A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.
The term municipality may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality.A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district.
The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis.The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenship to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).
A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass
Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may also receive substantial funding from the state. In some European countries, such as Germany, municipalities have the constitutional right to supply public services through municipally-owned public utlity companies.
Terms cognate with "municipality", mostly referring to territory or political structure,[ clarification needed ] are Spanish municipio (Spain) and municipalidad (Chile), and Catalan municipi .
In a number of countries terms cognate with "commune" are used, referring to the community living in the area and the common interest. These include terms:
The same terms may be used for church congregations or parishes, for example in the German and Dutch protestant churches.
In Greece, the word Δήμος (demos) is used, also meaning 'community'; the word is known in English from the compound democracy (rule of the people).
In some countries, the Spanish term ayuntamiento , referring to a municipality's administration building, is extended viasynecdoche to denote the municipality itself.[ citation needed ] In Moldova and Romania, both municipalities (municipiu; urban administrative units) and communes (comună; rural units) exist, and a commune may be part of a municipality.[ citation needed ]
In many countries, comparable entities may exist with various names.
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|Country||Term||Example||Subdivision of||Quantity||Notes||Further reading|
|Afghanistan||شاروالی یا شهرداری |
shārwāli (or shahr-dari)
|Provinces of Afghanistan||204||34 'provincial' municipalities of provincial capitals (shārwāli) and 170 rural or 'district' municipalities (shārwāli uluswāli)||www.km.gov.af, dmm.gov.af, idlg.gov.af|
|Albania||bashki (urban) or komunë (rural)||61||Municipalities of Albania|
|Algeria||baladiyah||daïra (district), which is part of a wilaya (province)||1,541||Municipalities of Algeria|
|Andorra||parròquia||Sant Julià de Lòria||7|
|Argentina||municipalidad||Puerto Madryn||Provinces of Argentina, in some provinces they are a subdivision of departments||2,100||Smallest administrative division; either a city, town, or township||Municipalities of Argentina|
|Australia||Local government area||Port Stephens Council||States and territories of Australia||547||Local government in Australia|
|Austria||Gemeinde||a state (Bundesland).||1,725||The entire area of Austria is divided into municipalities, with no non-municipal gaps. This leads to some municipalities being very large despite having a small population.||Municipality (Austria)|
|Bangladesh||Pouroshobha||Upazila or subdistrict, which is in turn part of a district||311||Municipalities of Bangladesh|
|Belgium||gemeente/commune||Montigny-le-Tilleul||a province ( provincie/province ) or of the Brussels-Capital Region||581||The provinces are themselves subdivisions of the Walloon and Flemish Regions which have the authority over the municipalities||Municipalities in Belgium|
|Bolivia||municipio||Arani Municipality||province, which is part of a departamento.||327 (2005)||Municipalities of Bolivia|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||općina or opština||in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina : of a canton ( kanton ). In Republika Srpska, municipality is first order of government after entity government.||144||Municipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Brazil||município||São Paulo (most populous), Borá (least populous)||states ( estados )||5,570||Smallest administrative subdivision. Not used in the Federal District or the Fernando de Noronha and St. Peter and St. Paul archipelagos, but encompasses all other territories nationwide||Municipalities of Brazil|
|Brunei||bandaran||Bandar Seri Begawan||4||Independent of subdivisions; nevertheless overlap with mukims and villages||Municipalities of Brunei|
|Bulgaria||Bulgarian : община, Bulgarian : obshtina||Aksakovo Municipality||an oblast||264||Municipalities of Bulgaria|
|Canada||municipality||3,572||Municipality system is similar to that in the United States, however rules vary depending on the province.||Lists of municipalities in Canada|
|Cambodia||ក្រុង (krong)||Phnom Penh||1,446|
|Chile||municipalidad||Torres del Paine||provinces||346||Specifically the administrative body, while subdivisions are comunas; most municipalities administer one comuna each, but occasional municipalities administer more|
|China||直辖市||Beijing||4||Status equal to a province||Municipalities of China|
|Colombia||municipio||a department (departamento)||1,102||It is also subdivided into Localities and Neighborhoods in urban municipalities and into Corregimientos and Veredas in rural municipalities||Municipalities of Colombia|
|Costa Rica||Municipalidad||Province ( Provinces of Costa Rica )||Cantones of Costa Rica|
|Croatia||općina||county ( županija )||428||Municipalities of Croatia|
|Czech Republic||obec||Karlovy Vary||a kraj (kraj)||6,254|
|Denmark||kommune||Aabenraa Municipality||a region||98||Counties ( amter ) were abandoned in 2007||Municipalities of Denmark|
|Dominican Republic||municipio||province||Municipalities of the Dominican Republic|
|El Salvador||municipio||Zacatecoluca||departamentos||262||Municipalities of El Salvador|
|Estonia||omavalitsus||Are vald (Are Parish)||county (maakond)||215||Can be either towns (linn) or parishes (vald)||Municipalities of Estonia|
|Finland||kunta (in Finnish), kommun (in Swedish)||Helsinki||region||311||Can choose whether to call itself a "city" (kaupunki).||Municipalities of Finland|
|France||commune||canton, which is part of an arrondissement, which is part of a department ( département ) which is part of a region ( région )||36,600|
|Germany||Gemeinde||district ( Kreis , literally "Circle"). Larger entities of the same level are called Stadt, plural Städte (Cities resp. Towns), which can be part of a Kreis (they are kreisangehörig, meaning "belonging to a Circle") or constituting a district on its own (kreisfrei, meaning "free of a Circle"). In less populated regions, small municipalities are often put together into consolidated superior municipalities ( Verbandsgemeinde, Samtgemeinde or Amtsgemeinde )||12,013||Municipalities of Germany|
|Georgia||munits'ipaliteti||76||self-governing towns/cities (k'alak'i) and communities (t'emi)||Municipalities of Georgia|
|Greece||demos (δήμος, pl. δήμοι) or koinoteta (κοινότητα, pl. κοινότητες)||325||Demoi and koinotetes are both considered municipalities; the latter are less populous||Municipalities and communities of Greece|
|Greenland||kommunea||Kujalleq||4||First-level administrative division||Municipalities of Greenland|
|Haiti||commune||an arrondissement, which is part of a department ( département ).|
|Honduras||municipio||was in 1895 originally the subdivision of the district (distrito), but as districts have fallen into disuse, it is now the subdivision of the department (departamento).||298||Municipalities of Honduras|
|Hungary||település||a county (megye).||3,168 (in 2005)|
|Iceland||sveitarfélag||Reykjavík||Regions||74||The country's only self-governing local administrative units||Municipalities of Iceland|
|India||Sainthia||Excludes both villages and large cities; typically has more than twenty thousand residents, but cannot exceed five hundred thousand||Municipalities of India|
|Indonesia||Kabupaten (regency) or Kotamadya (city)||Provinces of Indonesia||List of regencies and cities of Indonesia|
|Iraq||Qadhaa||Al-Hamdaniya District||a district (Arabic : Qadhaa) which is part of a Governorate (Region or Province, Arabic: Mouhafatha).||130||Second-level, below the governorate||Municipalities of Iraq|
|Israel||Iri'ya (עיריה, City Government), Moatsa (מועצה, Council)||Includes city councils (large municipalities), local councils (small municipalities), and regional councils (a group of communities; often rural)|
|Italy||comune||a province ( provincia ) which is part of a region ( regione ).||7,982||Solely used for subdivisions of larger comuni, especially in Rome; municipio indicates the city hall; in some case, they are joined in mountain communities (comunità montane)||List of comuni of Italy|
|1,719||Below the prefecture; includes shi (cities), cho (towns), and son (villages)||Municipalities of Japan|
|Kenya||a municipality is one of four types of local authorities. Nearly 50 major towns are given the municipality status.|
|Latvia||singular: novads, plural: novadi||Aglonas novads (Aglona Municipality)||110||A municipality normally consists of amalgamated parishes (singular: pagasts, plural: pagasti).||Municipalities of Latvia|
|Lebanon||a district (Arabic : Qadaa) which is part of a Governorate (Region or Province, Arabic: Mouhafazah).|
|Libya||the municipality level is that of the Basic People's Congress. Large cities are subdivided.||Municipalities of Libya|
|Lithuania||savivaldybė||Kalvarijos savivaldybė (Kalvarija Municipality)||a district ( apskritis ) and is subdivided into elderates ( seniūnija ).||Municipalities of Lithuania|
|Luxembourg||commune (in French); Gemeng, plur. Gemengen (in Luxembourgish)||part of a canton (Luxembourgish: Kantoun) which itself is part of a district||105||are the lowest divisions|
|Malta||Kunsill Lokali (Local Council)||Valletta Local Council||none||68||established 1993, one new council created since then (Mtarfa)||Local councils of Malta|
|Mauritius||a municipality: The administration of all the main towns in Mauritius is done by the municipality of the respective towns.Most of the towns are found in the district of Plaines Wilhems. The capital city, Port-Louis is managed by the Municipality of Port-Louis, found in the district of Port Louis. The other seven districts are administered by are called district councils.|
|Mexico||municipio / delegación||Asientos Municipality||a state (estado) or the DF||2,466||a borough ( delegación ) is a subdivision of the Federal District||Municipalities of Mexico and boroughs of the Mexican Federal District|
|Moldova||municipiu||Municipiul Chișinău||32||is a main city or town and surrounding villages ranked by law at this level.||Moldova#Administrative divisions|
|Montenegro||opština||Andrijevica Municipality||the country (top-level)||Municipalities of Montenegro|
|Nepal||Nagarpalika and Gaunpalika||Pokhara||Provinces of Nepal||276 Municipalities (by Constitution of Nepal, 2015 and amendments thereafter)||Nepal has 276 municipalities and 460 rural municipalities or gaunpalikas after federal division of country by Constitution of Nepal 2015. A municipality is a town not large enough in population or infrastructure to qualify as a sub-metropolitan city.||List of cities in Nepal|
|Netherlands||gemeente||a province ( provincie )||388 + 3 special municipalities||Municipalities in the Netherlands|
|New Zealand||a municipality is part of either a "city" (mostly urban) or a "district" (mostly rural). The term "municipality" has become rare in New Zealand since about 1979 and has no legal status. (See territorial authorities of New Zealand.)|
|Nicaragua||municipio||a department (departamento) or of one of the two Autonomous Regions, North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region.||Municipalities of Nicaragua|
|North Macedonia||opština||Aračinovo Municipality||The country (top-level) or the City of Skopje||84 (2004)||Current set established in 2004, reduced from 123 created in 1996.||Municipalities of North Macedonia|
|Norway||kommune||Røyken kommune||a county ( fylke )||356 (2020)||Municipalities of Norway|
|Palestinian National Authority||105||municipalities are localities with populations over 4,000 and have 13-15 council members.||Municipality (Palestinian Authority)|
|Pakistan||of a tehsil/taluka or sub-district of a "district".||149||Local government in Pakistan|
|Paraguay||municipalidad||a departament (departamento)|
|Peru||municipio||a province (provincia), which is part of a department (departamento). As of 2002 a department is now called a region (región).||is another term for district (distrito) and is the lower-level administrative subdivision.|
|Philippines||bayan or munisipyo or munisipalidad||a province||is a town with a popularly elected administration including a mayor and is part of a province ( lalawigan or probinsya) (except for the independent municipality of Pateros, Metro Manila in the National Capital Region). Municipalities are not the smallest division of local government and are composed of barangays.|
|Poland||gmina||Gmina Annopol||county ( powiat ).|
|Portugal||concelho or município||Oeiras||District||308||Concelho is a directly elected local area authority generally consisting of a main city or town and surrounding villages, with wide-ranging local administration powers. Apart from the municipality of Corvo, however, municípios are not the smallest administrative unit in Portugal, that being the freguesia (civil parish). For central government purposes, Portuguese municipalities are grouped into districts ( distritos ). In Portugal, a municipality ( município / concelho ) is the primary local administrative unit. Although part of a district ( distrito ) for certain national administrative purposes, the municipality is not subordinate to the district and decentralization is doing away with the districts. A municipality contains one or more freguesias .||Municipalities of Portugal|
|Puerto Rico||municipio||Arecibo||none||78||municipality consists of an urban area (termed a city or town) plus all of its surrounding barrios comprising the municipality. It has a popularly elected administration and a municipal mayor. The seat of the municipal government is located in such urban area and serves the entire municipal jurisdiction.||Municipalities of Puerto Rico|
|Romania||municipiu / oraș / comună||Deva||County ( județ )||103 + 217 + 2856||A municipality (municipiu) is a special status given to cities which fulfill certain criteria related to size, influence and development, as defined by Law no. 351/2001 (on the National Territorial Management Plan). Localities which do not meet the criteria are designated "cities" ( orașe ) or "communes" ( comune ).|| Municipalities of Romania |
Cities of Romania
Communes of Romania
|Russia||several types of municipalities ("municipal formations") exist; see subdivisions of Russia|
|San Marino||there are also eight minor municipalities, castelli.|
|Serbia||opština||a district ( okrug )|
|Slovakia||obec||district (okres) which is part of a kraj (kraj)||2,891|
|Slovenia||občina||region (regija)||212||a municipality ( občina ) is the primary local administrative unit. There are 212 of them, 11 of which have a special "Urban" status with additional autonomy.||Municipalities of Slovenia|
|South Africa||district municipalities and metropolitan municipalities are subdivisions of the provinces, and local municipalities are subdivisions of district municipalities.|
|Spain||municipio / municipi / concello / udalerria||Barcelona, Madrid||8,122||a municipality ( municipio ) is the primary local administrative unit. It is a part of a province ( provincia ) for all national administrative purposes. In the Galicia region, the municipalities are called, in Galician language, concellos, and in the Principality of Asturias region, a municipality is called a concejo (in Spanish language) or a conceyu (in Asturian language). In these two regions a municipality contains one or more parroquias (parishes).||Municipalities of Spain|
|Sweden||kommun||Stockholm Municipality||County Councils of Sweden (Swedish: landsting) self-governing local authority, covering 21 counties, each comprising one or more of the municipalities.||290||is self-governing according to the Swedish constitution and constitutes local government. Before 1971, a municipality could be called a town (stad), a köping or a rural municipality (landskommun); present municipalities which used to be towns are still commonly called towns. Sweden is also divided in 2 523 districts (Swedish: distrikt) since 1 January 2016.||Municipalities of Sweden|
|Switzerland||commune/Gemeinde/comune||a canton ( canton/Kanton/cantone ) and defined by cantonal law.||2,596||Municipalities in Switzerland|
|Thailand||thesaban||None||1,602||There are three levels of municipalities, and municipalities are not self-governed except for Bangkok and Pattaya. Municipalities introduced in 1935, Bangkok became self-governed in 1972, and Pattaya became self-governed in 1978.||Thesaban|
|Turkey||belediye||Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality||il (province)||2,920||is a local government authority and there are two types of municipalities: metropolitan (büyükşehir) municipality, district (alt/ilçe) municipality.|
|Ukraine||Ukraine still has a Soviet form of city government where executive power belongs to ispolkom (an executive committee) of local community council. Functions of ispolkom in Kiev and Sevastopol performs a state administration due to the status of those cities. For other populated places, there are mainly two types of municipalities: urban and rural. Both are referred to after their governing body as council (i.e. miskrada, selyshchna rada or silrada). They are considered the lowest administrative division in the country and better known as the local government. Urban municipalities are more complex and divided into city municipalities (miskrada) and town municipalities (selyshchna rada). The most complex municipalities are the cities of regional significance which are referred to simply as cities and create a sort of ambiguity.|
|United Arab Emirates||an emirate||is defined by the law of the specific emirates.|
|Uruguay||municipio||89||Municipalities of Uruguay|
|Venezuela||municipio||Anaco Municipality||a state, as well as a subdivision of the Capital District ( estado )||Municipalities of Venezuela|
|Vietnam||Direct-controlled municipality - Thành phố trực thuộc trung ương||Ho Chi Minh City (largest)||5||A direct-controlled municipality (Thành phố trực thuộc trung ương) is a city with equal status to a province||Municipalities of Vietnam|
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes, in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French conté or cunté denoting a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count (earl) or a viscount. The modern French is comté, and its equivalents in other languages are contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, graafschap, Gau, etc..
An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government generally comprises the third tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions.
A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary considerably between different parts of the world.
In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, or political district.
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land that is not governed by a local municipal corporation; similarly an unincorporated community is a settlement that is not governed by its own local municipal corporation, but rather is administered as part of larger administrative divisions, such as a township, parish, borough, county, city, canton, state, province or country. Occasionally, municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, and services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are very rare; typically remote, outlying, sparsely populated or uninhabited areas.
Local government in Australia is the third tier of government in Australia, and is administered by the states and territories, which in turn are beneath the federal tier. Local government is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia and two referenda in the 1970s and 1980s to alter the Constitution relating to local government were unsuccessful. Every state government recognises local government in their respective constitutions. Unlike Canada or the United States, there is only one level of local government in each state, with no distinction such as cities and counties.
Ayuntamiento is the general term for the town council, or cabildo, of a municipality or, sometimes, as is often the case in Spain and Latin America, for the municipality itself. Ayuntamiento is mainly used in Spain; in Latin America alcaldía is also for municipal governing bodies, especially the executive ones, where the legislative body and an executive one are two separate entities. In Catalan-speaking parts of Spain, municipalities generally use the Catalan cognate, ajuntament, while Galician ones use the word concello, Astur-Leonese conceyu and Basque udaletxea. Since ayuntamiento is a metonym for the building in which the council meets, it also translates to "city/town hall" in English.
Local government in the United States refers to governmental jurisdictions below the level of the state. Most states and territories have at least two tiers of local government: counties and municipalities. In some states, counties are divided into townships. There are several different types of jurisdictions at the municipal level, including the city, town, borough, and village. The types and nature of these municipal entities vary from state to state.
A capital district, capital region or capital territory is normally a specially designated administrative division where a country's seat of government is located. As such, in a federal model of government, no state or territory has any political or economic advantage relative to the others because of the national capital lying within its borders. A capital territory can be a specific form of federal district.
A borough in some U.S. states is a unit of local government or other administrative division below the level of the state. The term is currently used in six states:
Municipalidad is a Spanish term for municipality used in many Latin American countries such as Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. It refers to the governing body of a particular territory and not to the territory, which is often referred to as "municipio".
A commune is the smallest administrative subdivision in Chile. It may contain cities, towns, villages, hamlets as well as rural areas. In highly populated areas, such as Santiago, Valparaíso and Concepción, a conurbation may be broken into several communes. In sparsely populated areas, conversely, a commune may cover a substantial rural area together with several settled areas which could range from hamlets to towns or cities.
In the United States, the meaning of "village" varies by geographic area and legal jurisdiction. In many areas, "village" is a term, sometimes informal, for a type of administrative division at the local government level. Since the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government from legislating on local government, the states are free to have political subdivisions called "villages" or not to and to define the word in many ways. Typically, a village is a type of municipality, although it can also be a special district or an unincorporated area. It may or may not be recognized for governmental purposes.
The municipalities of Spain are the basic level of Spanish local government.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman provincia, which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside Italy. The term province has since been adopted by many countries. In some countries with no actual provinces, "the provinces" is a metaphorical term meaning "outside the capital city".
A municipality, formally a municipality under the direct administration of central government, is the highest level of classification for cities used by the People's Republic of China. These cities have the same rank as provinces, and form part of the first tier of administrative divisions of China.
|Look up municipality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|