A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.
An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration. Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are usually required to manage themselves through their own local governments. Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. A country may be divided into provinces, which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities.
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. The term can also be used to describe municipally owned corporations.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes, in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French conté or cunté denoting a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count (earl) or a viscount. The modern French is comté, and its equivalents in other languages are contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, graafschap, Gau, etc..
The term municipality may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality.A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district.
The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis.The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenship to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, as England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. The language is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse, and to a greater extent by Latin and French.
In moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment and usually concerns the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Social contract arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority in exchange for protection of their remaining rights or maintenance of the social order. The relation between natural and legal rights is often a topic of social contract theory. The term takes its name from The Social Contract, a 1762 book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau that discussed this concept. Although the antecedents of social contract theory are found in antiquity, in Greek and Stoic philosophy and Roman and Canon Law, the heyday of the social contract was the mid-17th to early 19th centuries, when it emerged as the leading doctrine of political legitimacy.
A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
A jurisdiction is an area with a set of laws under the control of a system of courts or government entity which are different from neighbouring areas.
West Hampton Dunes is an incorporated village in Suffolk County, New York, United States, on the South Shore of Long Island. The population was 55 at the 2010 census.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass
A city is a large human settlement. Cities generally have extensive systems for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities, land use, and communication. Their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process.
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. It is a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by the Delaware Bay and Delaware. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, making it the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states with its biggest city being Newark. New Jersey lies completely within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U.S. state by median household income as of 2017.
Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may also receive substantial funding from the state.
A state is a political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly by use of force within a certain geographical territory.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits. Income tax generally is computed as the product of a tax rate times taxable income. Taxation rates may vary by type or characteristics of the taxpayer.
A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate. The tax is levied by the governing authority of the jurisdiction in which the property is located. This can be a national government, a federated state, a county or geographical region or a municipality. Multiple jurisdictions may tax the same property. This tax can be contrasted to a rent tax which is based on rental income or imputed rent, and a land value tax, which is a levy on the value of land, excluding the value of buildings and other improvements.
In various countries, municipalities are usually referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages (derived from Latin) such as French commune (France, French-speaking areas of Belgium and Switzerland, French-speaking countries of Africa, e.g. Benin), Italian comune , Romanian comună , and Spanish comuna (Chile), and in Germanic languages such as German Kommune (in political parlance, the official term being Gemeinde ), Swedish kommun , Faroese kommuna , and Norwegian, Danish kommune . However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities (municipiu; urban administrative units) and communes (comună; rural units), and a commune may be part of a municipality (see more: communes of Moldova, communes of Romania).
Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento , also called municipalidad (cognate to "municipality"), Polish gmina , Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng .
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|Country||Term||Example||Subdivision of||Quantity||Notes||Further reading|
|Afghanistan||شاروالی یا شهرداری |
shārwāli (or shahr-dari)
|Provinces of Afghanistan||154||34 'provincial' municipalities of provincial capitals (shārwāli) and 120 rural or 'district' municipalities (shārwāli uluswāli)||www.km.gov.af|
|Albania||bashki (urban) or komunë (rural)||61||Municipalities of Albania|
|Algeria||baladiyah||daïra (district), which is part of a wilaya (province)||1,541||Municipalities of Algeria|
|Andorra||parròquia||Sant Julià de Lòria||7|
|Argentina||municipalidad||Puerto Madryn||Provinces of Argentina, in some provinces they are a subdivision of departments||2,100||Smallest administrative division; either a city, town, or township||Municipalities of Argentina|
|Austria||Gemeinde||a state (Bundesland).||1,725||The entire area of Austria is divided into municipalities, with no non-municipal gaps. This leads to some municipalities being very large despite having a small population.||Municipality (Austria)|
|Bangladesh||Pouroshabha / Pouroshava||Upazila or subdistrict, which is in turn part of a district||311||Municipalities of Bangladesh|
|Belgium||gemeente/commune||Montigny-le-Tilleul||a province ( provincie/province ) or of the Brussels-Capital Region||581||The provinces are themselves subdivisions of the Walloon and Flemish Regions which have the authority over the municipalities||Municipalities in Belgium|
|Bolivia||municipio||Arani Municipality||province, which is part of a departamento.||327 (2005)||Municipalities of Bolivia|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||općina or opština||in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina : of a canton ( kanton ). In Republika Srpska, municipality is first order of government after entity government.||144||Municipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Brazil||município||São Paulo (most populous), Borá (least populous)||states ( estados )||5,570||Smallest administrative subdivision. Not used in the Federal District or the Fernando de Noronha and St. Peter and St. Paul archipelagos, but encompasses all other territories nationwide||Municipalities of Brazil|
|Brunei||bandaran||Bandar Seri Begawan||4||Independent of subdivisions; nevertheless overlap with mukims and villages||Municipalities of Brunei|
|Bulgaria||Bulgarian : община, Bulgarian : obshtina||Aksakovo Municipality||an oblast||264||Municipalities of Bulgaria|
|Cambodia||ក្រុង (krong)||Phnom Penh||1446|
|Chile||municipalidad||Torres del Paine||provinces||346||Specifically the administrative body, while subdivisions are comunas; most municipalities administer one comuna each, but occasional municipalities administer more|
|China||直辖市||Beijing||4||Status equal to a province||Municipalities of China|
|Colombia||municipio||a department (departamento)||1,102||It is also subdivided into Localities and Neighborhoods in urban municipalities and into Corregimientos and Veredas in rural municipalities||Municipalities of Colombia|
|Costa Rica||Municipalidad||Province ( Provinces of Costa Rica )||Cantones of Costa Rica|
|Croatia||općina||county ( županija )||428||Municipalities of Croatia|
|Czech Republic||obec||Karlovy Vary||a kraj (kraj)||6250|
|Denmark||kommune||Aabenraa Municipality||a region||98||Counties ( amter ) were abandoned in 2007||Municipalities of Denmark|
|Dominican Republic||municipio||province||Municipalities of the Dominican Republic|
|El Salvador||municipio||Zacatecoluca||departamentos||262||Municipalities of El Salvador|
|Estonia||omavalitsus||Are vald (Are Parish)||county (maakond)||215||Can be either towns (linn) or parishes (vald)||Municipalities of Estonia|
|Finland||kunta/kommun||Helsinki||region||311||Can choose whether to call itself a "city" (kaupunki).||Municipalities of Finland|
|France||commune||canton, which is part of an arrondissement, which is part of a department ( département ) which is part of a region ( région )||36,600|
|Germany||Gemeinde||district ( Kreis , literally "Circle"). Larger entities of the same level are called Stadt, plural Städte (Cities resp. Towns), which can be part of a Kreis (they are kreisangehörig, meaning "belonging to a Circle") or constituting a district on its own (kreisfrei, meaning "free of a Circle"). In less populated regions, small municipalities are often put together into consolidated superior municipalities ( Verbandsgemeinde, Samtgemeinde or Amtsgemeinde )||12,013||Municipalities of Germany|
|Georgia||munits'ipaliteti||76||self-governing towns/cities (k'alak'i) and communities (t'emi)||Municipalities of Georgia|
|Greece||demos (δήμος, pl. δήμοι) or koinoteta (κοινότητα, pl. κοινότητες)||325||Demoi and koinotetes are both considered municipalities; the latter are less populous||Municipalities and communities of Greece|
|Greenland||kommunea||Kujalleq||4||First-level administrative division||Municipalities of Greenland|
|Haiti||commune||an arrondissement, which is part of a department ( département ).|
|Honduras||municipio||was in 1895 originally the subdivision of the district (distrito), but as districts have fallen into disuse, it is now the subdivision of the department (departamento).||298||Municipalities of Honduras|
|Hungary||település||a county (megye).||3,168 (in 2005)|
|Iceland||sveitarfélag||Reykjavík||Regions||74||The country's only self-governing local administrative units||Municipalities of Iceland|
|India||Sainthia||Excludes both villages and large cities; typically has more than twenty thousand residents, but cannot exceed five hundred thousand||Municipalities of India|
|Indonesia||Kabupaten (regency) or Kotamadya (city)||Provinces of Indonesia||List of regencies and cities of Indonesia|
|Iraq||Qadhaa||Al-Hamdaniya District||a district (Arabic : Qadhaa) which is part of a Governorate (Region or Province, Arabic: Mouhafatha).||130||Second-level, below the governorate||Municipalities of Iraq|
|Israel||Iri'ya (עיריה, City Government), Moatsa (מועצה, Council)||Includes city councils (large municipalities), local councils (small municipalities), and regional councils (a group of communities; often rural)|
|Italy||comune||a province ( provincia ) which is part of a region ( regione ).||7,982||Solely used for subdivisions of larger comuni, especially in Rome; municipio indicates the city hall; in some case, they are joined in mountain communities (comunità montane)||List of comuni of Italy|
|1,719||Below the prefecture; includes shi (cities), cho (towns), and son (villages)||Municipalities of Japan|
|Kenya||a municipality is one of four types of local authorities. Nearly 50 major towns are given the municipality status.|
|Latvia||singular: novads, plural: novadi||Aglonas novads (Aglona Municipality)||110||A municipality normally consists of amalgamated parishes (singular: pagasts, plural: pagasti).||Municipalities of Latvia|
|Lebanon||a district (Arabic : Qadaa) which is part of a Governorate (Region or Province, Arabic: Mouhafazah).|
|Libya||the municipality level is that of the Basic People's Congress. Large cities are subdivided.||Municipalities of Libya|
|Lithuania||savivaldybė||Kalvarijos savivaldybė (Kalvarija Municipality)||a district ( apskritis ) and is subdivided into elderates ( seniūnija ).||Municipalities of Lithuania|
|Luxembourg||commune (in French); Gemeng, plur. Gemengen (in Luxembourgish)||part of a canton (Luxembourgish: Kantoun) which itself is part of a district||105||are the lowest divisions|
|North Macedonia||opština||Aračinovo Municipality||the country (top-level) or the City of Skopje||84 (2004)||current set established in 2004, reduced from 123 created in 1996.||Municipalities of North Macedonia|
|Malta||Kunsill Lokali (Local Council)||Valletta Local Council||none||68||established 1993, one new council created since then (Mtarfa)||Local councils of Malta|
|Mauritius||a municipality: The administration of all the main towns in Mauritius is done by the municipality of the respective towns.Most of the towns are found in the district of Plaines Wilhems. The capital city, Port-Louis is managed by the Municipality of Port-Louis, found in the district of Port Louis. The other seven districts are administered by are called district councils.|
|Mexico||municipio / delegación||Asientos Municipality||a state (estado) or the DF||2,466||a borough ( delegación ) is a subdivision of the Federal District||Municipalities of Mexico and boroughs of the Mexican Federal District|
|Moldova||municipiu||Municipiul Chișinău||32||is a main city or town and surrounding villages ranked by law at this level.||Moldova#Administrative divisions|
|Montenegro||opština||Andrijevica Municipality||the country (top-level)||Municipalities of Montenegro|
|Nepal||Nagarpalika||58 (after the census in 2001)||a municipality is a town not large enough in population or infrastructure to qualify as a sub-metropolitan city.|
|Netherlands||gemeente||a province ( provincie )||388 + 3 special municipalities||Municipalities in the Netherlands|
|New Zealand||a municipality is part of either a "city" (mostly urban) or a "district" (mostly rural). The term "municipality" has become rare in New Zealand since about 1979 and has no legal status. (See territorial authorities of New Zealand.)|
|Nicaragua||municipio||a department (departamento) or of one of the two Autonomous Regions, North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region.||Municipalities of Nicaragua|
|Norway||kommune||Røyken kommune||a county ( fylke )||430 (2009)||Municipalities of Norway|
|Palestinian National Authority||105||municipalities are localities with populations over 4,000 and have 13-15 council members.||Municipality (Palestinian Authority)|
|Pakistan||of a tehsil/taluka or sub-district of a "district".||149||Local government in Pakistan|
|Paraguay||municipalidad||a departament (departamento)|
|Peru||municipio||a province (provincia), which is part of a department (departamento). As of 2002 a department is now called a region (región).||is another term for district (distrito) and is the lower-level administrative subdivision.|
|Philippines||bayan or munisipyo or munisipalidad||a province||is a town with a popularly elected administration including a mayor and is part of a province ( lalawigan or probinsya) (except for the independent municipality of Pateros, Metro Manila in the National Capital Region). Municipalities are not the smallest division of local government and are composed of barangays.|
|Poland||gmina||Gmina Annopol||county ( powiat ).|
|Portugal||concelho or município||Oeiras||District||308||Concelho is a directly elected local area authority generally consisting of a main city or town and surrounding villages, with wide-ranging local administration powers. Apart from the municipality of Corvo, however, municípios are not the smallest administrative unit in Portugal, that being the freguesia (civil parish). For central government purposes, Portuguese municipalities are grouped into districts ( distritos ). In Portugal, a municipality ( município / concelho ) is the primary local administrative unit. Although part of a district ( distrito ) for certain national administrative purposes, the municipality is not subordinate to the district and decentralization is doing away with the districts. A municipality contains one or more freguesias .||Municipalities of Portugal|
|Puerto Rico||municipio||municipality consists of an urban area (termed a city or town) plus all of its surrounding barrios comprising the municipality. It has a popularly elected administration and a municipal mayor. The seat of the municipal government is located in such urban area and serves the entire municipal jurisdiction.||Municipalities of Puerto Rico|
|Romania||municipiu / oraș / comună||Deva||County ( județ )||103 + 217 + 2856||A municipality (municipiu) is a special status given to cities which fulfill certain criteria related to size, influence and development, as defined by Law no. 351/2001 (on the National Territorial Management Plan). Localities which do not meet the criteria are designated "cities" ( orașe ) or "communes" ( comune ).|| Municipalities of Romania |
Cities of Romania
Communes of Romania
|Russia||several types of municipalities ("municipal formations") exist; see subdivisions of Russia|
|San Marino||there are also eight minor municipalities, castelli.|
|Serbia||opština||a district ( okrug )|
|Slovakia||obec||district (okres) which is part of a kraj (kraj)||2,891|
|Slovenia||občina||region (regija)||212||a municipality ( občina ) is the primary local administrative unit. There are 212 of them, 11 of which have a special "Urban" status with additional autonomy.||Municipalities of Slovenia|
|South Africa||district municipalities and metropolitan municipalities are subdivisions of the provinces, and local municipalities are subdivisions of district municipalities.|
|Spain||municipio / municipi / concello / udalerria||8,122||a municipality ( municipio ) is the primary local administrative unit. It is a part of a province ( provincia ) for all national administrative purposes. In the Galicia region, the municipalities are called, in Galician language, concellos, and in the Principality of Asturias region, a municipality is called a concejo (in Spanish language) or a conceyu (in Asturian language). In these two regions a municipality contains one or more parroquias (parishes).||Municipalities of Spain|
|Sweden||kommun||Stockholm Municipality||County Councils of Sweden (Swedish: landsting) self-governing local authority, covering 21 counties, each comprising one or more of the municipalities.||290||is self-governing according to the Swedish constitution and constitutes local government. Before 1971, a municipality could be called a town (stad), a köping or a rural municipality (landskommun); present municipalities which used to be towns are still commonly called towns. Sweden is also divided in 2 523 districts (Swedish: distrikt) since 1 January 2016.||Municipalities of Sweden|
|Switzerland||commune/Gemeinde/comune||a canton ( canton/Kanton/cantone ) and defined by cantonal law.||2,596||Municipalities in Switzerland|
|Thailand||thesaban||None||1,602||There are three levels of municipalities, and municipalities are not self-governed except for Bangkok and Pattaya. Municipalities introduced in 1935, Bangkok became self-governed in 1972, and Pattaya became self-governed in 1978.||Thesaban|
|Turkey||belediye||Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality||il (province)||2,920||is a local government authority and there are two types of municipalities: metropolitan (büyükşehir) municipality, district (alt/ilçe) municipality.|
|Ukraine||there are two types of municipalities: urban and rural. Both are referred to after their governing body as council (i.e. miskrada, selyshchna rada or silrada). They are considered the lowest administrative division in the country and better known as the local government. Urban municipalities are more complex and divided into city municipalities (miskrada) and town municipalities (selyshchna rada). The most complex municipalities are the cities of regional significance which are referred to simply as cities and create a sort of ambiguity.|
|United Arab Emirates||an emirate||is defined by the law of the specific emirates.|
|Uruguay||municipio||89||Municipalities of Uruguay|
|Venezuela||municipio||Anaco Municipality||a state, as well as a subdivision of the Capital District ( estado )||Municipalities of Venezuela|
|Vietnam||Direct-controlled municipality||Ho Chi Minh City (largest)||5||A direct-controlled municipality (Thành phố trực thuộc trung ương) is a city with equal status to a province||Municipalities of Vietnam|
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government generally comprises the third tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions.
In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, or political district.
The municipalities represent the local level of administration in Finland and act as the fundamental, self-governing administrative units of the country. The entire country is incorporated into municipalities and legally, all municipalities are equal, although certain municipalities are called cities or towns. Municipalities have the right to levy a flat percentual income tax, which is between 16 and 22 percent, and they provide two thirds of public services. Municipalities control many community services, such as schools, health care and the water supply, and local streets. They do not maintain highways, set laws or keep police forces, which are responsibilities of the central government.
According to the Moldovan law on territorial administrative organisation, Moldova is divided administratively into the following administrative territorial units: districts, cities/towns and villages. The administrative territorial organization of Moldova is made on 2 levels:
Administrative, territorial, and municipal division of the Altai Republic is regulated by the Law #12-15 of the Altai Republic, passed by the State Assembly—El Kurultai on June 2, 1999, with subsequent amendments. The Law established the following classification:
Local government in the United States refers to governmental jurisdictions below the level of the state. Most states and territories have at least two tiers of local government: counties and municipalities. In some states, counties are divided into townships. There are several different types of jurisdictions at the municipal level, including the city, town, borough, and village. The types and nature of these municipal entities vary from state to state.
A capital district, capital region or capital territory is normally a specially designated administrative division where a country's seat of government is located. As such, in a federal model of government, no state or territory has any political or economic advantage relative to the others because of the national capital lying within its borders. A capital territory can be a specific form of federal district.
A commune is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania. There are 2,686 communes in Romania. The commune is the rural subdivision of a county. Urban areas, such as towns and cities within a county, are given the status of city or municipality.
The municipalities of Greece are the lowest level of government within the organizational structure of that country. Since the 2011 Kallikratis reform, there are 325 municipalities. Thirteen regions form the largest unit of government beneath the State. Within these regions are 74 second-level areas called regional units. Regional units are then divided into municipalities. The new municipalities can be subdivided into municipal units, which are subdivided into municipal communities or local communities.
A commune is the smallest administrative subdivision in Chile. It may contain cities, towns, villages, hamlets as well as rural areas. In highly populated areas, such as Santiago, Valparaíso and Concepción, a conurbation may be broken into several communes. In sparsely populated areas, conversely, a commune may cover a substantial rural area together with several settled areas which could range from hamlets to towns or cities.
The administrative divisions of Serbia are regulated by the Government of Serbia Enactment of 29 January 1992, and by the Law on Territorial Organization adopted by the National Assembly of Serbia on 29 December 2007.
In the United States, the meaning of "village" varies by geographic area and legal jurisdiction. In many areas, "village" is a term, sometimes informal, for a type of administrative division at the local government level. Since the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government from legislating on local government, the states are free to have political subdivisions called "villages" or not to and to define the word in many ways. Typically, a village is a type of municipality, although it can also be a special district or an unincorporated area. It may or may not be recognized for governmental purposes.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman provincia, which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside Italy. The term province has since been adopted by many countries. In some countries with no actual provinces, "the provinces" is a metaphorical term meaning "outside the capital city".
The local government in Malaysia is the lowest tier of government in Malaysia administered under the states and federal territories which in turn are beneath the federal tier. Local governments are generally under the exclusive purview of the state governments as provided in the Constitution of Malaysia, except for local governments in the federal territories. The federal Ministry of Housing and Local Government plays a role in co-ordinating and standardising the practices of local governments across the country.
In Canada, municipal government is a type of local council authority that provides local services, facilities, safety and infrastructure for communities. Canada has three levels of government; federal, provincial and municipal. According to Section 92(8) of the Constitution Act, 1867, "In each Province the Legislature may exclusively make Laws in relation to... Municipal Institutions in the Province." There are about 3,700 municipal governments in Canada. Municipal governments are established under provincial/territorial authority.
Local governments are established by the government of Florida and are given varying amounts of non-exclusive authority over their jurisdictions. The law governing the creation of these governments is contained both within the Florida Constitution and Florida Statutes. Local governments are incorporated in Florida by special acts of the Florida Legislature. There are four types of local governments in Florida: counties, municipalities, school districts, and special districts.
Local government in Georgia is administered at the level of the subdivisions of Georgia, which are known as the units of self-government or municipalities. The Georgian Law on Self Government defines a municipality as a settlement or a unity of settlement with defined boundaries, administrative center, as well as representative and executive bodies of government, and possesses their own assets, budget, and income.
|Look up municipality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|