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A charter township is a form of local government in the U.S. state of Michigan. Townships in Michigan are organized governments. A charter township has been granted a charter, which allows it certain rights and responsibilities of home rule that are generally intermediate between those of a city (a semi-autonomous jurisdiction in Michigan) and a village. Unless it is a home-rule village, the latter is subject to the authority of any township in which it is located.
Following World War II, suburbanization increased the population in many formerly outlying communities. In 1947, the state legislature created a special charter township status, which grants additional powers and streamlined administration in order to provide greater protection for townships against annexation of land by cities and villages. As of November 2014, there were 118 charter townships in Michigan (Alpena Township was chartered on February 26, 2018).A township with a population of 2,000 or more may incorporate as a charter township and become a municipal corporation. It possesses all the powers of a non-charter township, in addition to those specified by the Charter Township Act of 1947.
Legislative authority is exercised by an elected township board of seven members, consisting of the supervisor, the township clerk, the township treasurer, and four trustees. They must be residents of the township and eligible to vote in elections. All members of the board serve four-year terms. Unlike the boards for general law townships, which may have either five or seven members, a charter township must have seven members. If a general law township with a five-member board elects to become a charter township, two additional members are to be elected in the next general election.
Charter townships may appoint either a township superintendent or township manager, who can be assigned responsibilities for managing township functions. (This is comparable to cities that hire a city manager to oversee the day-to-day operations of the city). Otherwise, executive authority lies with the supervisor and various committees.
A charter township may establish a variety of municipal services, such as a police force, fire department, and assessors, and may also acquire property. It may borrow money and issue bonds, with the approval of a majority of township voters in an election. Similarly, a charter township cannot levy taxes without the approval of a majority of the township population voting in an election. This is one significant difference from home-rule municipalities, in which the municipal authority can levy taxes without specific approval from voters.
A charter township is mostly exempt from annexation from contiguous cities or villages providing that the township meets certain requirements:
A charter township may still be subject to annexation under certain conditions, such as for the purpose of eliminating isolated islands of township or by vote of a majority of the residents of a portion of township. Temporary land transfers, which can involve charter townships, have provision under Public Act 425 of 1984. Under this statute, a charter township, for example, can have land transferred to a city in exchange for revenue sharing of the transferred parcels. These agreements, known as 425 Agreements, can last up to 50 years, and the land can either be completely transferred to the city or returned to the township upon fulfillment of the agreement.
Delta Charter Township, officially known as the Charter Township of Delta and commonly known as simply Delta Township, is a charter township of Eaton County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 32,408 making it the most populous municipality in Eaton County. The township operates its own fire department, but contracts with the Eaton County Sheriff Department for police protection. The township is a major community in metropolitan Lansing.
Novi Township is a civil township of Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan. At the 2010 census, the township had a population of 150. Of the original 36-square-mile (93 km2) geographic township, only a small portion of 0.11 square miles (0.28 km2) remains unincorporated from the surrounding city of Novi. Novi Township is the smallest township in the state by total land area and the third-smallest municipality after the villages of Ahmeek and Copper City.
The Charter Township of Oakland is a charter township on the north Oakland County outskirts of Metro Detroit, in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is colloquially referred to as "Oakland Township". The population was 16,779 at the 2010 census.
Northville Township, officially the Charter Township of Northville, is a charter township of Wayne County in the U.S. state of Michigan and a suburb in Metro Detroit. The population was 28,497 at the 2010 census.
A civil township is a widely used unit of local government in the United States that is subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, and Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries often coincide and may completely geographically subdivide a county. The U.S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. Currently, there are 20 states with civil townships.
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The legislature of the State of Michigan enacted Public Act 425 of 1984 which is also known by the title Intergovernmental Conditional Transfer Of Property By Contract Act. It became effective March 29, 1985, and was subsequently amended in 1998. It is often simply referred to as “Act 425” and contractual agreements entered into pursuant to this statute are frequently called “425 Agreements.”
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The state of Michigan is largely divided in the same way as many other U.S. states, but is distinct in its usage of charter townships. Michigan ranks 13th among the fifty states in terms of the number of local governmental entities.
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Local government in Pennsylvania is government below the state level in Pennsylvania. There are six types of local governments listed in the Pennsylvania Constitution: county, township, borough, town, city, and school district. All of Pennsylvania is included in one of the state's 67 counties, which are in total subdivided into 2,561 municipalities. There are currently no independent cities or unincorporated territories within Pennsylvania.
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The Michigan Townships Association (MTA) is a non-profit organization based in U.S. state of Michigan. It is one of the largest local government associations in the United States. The MTA was formed in 1953 and now claims nearly 99% of Michigan's 1,240 townships as members.
The administrative divisions of Ohio are counties, municipalities, townships, special districts and school districts.