A union territory (ISO: Sanghaśasita Kṣetra/Pradeśa, lit. 'Federally administered territory/province') is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India. Unlike the states of India, which have their own governments, union territories are federal territories governed directly by the Central Government of India.
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As of 2020 [update] there are eight union territories. When the Constitution of India was adopted in 1949, there was only one Part D state: Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Three more, the Delhi, Chandigarh and Lakshadweep were formed by separating each territory from pre-existing states. Another two (Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu and Puducherry) were formed from acquired territories that formerly belonged to colonial powers (Portuguese India and French India respectively).
The Parliament of India can pass a law to amend the constitution and provide a Legislature with elected Members and a Chief Minister for a union territory, as it has done for Delhi and Puducherry. In general, the President of India appoints an administrator or lieutenant governor for each UT.
Delhi, Puducherry and Jammu and Kashmir operate differently from the other five. They were given partial statehood and Delhi was redefined as the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) and incorporated into a larger area known as the National Capital Region (NCR). Delhi, Puducherry and Jammu and Kashmir have an elected legislative assembly and an executive council of ministers with partially state-like function.
In August 2019, the Parliament of India passed Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019. The act contains provisions to reconstitute the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories, one to be eponymously called Jammu and Kashmir, and the other Ladakh on 31 October 2019.
In November 2019, the Government of India introduced legislation to merge the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli into a single union territory to be known as Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.
Due to existence of union territories, many critics have resolved India into a semi-federal nation, as the central and state governments each have their own domains and territories of legislation. Union territories of India have special rights and status due to their constitutional formation and development. The status of "union territory" may be assigned to an Indian sub-jurisdiction for reasons such as safeguarding the rights of indigenous cultures, averting political turmoil related to matters of governance, and so on. These union territories could be changed to states in the future for more efficient administrative control.
The Constitution does not stipulate how tax revenue is to be devolved to the union territories, unlike for the states. The funds devolution to union territories by the union government have no criteria where all the revenue goes to the union government. Some union territories are provided more funds, while others are given less, in an arbitrary manner by the union government.As union territories are directly ruled by the union government, some union territories get more funds from the union government than entitled on per capita and backwardness basis when compared to states.
After the introduction of GST, UT-GST is applicable in union territories which are not having legislative assembly. UT-GST is levied at par with the applicable state GST in rest of the country which would eliminate the previous lower taxation in the union territories.
Article 1 (1) of the Indian constitution says that India shall be a "Union of States", which are elaborated under Parts V (The Union) and VI (The States) of the constitution. Article 1 (3) says the territory of India comprises the territories of the states, the union territories and other territories that may be acquired. The concept of union territories was not in the original version of the constitution, but was added by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956.In the constitution wherever it refers to Territories of India, it is applicable to whole country including union territories. Where it refers to only India, it is applicable to all states only but not to union territories. Thus, citizenship (part II), fundamental rights (part III), Directive Principles of State Policy (part IV), Judiciary role, the Union Territories (part VIII), Article 245, etc. are applicable to union territories as it refers specifically to Territories of India. The executive power of Union (i.e. union of states only) rests with President of India. President of India is also chief administrator of union territories per Article 239. Union public service commission role is not applicable to all territories of India as it refers to India only in Part XIV.
The constitutional status of a union territory is similar to a state under the perennial president's rule per Article 356 subject to specific exemptions to few union territories with legislative assembly. Per Article 240 (2), supreme power is accorded to the President in regulating the affairs of the all the union territories except Chandigarh, NCT and Puducherry, including powers to override the laws made by Parliament and the constitution of India. Article 240 (2) allows to implement tax heaven laws in these union territories to attract foreign capital/investments in to India instead of depending on foreign tax heaven countries.
Three of the union territories have representation in the upper house of the Indian Parliament, the Rajya Sabha. Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, and Puducherry which are also exceptional among union territories in that each has its own locally elected legislative assembly and government.
|Location within India||Name||Area||Region||UT established|
|Union territories with their own elected legislatures and governments|
|Delhi||1,484 km2 (573 sq mi)||North India||1 November 1956|
|Jammu and Kashmir||42,241 km2 (16,309 sq mi)||North India||31 October 2019|
|Puducherry||483 km2 (186 sq mi)||South India||16 August 1962|
|Union territories without elected legislatures|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||8,250 km2 (3,190 sq mi)||South India||1 November 1956|
|Chandigarh||114 km2 (44 sq mi)||North India||1 November 1966|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu||603 km2 (233 sq mi)||Western India||26 January 2020|
|Lakshadweep||32.62 km2 (12.59 sq mi)||South India||1 November 1956|
|Ladakh||59,146 km2 (22,836 sq mi)||North India||31 October 2019|
|Location within India||Name||Area||Region||UT established||UT disestablished||Today part of|
|Arunachal Pradesh||83,743 km2 (32,333 sq mi)||Northeast India||21 January 1972||20 February 1987||As an Indian state|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||491 km2 (190 sq mi)||Western India||11 August 1961||26 January 2020||Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory|
|Daman and Diu||112 km2 (43 sq mi)||Western India||30 May 1987||26 January 2020||Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory|
|Goa, Daman and Diu||3,814 km2 (1,473 sq mi)||Western India||19 December 1961||30 May 1987||Goa state and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory|
|Himachal Pradesh||55,673 km2 (21,495 sq mi)||North India||1 November 1956||25 January 1971||As an Indian state|
|Manipur||22,327 km2 (8,621 sq mi)||Northeast India||1 November 1956||21 January 1972||As an Indian state|
|Mizoram||21,087 km2 (8,142 sq mi)||Northeast India||21 January 1972||20 February 1987||As an Indian state|
|Nagaland||16,579 km2 (6,401 sq mi)||Northeast India||29 November 1957||1 December 1963||As an Indian state|
|Tripura||10,491.65 km2 (4,050.85 sq mi)||Northeast India||1 November 1956||21 January 1972||As an Indian state|
A federal district is a type of administrative division of a federation, usually under the direct control of a federal government and organized sometimes with a single municipal body. Federal districts often include capital districts, and they exist in various federations worldwide.
India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli is a region in western India. It is composed of two separate geographical entities: Nagar Haveli, wedged between Maharashtra and Gujarat and 1 km to the northwest, the smaller enclave of Dadra, which is surrounded by Gujarat. Silvassa is the administrative headquarters of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Unlike the surrounding areas, Dadra and Nagar Haveli was ruled by the Portuguese from 1783 until the mid-20th century. The area was captured by Pro-India forces in 1954 and administered as the de-facto state of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli before being annexed to India as a union territory, the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1961. The union territory was merged with the neighboring union territory of Daman and Diu to form the new union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu on January 26, 2020. The territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli then became one of the three districts of the new union territory, as the Dadra and Nagar Haveli District.
Daman and Diu was a union territory in western India. With an area of 112 km2 (43 sq mi), it was the smallest federal division of India on the mainland. The territory comprised two distinct regions—Daman and Diu—that are geographically separated by the Gulf of Khambhat. The state of Gujarat and the Arabian Sea bordered the territory. A Portuguese colony since the 1500s, the territories were annexed by India in 1961. Daman and Diu were administered as part of the union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu between 1961 and 1987, when they became a separate union territory. In 2019, legislation was passed to merge the union territory of Daman and Diu with its neighbouring union territory, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, to form the new union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu with effect from 26 January 2020. It has also been ruled by Kolis.
A federal territory is an area under the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of a federation's central or national government. A federal territory is an area that is part of a federation but not part of any federated state. The federated states constitute the federation itself and share sovereignty with the federal government, while a territory does not have sovereign status.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of, and topical guide to, India:
The Liberation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli was the conflict in which the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli passed from Portuguese rule to Indian Union rule in 1954.
Federalism in India refers to relations between the Centre and states of Union of India. The Constitution of India establishes structure of the Indian government. Part XI of the Indian constitution specifies the distribution of legislative, administrative and executive powers between the union government and the States of India. The legislative powers are categorised under a Union List, a State List and a Concurrent List, representing, respectively, the powers conferred upon the Union government, those conferred upon the State governments and powers shared among them.
The Tenth Amendment of the Constitution of India, officially known as The Constitution Act, 1961, incorporated Dadra and Nagar Haveli as the seventh Union territory of India, by amending the First Schedule to the Constitution. It also amended clause (1) of article 240 of the Constitution to include therein the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in order to enable the President to "make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the territory". The 10th Amendment retroactively came into effect on 11 August 1961.
The Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Police is the law enforcement agency for the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu in India.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (DNHDD) is a union territory in western India. It was created through the merger of the former union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. Plans for the proposed merger were announced by the Government of India in July 2019 and the necessary legislation was passed in the Parliament of India in December 2019 and came into effect on 26 January 2020. The territory is made up of four separate geographical entities Dadra, Nagar Haveli, Daman and the island of Diu. All four areas were part of Portuguese India and came under Indian administration in the mid-20th century.
The first case of the COVID-19 pandemic in India was reported on 30 January 2020, originating from China. Slowly, the pandemic spread to various states and union territories including the union territorry of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. The first case was recorded in this region on 10 April 2020.
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