in Private Households of Canada". 2011 National Household Survey. Statistics Canada. 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  43. "Religion (108) for the Population in Private Households of Canada". 2011 National Household Survey. Statistics Canada. 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  44. The history of Saskatchewan's population from Statistics Canada
  45. Canada's population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved September 28, 2006. Archived November 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  46. "Religions in Canada". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  47. "Canadian Food-Processing Sector". Invest in Canada. Archived from the original on October 14, 2010. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  48. Greuel, William. "Mustard". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
  49. "Fact Sheet". Archived from the original on December 3, 2007. Retrieved January 16, 2009.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) from the Saskatchewan Mining Association
  50. Government of Saskatchewan. Oil and Gas Industry Archived September 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved on: April 26, 2008.
  51. Government of Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan Oil and Gas InfoMap. Retrieved April 26, 2008.
  52. Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory Archived April 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine from Statistics Canada
  53. Public Accounts of Saskatchewan. Government of Saskatchewan. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  54. Government of Saskatchewan. "official page" . Retrieved February 15, 2007.
  55. "Saskatchewan One Room School House Project". SkSchool. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  56. "How Saskatchewan Health Pays Your Bill – Health – Government of Saskatchewan". Health.gov.sk.ca. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  57. 1 2 3 French, Janet. (June 15, 2013) Half of women who want midwife turned away. Thestarphoenix.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  58. "Saskatchewan Department of Highways and Transportation" . Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  59. Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation. "Performance Plan – Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation" . Retrieved September 4, 2007.
  60. "Saskatchewan". World Travel Guide – Nexus Business Media. 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved September 4, 2007.
  61. "Canadian Pacific Railway" . Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  62. Fung, K.I. (1969). "Atlas of Saskatchewan". Saskatoon: Modern Press.
  63. Ivanochko, Bob (2006). "Bridges". CANADIAN PLAINS RESEARCH CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF REGINA. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  64. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 "Saskatchewan City & Town Maps – Directory". Becquet's Custom Programming. Archived from the original on January 18, 2008. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  65. "Airport History". Saskatoon Airport Authority. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  66. 1 2 Chabun, Will (2006). "Aviation". CANADIAN PLAINS RESEARCH CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF REGINA. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  67. Kraushaar, Clint (May 1998). "The RAF comes to Estevan". The Estevan Airport: A History to 1988. Estevan Community Access Project & Estevan Public Library. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  68. "Saskatchewan Airlines: Airlines in Saskatchewan, Canada". 1994–2008. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
  69. Hon. Lawrence Cannon, M.P., P.C. Minister of transport, infrastructure and communities (2005–2008). "Statement by Hon. Lawrence Cannon, M.P., P.C. Minister of transport, infrastructure and communities at a news conference of Council of ministers responsible for transportation and highway safety". Newswire. CNW Group. Retrieved April 27, 2008.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  70. "NHL Players Born in Saskatchewan, Canada". Hockey-Reference.com. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
  71. Chaput, John. "Hockey". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
  72. "Saskatchewan, The Home of Goal Scorers - Budweiser Canada". YouTube. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
  73. "Canada's Greatest Curlers: Schmirler's foursome named greatest rink of all-time". TSN. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  74. Dept of the Secretary of State. Canada. (January 1, 1984). The Arms, flags, and emblems of Canada. Deneau Publishers in co-operation with the Dept. of the Secretary of State and the Canadian Govt. Pub. Centre, Supply and Services Canada. p. 59. ISBN   9780888790309.
  75. "Saskatchewan, flag of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  76. "Walleye Wins Vote For Saskatchewan's Fish Emblem". Gov.sk.ca. September 30, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  77. Williams, G.D.V., R.A. Fautley, K.H. Jones, R.B. Stewart, and E.E. Wheaton. 1988. "Estimating Effects of Climatic Change on Agriculture in Saskatchewan, Canada." p. 219-379. In M.L. Parry et al. (ed.) The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture. Vol. 1 Assessment in Cool Temperate and Cold Regions. Reidel Publ. Co. Dordrecht.
  78. Riebsame. W.E. (1991). "Sustainability of the Great Plains in an Uncertain Climate." [ permanent dead link ]Great Plains Research Vol.1 No.1, University of Nebraska

Further reading

Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Saskatchewan travel guide from Wikivoyage

Coordinates: 55°N106°W / 55°N 106°W / 55; -106