|Counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies|
|Also known as:|
Not shown: City of London
The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of Englandand informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenants are appointed. Legally, the areas in England, as well as in Wales and Scotland, are defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997 as "counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies in Great Britain", in contrast to the areas used for local government. They are also informally known as "geographic counties", to distinguish them from other types of counties of England.
The distinction between a county for purposes of the lieutenancy and a county for administrative purposes is not a new one; in some cases, a county corporate that was part of a county was appointed its own lieutenant (although the lieutenant of the containing county would often be appointed to this position, as well), and the three Ridings of Yorkshire had been treated as three counties for lieutenancy purposes since the 17th century.
The Local Government Act 1888 established county councils to assume the administrative functions of Quarter Sessions in the counties. It created new entities called "administrative counties".An administrative county comprised all of the county apart from the county boroughs; also, some traditional subdivisions of counties were constituted administrative counties, for instance the Soke of Peterborough in Northamptonshire and the Isle of Ely in Cambridgeshire. The act further stipulated that areas that were part of an administrative county would be part of the county for all purposes. The greatest change was the creation of the County of London, which was made both an administrative county and a "county"; it included parts of the historic counties of Middlesex, Kent, and Surrey. Other differences were small and resulted from the constraint that urban sanitary districts (and later urban districts and municipal boroughs) were not permitted to straddle county boundaries.
Apart from Yorkshire, counties that were subdivided nevertheless continued to exist as ceremonial counties. For example, the administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk, along with the county borough of Ipswich, were considered to make up a single ceremonial county of Suffolk, and the administrative county of the Isle of Wight was part of the ceremonial county of Hampshire.
The term "ceremonial county" is an anachronism; at the time they were shown on Ordnance Survey maps as "counties" or "geographical counties", and were referred to in the Local Government Act 1888 simply as "counties".
Apart from minor boundary revisions (for example, Caversham, a town in Oxfordshire, becoming part of Reading county borough and thus of Berkshire, in 1911), these areas changed little until the 1965 creation of Greater London and of Huntingdon and Peterborough, which resulted in the abolition of the offices of Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex, Lord Lieutenant of the County of London, and Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire and the creation of the Lord Lieutenant of Greater London and of the Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdon and Peterborough.
In 1974, administrative counties and county boroughs were abolished, and a major reform was instituted. At this time, lieutenancy was redefined to use the new metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties directly.
Following a further rearrangement in 1996, Avon, Cleveland, Hereford and Worcester, and Humberside were abolished. This led to a resurrection of a distinction between the local government counties and the ceremonial or geographical counties used for lieutenancy, and also to the adoption of the term "ceremonial counties", which although not used in statute, was used in the House of Commons before the arrangements coming into effect.
The County of Avon that had been formed in 1974 was mostly split between Gloucestershire and Somerset, but its city of Bristol regained the status of a county in itself, which it had lost upon the formation of Avon. Cleveland was partitioned between North Yorkshire and Durham. Hereford and Worcester was divided into the restored counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. Humberside was split between Lincolnshire and a new ceremonial county of East Riding of Yorkshire. Rutland was restored as a ceremonial county. Many county boroughs were re-established as "unitary authorities"; this involved establishing the area as an administrative county, but usually not as a ceremonial county.
Most ceremonial counties are, therefore, entities comprising local authority areas, as they were from 1889 to 1974. The Association of British Counties, a traditional counties lobbying organisation, has suggested that ceremonial counties be restored to their ancient boundaries.
In present-day England, the ceremonial counties correspond to the shrieval counties, each with a high sheriff appointed (except the City of London, which has its two sheriffs).
The Lieutenancies Act 1997 defines counties for the purposes of lieutenancies in terms of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties (created by the Local Government Act 1972, as amended) as well as Greater London and the Isles of Scilly (which lie outside the 1972 Act's new system). Although the term is not used in the act, these counties are sometimes known as "ceremonial counties". The counties are defined in Schedule 1, paragraphs 2–5as amended (most recently in 2009 and 2019 ) — these amendments have not altered the actual areas covered by the counties as set out in 1997, only their composition in terms of local government areas, as a result of structural changes in local government.
These are the 48 counties for the purposes of the lieutenancies in England, as currently defined:
|County for the purposes of the lieutenancies|| Population |
Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties or unitary authority areas
|Bedfordshire||669,338||36th||1,235||477||41st||542||13th||Bedford, Central Bedfordshire and Luton|
|Buckinghamshire||808,666||30th||1,874||724||32nd||432||22nd||Buckinghamshire and Milton Keynes|
|Cambridgeshire||852,523||28th||3,390||1,310||15th||252||34th||Cambridgeshire and Peterborough|
|Cheshire||1,059,271||19th||2,343||905||25th||452||21st||Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester, Halton, and Warrington|
|City of London||8,706||48th||2.90||1.12||48th||2,998||4th||City of London|
|Cornwall||568,210||40th||3,562||1,375||12th||160||41st||Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly|
|Derbyshire||1,053,316||21st||2,625||1,014||21st||401||25th||Derbyshire and Derby|
|Devon||1,194,166||11th||6,707||2,590||4th||178||39th||Devon, Plymouth and Torbay|
|Dorset||772,268||31st||2,653||1,024||20th||274||32nd||Dorset and Bournemouth, Christchurch and Poole|
|Durham||866,846||26th||2,676||1,033||19th||324||28th||County Durham, Darlington, Hartlepool and that part of Stockton-on-Tees north of the centre line of the River Tees|
|East Riding of Yorkshire||600,259||37th||2,477||956||23rd||242||35th||East Riding of Yorkshire and Kingston-upon-Hull|
|East Sussex||844,985||29th||1,791||692||33rd||472||20th||East Sussex and Brighton and Hove|
|Essex||1,832,752||7th||3,670||1,420||11th||499||15th||Essex, Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock|
|Gloucestershire||916,202||23rd||3,150||1,220||16th||291||30th||Gloucestershire and South Gloucestershire|
|Greater London||8,899,375||1st||1,569||606||37th||5,671||1st||The London boroughs|
|Greater Manchester||2,812,569||3rd||1,276||493||39th||2,204||5th||Greater Manchester|
|Hampshire||1,844,245||6th||3,769||1,455||9th||489||17th||Hampshire, Portsmouth and Southampton|
|Isle of Wight||141,538||46th||380||150||46th||372||26th||Isle of Wight|
|Kent||1,846,478||5th||3,738||1,443||10th||494||16th||Kent and Medway|
|Lancashire||1,498,300||8th||3,075||1,187||17th||487||19th||Blackburn with Darwen, Blackpool and Lancashire|
|Leicestershire||1,053,486||20th||2,156||832||28th||489||18th||Leicestershire and Leicester|
|Lincolnshire||1,087,659||18th||6,975||2,693||2nd||156||42nd||Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire|
|North Yorkshire||1,158,816||14th||8,654||3,341||1st||134||44th||Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, Redcar and Cleveland, York and that part of Stockton-on-Tees south of the centre line of the River Tees|
|Nottinghamshire||1,154,195||15th||2,159||834||27th||535||14th||Nottinghamshire and Nottingham|
|Shropshire||498,073||42nd||3,488||1,347||13th||143||43rd||Shropshire and Telford and Wrekin|
|Somerset||965,424||22nd||4,170||1,610||7th||232||36th||Bath and North East Somerset, North Somerset and Somerset|
|South Yorkshire||1,402,918||10th||1,552||599||38th||904||9th||South Yorkshire|
|Staffordshire||1,131,052||17th||2,714||1,048||18th||417||24th||Staffordshire and Stoke-on-Trent|
|Tyne and Wear||1,136,371||16th||540||210||44th||2,105||7th||Tyne and Wear|
|West Midlands||2,916,458||2nd||902||348||42nd||3,235||3rd||West Midlands|
|West Sussex||858,852||27th||1,991||769||30th||431||23rd||West Sussex|
|West Yorkshire||2,320,214||4th||2,029||783||29th||1,143||8th||West Yorkshire|
|Wiltshire||720,060||34th||3,485||1,346||14th||207||37th||Swindon and Wiltshire|
The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level administrative division of England. There are six metropolitan counties, which each cover large urban areas, with populations between 1 and 3 million. They were created in 1974 and are each divided into several metropolitan districts or boroughs.
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had a population of 1.34 million in 2011. It has an area of 1,552 square kilometres (599 sq mi) and consists of four metropolitan boroughs, Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham and Sheffield. South Yorkshire was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972. Its largest settlement is Sheffield.
A lord-lieutenant ( ) is the British monarch's personal representative in each lieutenancy area of the United Kingdom. Historically, each lieutenant was responsible for organising the county's militia. In 1871, the lieutenant's responsibility over the local militia was removed. However, it was not until 1921 that they formally lost the right to call upon able-bodied men to fight when needed.
The historic counties of England are areas that were established for administration by the Normans, in many cases based on earlier kingdoms and shires created by the Anglo-Saxons and others. They are alternatively known as ancient counties, traditional counties, former counties or simply as counties. In the centuries that followed their establishment, as well as their administrative function, the counties also helped define local culture and identity. This role continued even after the counties ceased to be used for administration after the creation of administrative counties in 1889, which were themselves amended by further local government reforms in the years following.
The subdivisions of England constitute a hierarchy of administrative divisions and non-administrative ceremonial areas.
The North Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions (ridings) of the English county of Yorkshire, alongside the East and West ridings. From the Restoration it was used as a lieutenancy area, having been part of the Yorkshire lieutenancy previously. The three ridings were treated as three counties for many purposes, such as having separate quarter sessions. An administrative county was created with a county council in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888 on the historic boundaries. In 1974 both the administrative county and the Lieutenancy of the North Riding of Yorkshire were abolished, being succeeded in most of the riding by the new non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire.
The counties of England are areas used for different purposes, which include administrative, geographical, cultural and political demarcation. The term 'county' is defined in several manners and can apply to similar or the same areas used by each of these demarcation structures. These different types of county each have a more formal name but are commonly referred to just as 'counties'. The current arrangement is the result of incremental reform.
The Local Government Act 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales on 1 April 1974. It was one of the most significant Acts of Parliament to be passed by the Heath Government of 1970–74 and is surpassed only by the European Communities Act 1972 which took the United Kingdom into the European Communities.
A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England that is not a metropolitan county. The counties typically have populations of 300,000 to 1.4 million. The term shire county is, however, an unofficial usage. Many of the non-metropolitan counties bear historic names and most, such as Wiltshire and Staffordshire, end in the suffix "-shire". Of the remainder, some counties had the "-shire" ending but have lost it over time, such as Devon and Somerset.
The counties of the United Kingdom are subnational divisions of the United Kingdom, used for the purposes of administrative, geographical and political demarcation. By the Middle Ages counties had become established as a unit of local government, at least in England. By the early 17th century, all of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland had been separated into counties. The older term shire was historically equivalent to "county". In Scotland shire was the only term used until after the Act of Union 1707.
Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of subdivisions of England used for the purposes of local government outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly. As originally constituted, the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties each consisted of multiple districts, had a county council and were also the counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies. Later changes in legislation during the 1980s and 1990s have allowed counties without county councils and 'unitary authority' counties of a single district. Counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies are now defined separately, based on the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties.
The Local Government Act 1888 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which established county councils and county borough councils in England and Wales. It came into effect on 1 April 1889, except for the County of London, which came into existence on 21 March at the request of the London County Council.
The Lieutenancies Act 1997 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom, that defines areas that Lord-Lieutenants are appointed to in Great Britain. It came into force on 1 July 1997.
The Local Government Commission for England was established by the Local Government Act 1958 to review the organisation of local government, and make "such proposals as are hereinafter authorised for effecting changes appearing to the Commissions desirable in the interests of effective and convenient local government". The Act also provided for a Local Government Commission for Wales.
Unitary authorities of England are local authorities that are responsible for the provision of all local government services within a district. They are constituted under the Local Government Act 1992, which amended the Local Government Act 1972 to allow the existence of counties that do not have multiple districts. They typically allow large towns to have separate local authorities from the less urbanised parts of their counties and provide a single authority for small counties where division into districts would be impractical. Unitary authorities do not cover all of England. Most were established during the 1990s and a further tranche were created in 2009. Unitary authorities have the powers and functions that are elsewhere separately administered by councils of non-metropolitan counties and the non-metropolitan districts within them.
The history of local government in England is one of gradual change and evolution since the Middle Ages. England has never possessed a formal written constitution, with the result that modern administration is based on precedent, and is derived from administrative powers granted to older systems, such as that of the shires.
The history of local government in Yorkshire is unique and complex. Yorkshire is the largest historic English county and consists of a diverse mix of urban and rural development with a heritage in agriculture, manufacturing, and mining. After a long period of very little change, it has been subject to a number of significant reforms of local government structures in modern times, some of which were controversial. The most significant of these was the Local Government Act 1972 and the 1990s UK local government reform. It currently corresponds to several counties and districts and is mostly contained within the Yorkshire and the Humber region.
Administrative counties were a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government from 1889 to 1974. They were created by the Local Government Act 1888 as the areas for which county councils were elected. Some large counties were divided into several administrative counties, each with its own county council. The administrative counties were abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 and were replaced by the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England.