Municipality

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The Ponce City Hall, in the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico, is the seat of the government for both the city and the surrounding barrios making up the municipality. Ponce City Hall.JPG
The Ponce City Hall, in the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico, is the seat of the government for both the city and the surrounding barrios making up the municipality.
Map of all city municipalities in Slovenia Map of all City Municipalities in Slovenia.svg
Map of all city municipalities in Slovenia

A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.

Contents

The term municipality may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. [1] A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district.

The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis. [2] The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenship to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).

A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.

The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass

Political powers

Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may also receive substantial funding from the state. In some European countries, such as Germany, municipalities have the constitutional right to supply public services through municipally-owned public utility companies. [4]

Terms in various countries

New York City as well as its composite five boroughs are all municipalities.
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1. Manhattan
2. Brooklyn
3. Queens
4. The Bronx
5. Staten Island 5 Boroughs Labels New York City Map.svg
New York City as well as its composite five boroughs are all municipalities.
  1. Manhattan
  2. Brooklyn
  3. Queens
  4. The Bronx
  5. Staten Island

Municipality

Terms cognate with "municipality", mostly referring to territory or political structure,[ clarification needed ] are Spanish municipio (Spain) and municipalidad (Chile), and Catalan municipi .

Communes

In a number of countries terms cognate with "commune" are used, referring to the community living in the area and the common interest. These include terms:

The same terms may be used for church congregations or parishes, for example in the German and Dutch Protestant churches.

Other terms

In Greece, the word Δήμος (demos) is used, also meaning 'community'; the word is known in English from the compound democracy (rule of the people).

In some countries, the Spanish term ayuntamiento , referring to a municipality's administration building, is extended via synecdoche to denote the municipality itself.[ citation needed ] In Moldova and Romania, both municipalities (municipiu; urban administrative units) and communes (comună; rural units) exist, and a commune may be part of a municipality.[ citation needed ]

In many countries, comparable entities may exist with various names.

English-speaking

Chinese-speaking

Municipalities by country

CountryTermExampleSubdivision ofQuantityNotesFurther reading
Afghanistan شاروالی یا شهرداری

shārwāli (or shahr-dari)

Provinces of Afghanistan 20434 'provincial' municipalities of provincial capitals (shārwāli) and 170 rural or 'district' municipalities (shārwāli uluswāli)www.km.gov.af, dmm.gov.af, idlg.gov.af
Albania bashki (urban) or komunë (rural)61 Municipalities of Albania
Algeria baladiyah daïra (district), which is part of a wilaya (province)1,541 Municipalities of Algeria
Andorra parròquia Sant Julià de Lòria 7
Argentina municipalidad Puerto Madryn Provinces of Argentina, in some provinces they are a subdivision of departments2,100Smallest administrative division; either a city, town, or township Municipalities of Argentina
Australia Local government area Port Stephens Council States and territories of Australia 547 Local government in Australia
Austria Gemeinde a state (Bundesland).1,725The entire area of Austria is divided into municipalities, with no non-municipal gaps. This leads to some municipalities being very large despite having a small population. Municipality (Austria)
Bangladesh Pouroshobha Upazila or subdistrict, which is in turn part of a district 311 Municipalities of Bangladesh
Belgium gemeente/commune Montigny-le-Tilleul a province ( provincie/province ) or of the Brussels-Capital Region 581The provinces are themselves subdivisions of the Walloon and Flemish Regions which have the authority over the municipalities Municipalities in Belgium
Bolivia municipio Arani Municipality province, which is part of a departamento.327 (2005) Municipalities of Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina općina or opštinain Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina : of a canton ( kanton ). In Republika Srpska, municipality is first order of government after entity government.144 Municipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brazil município São Paulo (most populous), Borá (least populous)states ( estados )5,570Smallest administrative subdivision. Not used in the Federal District or the Fernando de Noronha and St. Peter and St. Paul archipelagos, but encompasses all other territories nationwide Municipalities of Brazil
Brunei bandaran Bandar Seri Begawan 4Independent of subdivisions; nevertheless overlap with mukims and villages Municipalities of Brunei
Bulgaria Bulgarian : община, Bulgarian : obshtina Aksakovo Municipality an oblast 264 Municipalities of Bulgaria
Canada municipality3,572Municipality system is similar to that in the United States, however rules vary depending on the province. Lists of municipalities in Canada
Cambodia ក្រុង (krong) Phnom Penh 1,446
Chile municipalidadTorres del Paineprovinces346Specifically the administrative body, while subdivisions are comunas; most municipalities administer one comuna each, but occasional municipalities administer more
China 直辖市 Beijing 4Status equal to a province Municipalities of China
Colombia municipio a department (departamento)1,102It is also subdivided into Localities and Neighborhoods in urban municipalities and into Corregimientos and Veredas in rural municipalities Municipalities of Colombia
Costa Rica Municipalidad Province ( Provinces of Costa Rica ) Cantones of Costa Rica
Croatia općina county ( županija )428 Municipalities of Croatia
Czech Republic obec Karlovy Vary a kraj (kraj)6,254
Denmark kommune Aabenraa Municipality a region 98Counties ( amter ) were abandoned in 2007 Municipalities of Denmark
Dominican Republic municipio province Municipalities of the Dominican Republic
El Salvador municipio Zacatecoluca departamentos 262 Municipalities of El Salvador
Estonia omavalitsusAre vald (Are Parish) county (maakond)215Can be either towns (linn) or parishes (vald) Municipalities of Estonia
Finland kunta (in Finnish), kommun (in Swedish) Helsinki region 311 Can choose whether to call itself a "city" (kaupunki). Municipalities of Finland
France commune canton, which is part of an arrondissement, which is part of a department ( département ) which is part of a region ( région )36,600
Germany Gemeinde district ( Kreis , literally "Circle"). Larger entities of the same level are called Stadt, plural Städte (Cities resp. Towns), which can be part of a Kreis (they are kreisangehörig, meaning "belonging to a Circle") or constituting a district on its own (kreisfrei, meaning "free of a Circle"). In less populated regions, small municipalities are often put together into consolidated superior municipalities ( Verbandsgemeinde, Samtgemeinde or Amtsgemeinde )12,013 Municipalities of Germany
Georgia munits'ipaliteti76self-governing towns/cities (k'alak'i) and communities (t'emi) Municipalities of Georgia
Greece demos (δήμος, pl. δήμοι) or koinoteta (κοινότητα, pl. κοινότητες)325Demoi and koinotetes are both considered municipalities; the latter are less populous Municipalities and communities of Greece
Greenland kommunea Kujalleq 4First-level administrative division Municipalities of Greenland
Haiti communean arrondissement, which is part of a department ( département ).
Honduras municipio was in 1895 originally the subdivision of the district (distrito), but as districts have fallen into disuse, it is now the subdivision of the department (departamento).298 Municipalities of Honduras
Hungary község a county (megye).3,168 (in 2005)
Iceland sveitarfélag Reykjavík Regions 74The country's only self-governing local administrative units Municipalities of Iceland
India Sainthia Excludes both villages and large cities; typically has more than twenty thousand residents, but cannot exceed five hundred thousand Municipalities of India
Indonesia Kabupaten (regency) or Kotamadya (city) Provinces of Indonesia List of regencies and cities of Indonesia
Iraq Qadhaa Al-Hamdaniya District a district (Arabic : Qadhaa) which is part of a Governorate (Region or Province, Arabic: Mouhafatha).130Second-level, below the governorate Municipalities of Iraq
Israel Iri'ya (עיריה, City Government), Moatsa (מועצה, Council)Includes city councils (large municipalities), local councils (small municipalities), and regional councils (a group of communities; often rural)
Italy comune a province ( provincia ) which is part of a region ( regione ).7,982Solely used for subdivisions of larger comuni, especially in Rome; municipio indicates the city hall; in some case, they are joined in mountain communities (comunità montane) [14] List of comuni of Italy
Japan 市町村

Shichoson

1,719Below the prefecture; includes shi (cities), cho (towns), and son (villages) Municipalities of Japan
Kenya a municipality is one of four types of local authorities. Nearly 50 major towns are given the municipality status.
Latvia singular: novads, plural: novadiAglonas novads (Aglona Municipality)110A municipality normally consists of amalgamated parishes (singular: pagasts, plural: pagasti). Municipalities of Latvia
Lebanon a district (Arabic : Qadaa) which is part of a Governorate (Region or Province, Arabic: Mouhafazah).
Libya the municipality level is that of the Basic People's Congress. Large cities are subdivided. Municipalities of Libya
Lithuania savivaldybėKalvarijos savivaldybė (Kalvarija Municipality)a district ( apskritis ) and is subdivided into elderates ( seniūnija ). Municipalities of Lithuania
Luxembourg commune (in French); Gemeng, plur. Gemengen (in Luxembourgish) part of a canton (Luxembourgish: Kantoun) which itself is part of a district105are the lowest divisions
Malta Kunsill Lokali (Local Council) Valletta Local Councilnone68established 1993, one new council created since then (Mtarfa) Local councils of Malta
Mauritius a municipality: The administration of all the main towns in Mauritius is done by the municipality of the respective towns.Most of the towns are found in the district of Plaines Wilhems. The capital city, Port-Louis is managed by the Municipality of Port-Louis, found in the district of Port Louis. The other seven districts are administered by are called district councils.
Mexico municipio / delegación Asientos Municipality a state (estado) or the DF2,466a borough ( delegación ) is a subdivision of the Federal District Municipalities of Mexico and boroughs of the Mexican Federal District
Moldova municipiu Municipiul Chișinău 32is a main city or town and surrounding villages ranked by law at this level. Moldova#Administrative divisions
Montenegro opština Andrijevica Municipality the country (top-level) Municipalities of Montenegro
Nepal Nagarpalika and Gaunpalika Pokhara Provinces of Nepal 276 Municipalities (by Constitution of Nepal, 2015 and amendments thereafter)Nepal has 276 municipalities and 460 rural municipalities or gaunpalikas after federal division of country by Constitution of Nepal 2015. A municipality is a town not large enough in population or infrastructure to qualify as a sub-metropolitan city. List of cities in Nepal
Netherlands gemeentea province ( provincie )388 + 3 special municipalities Municipalities in the Netherlands
New Zealand a municipality is part of either a "city" (mostly urban) or a "district" (mostly rural). The term "municipality" has become rare in New Zealand since about 1979 and has no legal status. (See territorial authorities of New Zealand.)
Nicaragua municipio a department (departamento) or of one of the two Autonomous Regions, North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region. Municipalities of Nicaragua
North Macedonia opština Aračinovo Municipality The country (top-level) or the City of Skopje 84 (2004)Current set established in 2004, reduced from 123 created in 1996. Municipalities of North Macedonia
Norway kommune Røyken kommunea county ( fylke )356 (2020) Municipalities of Norway
Palestinian National Authority 105municipalities are localities with populations over 4,000 and have 13-15 council members. Municipality (Palestinian Authority)
Pakistan of a tehsil/taluka or sub-district of a "district".149 Local government in Pakistan
Paraguay municipalidada departament (departamento)
Peru municipio a province (provincia), which is part of a department (departamento). As of 2002 a department is now called a region (región).is another term for district (distrito) and is the lower-level administrative subdivision.
Philippines bayan , munisipyo or munisipalidad a province (lalawigan or probinsya, except for Pateros)1,488 [15] A municipality is the official name for a town and is divided into barangays. Municipalities with a larger population and income may become a city through a city charter. [16] Municipalities of the Philippines
Poland gmina Gmina Annopol county ( powiat ).
Portugal concelho or município Oeiras District 308Concelho is a directly elected local area authority generally consisting of a main city or town and surrounding villages, with wide-ranging local administration powers. Apart from the municipality of Corvo, however, municípios are not the smallest administrative unit in Portugal, that being the freguesia (civil parish). For central government purposes, Portuguese municipalities are grouped into districts ( distritos ). In Portugal, a municipality ( município / concelho ) is the primary local administrative unit. Although part of a district ( distrito ) for certain national administrative purposes, the municipality is not subordinate to the district and decentralization is doing away with the districts. A municipality contains one or more freguesias . Municipalities of Portugal
Puerto Rico municipio Arecibo none78municipality consists of an urban area (termed a city or town) plus all of its surrounding barrios comprising the municipality. It has a popularly elected administration and a municipal mayor. The seat of the municipal government is located in such urban area and serves the entire municipal jurisdiction. [17] [18] Municipalities of Puerto Rico
Romania municipiu / oraș / comună Deva County ( județ )103 + 217 + 2856A municipality (municipiu) is a special status given to cities which fulfill certain criteria related to size, influence and development, as defined by Law no. 351/2001 (on the National Territorial Management Plan). Localities which do not meet the criteria are designated "cities" ( orașe ) or "communes" ( comune ). Municipalities of Romania
Cities of Romania
Communes of Romania
Russia several types of municipalities ("municipal formations") exist; see subdivisions of Russia
San Marino there are also eight minor municipalities, castelli.
Serbia opština a district ( okrug )
Slovakia obec district (okres) which is part of a kraj (kraj) 2,891
Slovenia občina region (regija)212a municipality ( občina ) is the primary local administrative unit. There are 212 of them, 11 of which have a special "Urban" status with additional autonomy. Municipalities of Slovenia
South Africa district municipalities and metropolitan municipalities are subdivisions of the provinces, and local municipalities are subdivisions of district municipalities.
Spain municipio / municipi / concello / udalerriaBarcelona, Madrid8,122a municipality ( municipio ) is the primary local administrative unit. It is a part of a province ( provincia ) for all national administrative purposes. In the Galicia region, the municipalities are called, in Galician language, concellos, and in the Principality of Asturias region, a municipality is called a concejo (in Spanish language) or a conceyu (in Asturian language). In these two regions a municipality contains one or more parroquias (parishes). Municipalities of Spain
Sweden kommun Stockholm Municipality

Gothenburg Municipality Malmö Municipality Ale Municipality

County Councils of Sweden (Swedish: landsting) self-governing local authority, covering 21 counties, each comprising one or more of the municipalities.290is self-governing according to the Swedish constitution and constitutes local government. Before 1971, a municipality could be called a town (stad), a köping or a rural municipality (landskommun); present municipalities which used to be towns are still commonly called towns. Sweden is also divided in 2 523 districts (Swedish: distrikt) since 1 January 2016. [19] Municipalities of Sweden
Switzerland commune/Gemeinde/comune a canton ( canton/Kanton/cantone ) and defined by cantonal law.2,596 Municipalities in Switzerland
Thailand thesaban None1,602There are three levels of municipalities, and municipalities are not self-governed except for Bangkok and Pattaya. Municipalities introduced in 1935, Bangkok became self-governed in 1972, and Pattaya became self-governed in 1978. Thesaban
Turkey belediye Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality il (province)2,920is a local government authority and there are two types of municipalities: metropolitan (büyükşehir) municipality, district (alt/ilçe) municipality.
Ukraine Ukrainian : громада, hromada Ternopil City hromada Raions of Ukraine 1470In Ukraine executive power belongs to ispolkom (an executive committee) of the council of hromada. Functions of ispolkom in Kyiv and Sevastopol performs a state administration due to the status of those cities. For other populated places, there are mainly two types of municipalities: urban and rural. Their governing bodies are councils (i.e. miskrada, selyshchna rada or silrada). They are considered the lowest administrative division in the country and better known as the local government. Urban municipalities are more complex and divided into city municipalities (miska hromada) and town municipalities (selyshchna hromada).
United Arab Emirates an emirate is defined by the law of the specific emirates.
Uruguay municipio 89 Municipalities of Uruguay
Venezuela municipio Anaco Municipality a state, as well as a subdivision of the Capital District ( estado ) Municipalities of Venezuela
Vietnam Direct-controlled municipality - Thành phố trực thuộc trung ương Ho Chi Minh City (largest)5A direct-controlled municipality (Thành phố trực thuộc trung ương) is a city with equal status to a province Municipalities of Vietnam

See also

Related Research Articles

Borough An administrative division in some English-speaking countries

A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely.

County Geographical and administrative region in some countries

A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes, in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French conté or cunté denoting a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count (earl) or a viscount. Literal equivalents in other languages, derived from the equivalent of "count", are now seldom used officially, including comté, contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, graafschap, and zhupa in Slavic languages; terms equivalent to English language administrative terms like municipality, district, circuit and commune/community are now often instead used.

An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity.

A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government generally comprises the third tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions.

Town Settlement that is bigger than a village but smaller than a city

A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary considerably between different parts of the world.

Mayor Head of municipal government such as a town or city

In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.

District Administrative division, in some countries, managed by local government

A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, or political district.

Unincorporated area Region of land not governed by own local government

In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land that is not governed by a local municipal corporation; similarly an unincorporated community is a settlement that is not governed by its own local municipal corporation, but rather is administered as part of larger administrative divisions, such as a township, parish, borough, county, city, canton, state, province or country. Occasionally, municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, and services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are very rare; typically remote, outlying, sparsely populated or uninhabited areas.

Hamlet (place) Small human settlement in a rural area

A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, a hamlet may be the size of a town, village or parish, or may be considered to be a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement. The word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church or other place of worship.

Local government in Australia Third tier of government in Australia

Local government in Australia is the third level of government division in Australia, and is administered by the states and territories, which in turn are beneath the federal level. Local government is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia and two referenda in the 1970s and 1980s to alter the Constitution relating to local government were unsuccessful. Every state government recognises local government in its respective constitution. Unlike Canada or the United States, there is only one level of local government in each state, with no distinction such as cities and counties.

Ayuntamiento is the general term for the town council, or cabildo, of a municipality or, sometimes, as is often the case in Spain and Latin America, for the municipality itself. Ayuntamiento is mainly used in Spain; in Latin America alcaldía is also for municipal governing bodies, especially the executive ones, where the legislative body and an executive one are two separate entities. In Catalan-speaking parts of Spain, municipalities generally use the Catalan cognate, ajuntament, while Galician ones use the word concello, Astur-Leonese conceyu and Basque udaletxea. Since ayuntamiento is a metonym for the building in which the council meets, it also translates to "city/town hall" in English.

Local government in the United States refers to governmental jurisdictions below the level of the state. Most states and territories have at least two tiers of local government: counties and municipalities. In some states, counties are divided into townships. There are several different types of jurisdictions at the municipal level, including the city, town, borough, and village. The types and nature of these municipal entities vary from state to state.

Municipio and município are country subdivisions in Italy and several Hispanophone and Lusophone nations, respectively. They are often translated as "municipality". In the English language, a municipality often is defined as relating to a single city or town; however, in Spanish, the term "municipio" may not mean a single city or town, but rather a jurisdiction housing several towns and cities, like a township, county, borough or civil parish. The Italian term "municipalità" refers either to a single city or a group of cities and towns in a township, but the Portugal's use is almost entirely restricted to group of cities or towns like in a county, township and so forth. However, in Brazil, a Municipio is an independent city & a public corporporation with status of Federated Entity.

Municipalidad is a Spanish term for municipality used in many Latin American countries such as Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. It refers to the governing body of a particular territory and not to the territory, which is often referred to as "municipio"

A municipal district is an administrative entity comprising a clearly-defined territory and its population. It can refer to a city, a town, a village, a small grouping of them, or a rural area.

Village (United States)

In the United States, the meaning of "village" varies by geographic area and legal jurisdiction. In many areas, "village" is a term, sometimes informal, for a type of administrative division at the local government level. Since the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government from legislating on local government, the states are free to have political subdivisions called "villages" or not to and to define the word in many ways. Typically, a village is a type of municipality, although it can also be a special district or an unincorporated area. It may or may not be recognized for governmental purposes.

Municipalities of Spain

The municipalities of Spain are the basic level of Spanish local government.

The province of Quebec is divided into units at the regional, supralocal and local levels. The primary types of subdivision are administrative regions, regional county municipalities (RCMs), metropolitan communities (CMs), the Kativik Regional Government (KRG), unorganized territories (TNOs), agglomerations, northern villages, Cree villages, Naskapi villages, and a variety of local units which may collectively be referred to as local municipalities and boroughs.

A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman provincia, which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside Italy. The term province has since been adopted by many countries. In some countries with no actual provinces, "the provinces" is a metaphorical term meaning "outside the capital city".

Municipal or local governance refers to the third tier of governance in India, at the level of the municipality or urban local body.

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