Metropolitan borough

Last updated
Metropolitan district
Also known as:
Metropolitan borough
English metropolitan boroughs 2009.svg
Category Local authority districts
LocationEngland
Found in Metropolitan county
Created by Local Government Act 1972
Created1 April 1974
Number36 (as of 2008)
Possible statusCity
Additional statusBorough
Populations0.1 - 1.1 million

A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, metropolitan boroughs are defined in English law as metropolitan districts. However, all of them have been granted or regranted royal charters to give them borough status (as well as, in some cases, city status). [1] Metropolitan boroughs have been effectively unitary authority areas since the abolition of the metropolitan county councils by the Local Government Act 1985. [2] However, metropolitan boroughs pool much of their authority in joint boards and other arrangements that cover whole metropolitan counties, such as city regions.

Contents

History

London metropolitan boroughs (1900–1965)

The term "metropolitan borough" was first used for administrative subdivisions of the County of London between 1900 and 1965. There were 28 of these metropolitan boroughs, which were replaced by a new system of larger London Boroughs in 1965, when the County of London was replaced by Greater London.

Current metropolitan boroughs

The current metropolitan boroughs were created in 1974 as subdivisions of the new metropolitan counties, created to cover the six largest urban areas in England outside Greater London. The new districts replaced the previous system of county boroughs, municipal boroughs, urban and rural districts. The districts typically have populations of 174,000 to 1.1 million.

Metropolitan districts were originally parts of a two-tier structure of local government, and shared power with the metropolitan county councils (MCCs). They differed from non-metropolitan districts in the division of powers between district and county councils. Metropolitan districts were local education authorities, and were also responsible for social services and libraries, but in non-metropolitan counties these services were the responsibility of county councils. [3]

In 1986, the metropolitan county councils were abolished under the Local Government Act 1985 and most of their functions were devolved to the metropolitan boroughs, making them, to a large extent, unitary authorities in all but name. At the same time, however, some of the functions of the abolished metropolitan county councils were taken over by joint bodies such as passenger transport authorities, and joint fire, police and waste disposal authorities. [2]

Metropolitan district councils

The metropolitan districts are administered by metropolitan district councils. They are the principal local authorities in the six metropolitan counties and are responsible for running most local services, such as schools, social services, waste collection and roads. [ citation needed ]

List of metropolitan boroughs

The 36 metropolitan boroughs are:

Metropolitan countyMetropolitan districtsNumberCounty population
Merseyside Liverpool, Knowsley, St Helens, Sefton, Wirral 51,365,000
Greater Manchester Manchester, Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan 102,573,200
South Yorkshire Sheffield, Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham 41,290,000
Tyne and Wear Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Tyneside, North Tyneside, Sunderland 51,299,000
West Midlands Birmingham, Coventry, Dudley, Sandwell, Solihull, Walsall, Wolverhampton 72,591,300
West Yorkshire Leeds, Bradford, Calderdale, Kirklees, Wakefield 52,161,200

See also

Related Research Articles

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Non-metropolitan county

A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England that is not a metropolitan county. The counties typically have populations of 300,000 to 1.4 million. The term shire county is, however, an unofficial usage. Many of the non-metropolitan counties bear historic names and most, such as Wiltshire and Staffordshire, end in the suffix "-shire". Of the remainder, some counties had the "-shire" ending but have lost it over time, such as Devon and Somerset.

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Local Government Act 1985 United Kingdom legislation

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Windsor and Maidenhead Borough Council

Windsor and Maidenhead Borough Council is the local authority of the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. It is a unitary authority council, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. Windsor and Maidenhead is divided into 23 wards, electing 57 councillors. The council was created by the Local Government Act 1972 and replaced six local authorities: Cookham Rural District Council, Eton Urban District Council, Eton Rural District Council, Maidenhead Borough Council, New Windsor Borough Council and Windsor Rural District Council. Since 1 April 1998 it has been a unitary authority, assuming the powers and functions of Berkshire County Council.

References

  1. Local Government Act 1972, Schedule I, Part I, Metropolitan Counties and Metropolitan Districts
  2. 1 2 Local Government Act 1985 c.51
  3. Local Government in England and Wales: A Guide to the New System. London: HMSO. 1974. p. 7. ISBN   0-11-750847-0.