Lincoln, England

Last updated

Lincoln
Lindon, Lindum Colonia
City of Lincoln
Lincoln Montage.jpg
Flag of Lincoln.svg
Lincoln.svg
Nickname(s): 
Tank Town, [1]
Lincoln UK locator map.svg
Shown within Lincolnshire
East Midlands districts 2011 map.svg
Red pog.svg
Lincoln
Location in the East Midlands
England relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Lincoln
Location in England
United Kingdom relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Lincoln
Location in United Kingdom
Europe relief laea location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Lincoln
Location in Europe
Coordinates: 53°13′42″N0°32′20″W / 53.22833°N 0.53889°W / 53.22833; -0.53889
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Country England
Region East Midlands
Ceremonial county Lincolnshire
City status 1072
Incorporated1 April 1974
Administrative centre Guildhall and Stonebow
Areas of the city
(2011 census BUASD)
Government
  Type Non-metropolitan district
  Body City of Lincoln Council
   Leadership Leader and cabinet
   Executive Labour
   Mayor Biff Bean (Lab)
  Council LeaderRic Metcalfe (Lab)
Area
  City and District13.78 sq mi (35.69 km2)
Population
  City and District103,813
  Rank236th (of 296)
  Density1,780/sq mi (687/km2)
   Urban
130,200
   Metro
189,000 [2]
Demonym(s) Lincolnian, Lincolnite, Lincolner
Ethnicity (2021)
[3]
   Ethnic groups
List
Religion (2021)
[3]
   Religion
List
Time zone UTC+0 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Postcode areas
LN
Dialling codes 01522
ONS code 32UD (ONS)
E07000138 (GSS)
OS grid reference SK9771
Primary airports Humberside, East Midlands
Councillors33
Member of Parliament Karl McCartney (Con)
Website www.lincoln.gov.uk

Lincoln ( /ˈlɪŋkən/ ) is a cathedral city and district in Lincolnshire, England, of which it is the county town. In the 2021 Census, the Lincoln district had a population of 103,813. [4] The 2021 census gave the urban area of Lincoln, including North Hykeham and Waddington, a recorded population of 127,540. [5] [6]

Contents

Roman Lindum Colonia developed from an Iron Age settlement of Britons on the River Witham, near the Fosse Way road. Over time its name was shortened to Lincoln, after successive settlements, including by Saxons and Danes. Landmarks include Lincoln Cathedral (English Gothic architecture; for over 200 years the world's tallest building) and the 11th-century Norman Lincoln Castle. The city hosts the University of Lincoln, Bishop Grosseteste University, Lincoln City F.C. and Lincoln United F.C. Lincoln is the largest settlement in Lincolnshire, with the towns of Grimsby second largest and Scunthorpe third.

History

Earliest history

The earliest origins of Lincoln can be traced to remains of an Iron Age settlement of round wooden dwellings, discovered by archaeologists in 1972, which have been dated to the 1st century BCE. [7] It was built by Brayford Pool on the River Witham at the foot of a large hill, on which the Normans later built Lincoln Cathedral and Lincoln Castle.

The name Lincoln may come from this period, when the settlement is thought to have been named in the Brittonic language of Iron Age Britain's Celtic inhabitants as Lindon, "The Pool", [8] presumably referring to Brayford Pool (compare the etymology of Dublin, from the Gaelic dubh linn "black pool"). The extent of the original settlement is unknown, as its remains are buried beneath the later Roman and medieval ruins and modern Lincoln.

Lindum Colonia

Newport Arch, a 3rd-century Roman gate Newport Arch.jpg
Newport Arch, a 3rd-century Roman gate

The Romans conquered this part of Britain in 48 CE and soon built a legionary fortress high on a hill overlooking the natural lake, Brayford Pool, formed by the widening of the River Witham, and the northern end of the Fosse Way Roman road (A46). Celtic Lindon was later Latinised to Lindum and the title Colonia added when it became settled by army veterans. [9]

The conversion to a colonia occurred when the legion moved on to York (Eboracum) in 71 CE. Lindum colonia or more fully, Colonia Domitiana Lindensium, after the then Emperor Domitian, was set up within the walls of the hilltop fortress by extending it with about an equal area, down the hillside to the waterside.

It became a flourishing settlement accessible from the sea through the River Trent and through the River Witham. On the basis of a patently corrupt list of British bishops said to have attended the 314 Council of Arles, the city is often seen as having been the capital of the province of Flavia Caesariensis, formed during the late 3rd-century Diocletian Reforms. Subsequently, the town and its waterways declined. By the close of the 5th century, it was largely deserted, although some occupation continued under a Praefectus CivitatisSaint Paulinus visited a man holding this office in Lincoln in 629 CE.

Lincylene

East Gate, Lincoln Castle Lincoln Castle, Lincoln - geograph.org.uk - 689665.jpg
East Gate, Lincoln Castle

Germanic tribes from the North Sea area settled Lincolnshire in the 5th to 6th centuries. The Latin Lindum Colonia shrank in Old English to Lindocolina, then to Lincylene. [10]

After the first Viking raids, the city again rose to some importance with overseas trading ties. In Viking times Lincoln had its own mint, by far the most important in Lincolnshire and by the end of the 10th century, comparable in output to that of York. [11] After establishment of the Danelaw in 886, Lincoln became one of the Five East Midland Boroughs. Excavations at Flaxengate reveal that an area deserted since Roman times received timber-framed buildings fronting a new street system in about 900. [12] Lincoln underwent an economic explosion with the settlement of the Danes. Like York, the Upper City seems to have had purely administrative functions up to 850 or so, while the Lower City, down the hill towards the River Witham, may have been largely deserted. By 950, however, the Witham banks were developed, the Lower City resettled and the suburb of Wigford emerging as a trading centre. In 1068, two years after the Norman conquest of England, William I ordered Lincoln Castle to be built on the site of the old Roman settlement, for the same strategic reasons and controlling the same road, the Fosse Way. [13]

Green cloth

Coat of arms of King James I added in 1617 when the monarch visited the city for nine days Lincoln Guildhall Coat of arms.JPG
Coat of arms of King James I added in 1617 when the monarch visited the city for nine days

During the Anarchy, in 1141 Lincoln was the site of a battle between King Stephen and the forces of Empress Matilda, led by her illegitimate half-brother Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester. After fierce fighting in the city streets, Stephen's forces were defeated and Stephen himself captured and taken to Bristol.

By 1150, Lincoln was among the wealthiest towns in England, based economically on cloth and wool exported to Flanders; Lincoln weavers had set up a guild in 1130 to produce Lincoln Cloth, especially the fine dyed "scarlet" and "green", whose reputation was later enhanced by the legendary Robin Hood wearing woollens of Lincoln green. In the Guildhall, surmounting the city gate called the Stonebow, the ancient Council Chamber contains Lincoln's civic insignia, a fine collection of civic regalia.

Outside the precincts of cathedral and castle, the old quarter clustered round the Bailgate and down Steep Hill to the High Street and High Bridge, whose half-timbered housing juts out over the river. There are three ancient churches: St Mary le Wigford and St Peter at Gowts, both 11th century in origin, and St Mary Magdalene, from the late 13th century. The last is an unusual English dedication to a saint whose cult was coming into vogue on the European continent at the time.

Lincoln was home to one of five main Jewish communities in England, well established before it was officially noted in 1154. In 1190, anti-Semitic riots that started in King's Lynn, Norfolk, spread to Lincoln; the Jewish community took refuge with royal officials, but their homes were plundered. The so-called House of Aaron has a two-storey street frontage that is essentially 12th century and the nearby Jew's House likewise bears witness to the Jewish population. [14] [15] [16] In 1255, the affair called "The Libel of Lincoln" in which prominent Lincoln Jews, accused of ritual murder of a Christian boy (Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln in medieval folklore) were sent to the Tower of London and 18 executed. [16] The Jews were all expelled in 1290. [16]

Frontage of Jews' Court on Steep Hill Jew's Court, Lincoln.jpg
Frontage of Jews' Court on Steep Hill

Thirteenth-century Lincoln was England's third largest city and a favourite of more than one king. In the First Barons' War it was caught in the strife between the king and rebel barons allied with the French. Here and at Dover the French and Rebel army was defeated. Thereafter the town was pillaged for having sided with Prince Louis. [17] In the Second Barons' War, of 1266, the disinherited rebels attacked the Jews of Lincoln, ransacked the synagogue and burned the records that registered debts. [18]

Decline, dissolution and damage

Some historians have the city's fortunes declining from the 14th century, but others argue that it remained buoyant in trade and communications well into the 15th. In 1409, the city became a county corporate: the County of the City of Lincoln, formerly part of the West Riding of Lindsey since at least the time of the Domesday Book . Additional rights were then conferred by successive monarchs, including those of an assay town (controlling metal manufacturing, for example). [19] The oldest surviving secular drama in English, The Interlude of the Student and the Girl (c.1300), may have originated from Lincoln.

Lincoln's coat of arms, not officially endorsed by the College of Arms, is believed to date from the 14th century. It is Argent on a cross gules a fleur-de-lis or . The cross is believed to derive from the Diocese. The fleur-de-lis symbolises the cathedral dedication to the Virgin Mary. The motto is CIVITAS LINCOLNIA ("City of Lincoln"). [20]

16th-century High Bridge High Bridge, High Street, Lincoln.jpg
16th-century High Bridge

The dissolution of the monasteries cut Lincoln's main source of diocesan income and dried up the network of patronage controlled by the bishop. Seven monasteries closed in the city alone, as did several nearby abbeys, which further diminished the region's political power. A symbol of Lincoln's economic and political decline came in 1549, when the cathedral's great spire rotted and collapsed and was not replaced. However, the comparative poverty of post-medieval Lincoln preserved pre-medieval structures that would probably have been lost under more prosperous conditions.

Between 1642 and 1651 in the English Civil War, Lincoln was on a frontier between the Royalist and Parliamentary forces and changed hands several times. [21] Many buildings were badly damaged. Lincoln now had no major industry and no easy access to the sea. It suffered as the rest of the country was beginning to prosper in the early 18th century, travellers often commenting on what had essentially become a one-street town. [21]

Revolutions

By the Georgian era, Lincoln's fortunes began to pick up, thanks in part to the Agricultural Revolution. Reopening of the Foss Dyke canal eased imports of coal and other raw materials vital to industry. Along with the economic growth of Lincoln in this period, the city boundaries were spread to include the West Common. To this day, an annual Beat the Boundaries walk takes place along its perimeter.

Coupled with the arrival of railway links, Lincoln boomed again during the Industrial Revolution, and several famous companies arose, such as Ruston's, Clayton's, Proctor's and William Foster's. Lincoln began to excel in heavy engineering, by building locomotives, steam shovels and all manner of heavy machinery.

It was also around this time that the town's name became overshadowed in the world's consciousness by a different meaning of the word “Lincoln”: namely, U. S. President Abraham Lincoln, who led his country through their brutal Civil War and succeeded in abolishing all slavery within its borders. Abraham Lincoln's surname does trace back to the English town of Lincoln, but his family had migrated to America long before his birth. [22] Many locations in the U. S. now bear the name Lincoln, such as Lincoln, Nebraska. But the shared name with England's Lincoln is only coincidental, as the U. S. place names were named in honor of Abraham Lincoln.

A permanent military presence came with the 1857 completion of the "Old Barracks" (now held by the Museum of Lincolnshire Life). They were replaced by the "New Barracks" (now Sobraon Barracks) in 1890, when Lincoln Drill Hall in Broadgate also opened. [23] [24]

20th and 21st centuries

Westgate water tower Westgate Water Tower.jpg
Westgate water tower

Lincoln was hit by typhoid in November 1904 – August 1905 caused by polluted drinking water from Hartsholme Lake and the River Witham. Over 1,000 people contracted the disease and fatalities totalled 113, [25] including the man responsible for the city's water supply, Liam Kirk of Baker Crescent. Near the beginning of the epidemic, Dr Alexander Cruickshank Houston installed a chlorine disinfection system just ahead of the poorly operating, slow sand filter, to kill the fatal bacteria. [26] Chlorination of the water continued until 1911, when a new supply was implemented. [27] Lincoln's chlorination episode was an early use of chlorine to disinfect a water supply. [28] Westgate Water Tower was built to provide new supplies. [29]

In the two world wars, Lincoln switched to war production. The first ever tanks were invented, designed and built in Lincoln by William Foster & Co. in the First World War and population growth provided more workers for greater expansion. The tanks were tested on land now covered by Tritton Road in the south-west suburbs. In the Second World War, Lincoln produced an array of war goods: tanks, aircraft, munitions and military vehicles. [30]

In World War II 26 high explosive bombs were dropped on the city, with around 500 incendiary bombs, over five occasions, with eight people killed. 50 houses were destroyed, with the worst night being 9 May 1941. [31] Also much damage occurred in the Dixon Street area on Friday 15 January 1943. [32] Two parachute mines landed in fields on South Common on the night of 19 November 1940, which exploded and broke many windows in the town, but with no more damage. [33] n 8 May 1941, nine high explosive bombs were dropped on around Westwick Gardens in Boultham Park, east of the former Ancaster High School, killing three people. [34]

A Spitfire and Hurricane, from RAF Digby, collided over Lincoln. One pilot landed on allotments near Kingsway, and another landed near Branston Road. The Spitfire crashed on a house in Drake Street, and the Hurricane did a full circuit of the north of Lincoln, with no pilot aboard, and descended over the top of St Mary le Wigford church, to crash into a row of houses and shops, killing three people, and injuring nine. [35] [36]

Ruston & Hornsby produced diesel engines for ships and locomotives, then by teaming up with former colleagues of Frank Whittle and Power Jets Ltd, in the early 1950s, R & H (which became RGT) opened the first production line for gas turbine engines for land-based and sea-based energy production. Its success made it the city's largest single employer, providing over 5,000 jobs in its factory and research facilities, making it a rich takeover target for industrial conglomerates. It was subsumed by English Electric in November 1966, which was then bought by GEC in 1968, with diesel engine production being transferred to the Ruston Diesels Division in Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire, at the former Vulcan Foundry.

Pelham Works merged with Alstom of France in the late 1980s and was then bought in 2003 by Siemens of Germany as Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery. This includes what is left of Napier Turbochargers. Plans came early in 2008 for a new plant outside the city at Teal Park, North Hykeham. [37] Still, Siemens made large redundancies and moved jobs to Sweden and the Netherlands. The factory now employs 1300. R & H's former Beevor Foundry is now owned by Hoval Group, making industrial boilers (wood chip). The Aerospace Manufacturing Facility (AMF) in Firth Road passed from Alstom Aerospace Ltd to ITP Engines UK in January 2009. [38] [39]

Lincoln's second largest private employer is James Dawson and Son, a belting and hose maker founded in the late 19th century. Its two sites are in Tritton Road. The main one, next to the University of Lincoln, used Lincoln's last coal-fired boiler until it was replaced by gas in July 2018.

New suburbs appeared after 1945, but heavy industry declined towards the end of the 20th century. Much development, notably around the Brayford area, has followed the construction of the University of Lincoln's Brayford Campus, which opened in 1996. [40] In 2012, Bishop Grosseteste teaching college was also awarded university status.

Economy

34 per cent of Lincoln's workforce are in public administration, education and health; distribution, restaurants and hotels account for 25 per cent. [41]

Industrial relics like Ruston (now Siemens) remain, with empty industrial warehouse buildings becoming multi-use units, with the likes of the University of Lincoln, local Lincs FM radio station (in the Titanic Works) and gyms using some of the space. The old Corn Exchange, completed in 1848, is now used as a shopping arcade, [42] and the newer Corn Exchange, completed in 1879, is now used as a restaurant and shops. [43]

Like many other cities, Lincoln has a growing IT economy, with many e-commerce mail order companies. Two electronics firms are e2V and Dynex Semiconductor. Bifrangi, an Italian maker of crankshafts for off-road vehicles using a screw press, is based at the former Tower Works owned by Smith-Clayton Forge Ltd.

Lincoln is the hub for settlements such as Welton, Saxilby, Skellingthorpe and Washingborough, which look to it for most services and employment needs. Added they raise the population to 165,000. [44] Lincoln is the main centre for jobs and facilities in Central Lincolnshire and performs a regional role over much of Lincolnshire and parts of Nottinghamshire. According to a document entitled "Central Lincolnshire Local Plan Core Strategy", Lincoln has a "travel-to-work" area with a population of about 300,000. [44] In 2021, Lincoln City Council joined the UK's Key Cities network to help the city's public sector. [45] [46]

The University of Lincoln and Lincoln's colleges contributes to the cities growth in the small firms, services, restaurants and entertainment venues. A small business unit next door to a student accommodation, the Think Tank, opened in June 2009. [47] Some entertainment venues linked to the university include The Engine Shed and The Venue Cinema. Its presence has also built-up the area around the Brayford Pool.

Tourism

A view up Steep Hill towards the historic quarter of Bailgate Steep Hill.jpg
A view up Steep Hill towards the historic quarter of Bailgate
Waterside Empowerment 2002 sculpture Lincoln waterside.jpg
Waterside Empowerment 2002 sculpture

The city is a tourist centre for visitors to historic buildings that include the cathedral, the castle and the medieval Bishop's Palace.

The Collection, of which the Usher Gallery is now part, is an important attraction, partly in a purpose-built venue. It currently contains over 2,000,000 objects, and was one of the four finalists for the 2006 Gulbenkian Prize. Any material from official archaeological excavations in Lincolnshire is eventually deposited there. Other attractions include the Museum of Lincolnshire Life and the International Bomber Command Centre.

Tranquil destinations close by are Whisby Nature Reserve and Hartsholme Country Park (including the Swanholme Lakes SSSI), while noisier entertainment can be found at Scampton airfield, Waddington airfield (base of the RAF's Red Arrows jet aerobatic team), the County Showground or the Cadwell Park motor racing circuit near Louth.

Early each December the Bailgate area holds a Christmas Market in and around the Castle grounds, shaped by the traditional German-style Christmas markets, including that of Lincoln's twin town Neustadt an der Weinstrasse. In 2010, for the first time, the event was cancelled due to "atrocious" snowfalls across most of the United Kingdom. [48] [49] It succumbed again in December 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [50]

Demographics

Ethnicity

Lincoln population pyramid in 2021 Lincoln population pyramid.svg
Lincoln population pyramid in 2021

In the 2021 census, the population of Lincoln district was 103,813. [4] The largest ethnic group was White British at 82.7%, with all ‘other white’ groups constituting 9.5%, followed by South Asian at 3.2%, Mixed race at 2%, Black British at 1.4%, other ethnic minorities made up 0.9% and Arab were 0.2%. This makes the ethnic makeup of the city 92% White and 8% ethnic minorities.

15.1% of the people living in Lincoln were born outside of the UK, of which 9.6% are from ‘other European countries’. The most common countries of birth aside from the UK are Poland at 2.6%, Romania at 1.4%, and Lithuania at 1.1%. [51]

Lincoln: Ethnicity: 2021 Census [52]
Ethnic groupPopulation %
White95,66592.2%
Asian or Asian British3,3473.5%
Mixed2,0682%
Black or Black British1,4661.4%
Arab3200.3%
Other Ethnic Group9480.9%
Total103,813100%

Religious sites

St Swithin's Church, in the city centre The Church of St Swithin, Lincoln - geograph.org.uk - 2054968.jpg
St Swithin's Church, in the city centre

Lincoln is home to many active and former churches. [53] These serve the city centre and outer suburbs of the city and urban area. [54] Lincoln Central Mosque and Cultural Centre is on Dixon Street. The city has no Sikh or Hindu temples, with the nearest ones being in Scunthorpe, Grimsby, Nottingham and Doncaster. The Jewish Lincoln Synagogue is on Steep Hill, in the ancient building, Jews' Court, which is believed to be the site of the original medieval synagogue. [55] [56] [57] There is also an international temple on James Street.[ citation needed ]

Churches in the city include: St Mary le Wigford, St Giles, St Benedicts, St Swithin's, Lincoln Cathedral, St Hugh's, St Katherine's, Alive Church, Saint Peter at Gowts, Central Methodist Church, St Nicholas [58] Lincoln Unitarian Chapel and Greek Orthodox Church of St Basil the Great and St Paisios and others in the city and outer suburbs. [59]

Cathedral

Construction of the first Lincoln Cathedral within a close or walled precinct facing the castle began when the see was removed from the quiet backwater of Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. It was completed in 1092 [60] and rebuilt after a fire, but succumbed to an earthquake in 1185. The rebuilt minster, enlarged eastwards several times, was on a grand scale, its crossing tower crowned by a spire reputedly Europe's highest at 525 ft (160 m). [61] When complete, the central spire is widely accepted to have succeeded the Great Pyramids of Egypt as the world's tallest man-made structure. [62] [63] [64]

The Lincoln bishops were among the magnates of medieval England. The Diocese of Lincoln, the largest in England, had more monasteries than the rest of England put together, and the diocese was supported by large estates. When Magna Carta was drawn up in 1215, one of the witnesses was Hugh of Wells, Bishop of Lincoln. One of only four surviving originals of the document is preserved in Lincoln Castle.

Lincoln Cathedral Lincoln Cathedral - geograph.org.uk - 1983231.jpg
Lincoln Cathedral

Among the famous bishops of Lincoln were Robert Bloet, the magnificent justiciar to Henry I, Hugh of Avalon, the cathedral builder canonised as St Hugh of Lincoln, Robert Grosseteste, the 13th-century intellectual, Henry Beaufort, chancellor of Henry V and Henry VI, Thomas Rotherham, a politician deeply involved in the Wars of the Roses, Philip Repyngdon, chaplain to Henry IV and defender of Wycliffe, and Thomas Wolsey, the lord chancellor of Henry VIII. Theologian William de Montibus headed the cathedral school and was its chancellor until he died in 1213.

The administrative centre was the Bishop's Palace, the third element in the central complex. When built in the late 12th century by Hugh of Lincoln, the Bishop's Palace was one of the most important buildings in England. Its East Hall over a vaulted undercroft is the earliest surviving example of a roofed domestic hall. The chapel range and entrance tower were built by Bishop William of Alnwick, who modernised the palace in the 1430s. Both Henry VIII and James I were guests there. The palace was sacked in 1648 by royalist troops during the civil war.

Geography and environment

Lincoln lies at an altitude of 67 ft (20.4 m) by the River Witham up to 246 ft (75.0 m) on Castle Hill. It fills a gap in the Lincoln Cliff escarpment, which runs north and south through Central Lincolnshire, with altitudes up to 200 feet (61 metres). [65] The city lies on the River Witham, which flows through this gap. The city is 55 miles (89 km) southwest of Hull, 32 miles (51 km) north-east of Nottingham, 47 miles (76 km) north of Peterborough, 82 miles (132 km) southeast of Leeds and 40 miles (64 km) east south-east of Sheffield.

Uphill and Downhill

Due to the variation in altitude, which presents something of an obstacle, Lincoln is divided informally into two zones: uphill and downhill.

The uphill area comprises the northern part of the city, on top of the Lincoln Cliff (to the north of the gap). This includes the historical quarter, including Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln Castle and the Medieval Bishop's Palace, known locally as The Bail (though described in tourist literature as the Cathedral Quarter). [66] It also has residential suburbs to the north and north-east. The downhill area comprises the city centre and suburbs to the south and south-west. Steep Hill is a narrow, pedestrian street directly connecting the two. It passes through an archway known as the Stonebow.

This divide, peculiar to Lincoln, was once an important class distinction, with uphill more affluent and downhill less so. The distinction dates from the time of the Norman conquest, when the religious and military elite occupied the hilltop. [66] The expansion of suburbs in both parts of the city since the mid-19th century has diluted the distinction.

Ecology

The mute swan is an iconic species for Lincoln. Many pairs nest each year beside the Brayford, and they feature on the university's heraldic emblem. Other bird life within the city includes peregrine falcon, tawny owl and common kingfisher. [67] [68]

Mammals on the city edges include red fox, roe deer and least weasel. [69] European perch, northern pike and bream are among fishes seen in the Witham and Brayford. [70] Nature reserves around the city include Greetwell Hollow SSSI, Swanholme SSSI, Whisby Nature Park, Boultham Mere and Hartsholme Country Park.

Since 2016, little egrets have nested in the Birchwood area and otters appeared in the River Witham. Both are native to Britain and repopulating the area after near extermination. [71] [72]

Several invasive species of plants and animals have reached Lincoln. Japanese knotweed and Himalayan balsam are Asian plant species around the River Witham. Galinsoga and Amsinckia are American species found among city weeds, also American mink which are occasionally seen on the Witham.

Built-up area

The Lincoln built-up area extends outside of the city boundaries and includes the town of North Hykeham and the villages of Bracebridge, Bracebridge Heath, Canwick, South Hykeham and Waddington. It had a population of 115,000 according to the 2011 census. [73]

Climate

Lincoln has a typical East Midland maritime climate of cool summers and mild winters. The nearest Met Office weather station is at RAF Waddington, 4 miles (6 kilometres) to the south. Temperature extremes since 1948 have ranged between 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) on 19 July 2022, [74] and −15.6 °C (3.9 °F) in February 1956. [75] A former weather station holds the record for the lowest daytime maximum temperature recorded in England in the month of December: −9.0 °C (15.8 °F) on 17 December 1981. [76] The lowest recent temperature was −10.4 °C (13.3 °F) in December 2010, [77] although another weather station at Scampton, a similar distance north of the city centre, fell to −15.6 °C (3.9 °F), so equalling Waddington's record low set in 1956. [78]

Climate data for Waddington, [lower-alpha 1] elevation: 68 m (223 ft), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1948–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)14.2
(57.6)
17.4
(63.3)
22.4
(72.3)
27.0
(80.6)
27.8
(82.0)
32.4
(90.3)
40.3
(104.5)
34.8
(94.6)
30.0
(86.0)
29.2
(84.6)
17.8
(64.0)
15.5
(59.9)
40.3
(104.5)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)7.0
(44.6)
7.7
(45.9)
10.2
(50.4)
13.1
(55.6)
16.3
(61.3)
19.1
(66.4)
21.6
(70.9)
21.4
(70.5)
18.3
(64.9)
14.1
(57.4)
9.9
(49.8)
7.2
(45.0)
13.9
(57.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.3
(39.7)
4.7
(40.5)
6.6
(43.9)
9.0
(48.2)
12.0
(53.6)
14.8
(58.6)
17.1
(62.8)
17.0
(62.6)
14.4
(57.9)
10.9
(51.6)
7.1
(44.8)
4.6
(40.3)
10.2
(50.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)1.6
(34.9)
1.7
(35.1)
3.0
(37.4)
4.9
(40.8)
7.6
(45.7)
10.5
(50.9)
12.7
(54.9)
12.6
(54.7)
10.5
(50.9)
7.6
(45.7)
4.3
(39.7)
2.0
(35.6)
6.6
(43.9)
Record low °C (°F)−13.8
(7.2)
−15.6
(3.9)
−11.1
(12.0)
−4.7
(23.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
0.0
(32.0)
3.3
(37.9)
3.9
(39.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−3.2
(26.2)
−6.7
(19.9)
−14.0
(6.8)
−15.6
(3.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)47.6
(1.87)
38.4
(1.51)
36.4
(1.43)
44.3
(1.74)
47.0
(1.85)
60.3
(2.37)
60.3
(2.37)
58.3
(2.30)
52.0
(2.05)
61.4
(2.42)
56.9
(2.24)
51.9
(2.04)
614.8
(24.20)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)10.69.08.68.98.99.39.29.38.710.711.610.7115.5
Average relative humidity (%)86848079777777798084858781
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.286.0125.6168.2211.6190.8206.3192.0146.7109.371.361.31,631.2
Source 1: Met Office [79] NOAA (Relative humidity 1961–1990) [80]
Source 2: KNMI [81]
Climate data for Scampton, [lower-alpha 2] elevation: 57 m (187 ft), 1991–2020 normals
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)6.9
(44.4)
7.7
(45.9)
10.2
(50.4)
13.2
(55.8)
16.2
(61.2)
19.1
(66.4)
21.6
(70.9)
21.4
(70.5)
18.4
(65.1)
14.1
(57.4)
9.8
(49.6)
7.0
(44.6)
13.8
(56.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.0
(39.2)
3.9
(39.0)
6.3
(43.3)
8.7
(47.7)
11.6
(52.9)
14.5
(58.1)
16.8
(62.2)
16.7
(62.1)
14.1
(57.4)
10.6
(51.1)
6.6
(43.9)
4.1
(39.4)
9.9
(49.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)1.1
(34.0)
1.0
(33.8)
2.3
(36.1)
4.1
(39.4)
7.0
(44.6)
10.0
(50.0)
12.1
(53.8)
12.0
(53.6)
9.8
(49.6)
7.0
(44.6)
3.6
(38.5)
1.1
(34.0)
5.9
(42.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)48.9
(1.93)
38.6
(1.52)
35.9
(1.41)
44.5
(1.75)
45.8
(1.80)
65.0
(2.56)
58.8
(2.31)
57.4
(2.26)
53.0
(2.09)
58.2
(2.29)
59.9
(2.36)
53.5
(2.11)
619.4
(24.39)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)10.69.58.89.08.99.69.69.49.410.411.911.0118.1
Source: Met Office [82]

Transport

Lincoln railway station Lincoln Central Station - geograph.org.uk - 109754.jpg
Lincoln railway station

Rail

Lincoln railway station is at the meeting point of four railway lines, which run to Newark, to Gainsborough, to Grimsby and to Sleaford. It is served by direct trains to London King's Cross, Leicester, Nottingham, Sheffield, Doncaster, Grimsby Town and Peterborough. Hykeham railway station is located in the southwestern suburbs and is served by local trains on the line to Newark.

The city was previously served by three other railway lines: the Lincolnshire loop line, [83] the Lancashire, Derbyshire and East Coast Railway [84] and the Grantham and Lincoln railway line [85] Trains on the Newark line formerly stopped at Lincoln St Marks, a separate station to the south, until they were diverted to the current station in 1985. Its site is now part of a shopping park. [86]

Road

The city lies on the A57, A46, A15 and A158 roads. These bring high levels of through traffic and bypasses have been built. To the north west is the £19-million A46 bypass opened in December 1985. On 19 December 2020 the £122-million A15 Eastern bypass was completed. [87] A southern bypass, the North Hykeham relief road, is due to start construction in 2025 and will be the final section of a complete ring road around the city. [88]

Until the 1980s, two trunk roads passed through Lincoln: the A46 and A15, both feeding traffic along the High Street. At the intersection of Guildhall Street and the High Street, the roads met at the termination of the A57. North of the city centre, the former A15 (Riseholme Road) is now the B1226, and the old A46 (Nettleham Road) is now the B1182. The early northern inner ring-road, formed of Yarborough Road and Yarborough Crescent, is numbered B1273.

Air

East Midlands Airport, 43 miles from Lincoln, is the main international airport serving the county. It mainly handles European flights with low-cost airlines. Humberside Airport, 29 miles north of Lincoln, is the only airport located in the county. It has a small number of flights mainly to hub airports such as Amsterdam. From 2005 until 2022, Doncaster Sheffield Airport also served Lincoln.

Education

Higher education

The older of Lincoln's two higher education institutions, Bishop Grosseteste University, was started as a teacher training college linked to the Anglican Church in 1862. During the 1990s it branched out into other subject areas with a focus on the arts and drama. It became a university college in 2006 with degree powers taken over from the University of Leicester. It gained university status in 2012. An annual graduation celebration takes place in Lincoln Cathedral.}

The larger University of Lincoln started as the University of Lincolnshire and Humberside in 1996, when the University of Humberside opened a Lincoln campus next to Brayford Pool. [89] Lincoln School of Art and Design (which was Lincolnshire's main outlet for higher education) and Riseholme Agricultural College, previously been part of De Montfort University in Leicester, were absorbed into the University of Lincoln in 2001, and subsequently the Lincoln campus took priority[ clarification needed ] over the Hull campus. [89]

The name changed to the University of Lincoln in September 2002. In the 2021–2022 academic year, a total of 18,705 university students studied in the city. [90]

Further education

Further education in Lincoln is provided by Lincoln College, Lincolnshire's largest education institution with 18,500 students, 2,300 of them full-time. [91] There is a specialist creative college, Access Creative, offering courses in music, media and games design to some 180 students, all full-time. [92]

Schools

Former Lincoln Christ's Hospital Girls' High School, now occupied by Lincoln University Technical College Girl's High School - geograph.org.uk - 153918.jpg
Former Lincoln Christ's Hospital Girls' High School, now occupied by Lincoln University Technical College

The school system in Lincoln is anomalous within Lincolnshire despite being part of the same local education authority (LEA), as most of the county retained the grammar-school system.

In 1952, William Farr School was founded in Welton, a nearby village. Lincoln itself had four single-sex grammar schools until September 1974.

The Priory Academy LSST converted to academy status in 2008, in turn establishing The Priory Federation of Academies. The Priory Witham Academy was formed when the federation absorbed Moorlands Infant School, Usher Junior School and Ancaster High School. The Priory City of Lincoln Academy was formed when the City of Lincoln Community College merged into the federation. Both schools were rebuilt after substantial investment by the federation. Cherry Willingham School joined the federation in 2017, becoming The Priory Pembroke Academy.

The Lincolnshire LEA was ranked 32nd in the country based on its proportion of pupils attaining at least 5 A–C grades at GCSE including maths and English (62.2% compared with a national average of 58.2%). [93]

There are four special-needs schools in Lincoln: Fortuna Primary School (5–11 year olds), Sincil Sports College (11–16), St Christopher's School (3–16) and St Francis Community Special School (2–18).

Media

The local newspaper, the Lincolnshire Echo , was founded in 1894. Local radio stations are BBC Radio Lincolnshire on 94.9 FM, its commercial rival Greatest Hits Radio Lincolnshire on 102.2FM (formerly held by Lincs FM, but continues on DAB) and Lincoln City Radio on 103.6 FM a community radio station catering mainly for listeners over 50. [94] The Lincolnite is an online mobile publication covering the greater-Lincoln area. [95] Local listeners can also receive Siren FM, on 107.3 FM from the University of Lincoln.

The student publication The Linc [96] is available online and in print and targets the University of Lincoln's student population.

Local TV coverage is provided by BBC Yorkshire and Lincolnshire and ITV Yorkshire which is received from the Belmont TV transmitter. The Waltham TV transmitter can also be received in the city that broadcast BBC East Midlands and ITV Central.

Sport

Sincil Bank, home of Lincoln City F.C. Sincil Bank - geograph-507434.jpg
Sincil Bank, home of Lincoln City F.C.

Lincoln's professional football team is Lincoln City FC, nicknamed "The Imps", which plays at the Sincil Bank stadium on the southern edge of the city. The collapse of ITV Digital, which owed Lincoln City FC more than £100,000, in 2002 saw the team faced with bankruptcy, but it was saved by a fund-raising venture among fans, which returned ownership of the club to them, where it has remained since. The club was the first to be relegated from the English Football League, when automatic relegation to the Football Conference was introduced from the 1986–87 season. Lincoln City regained its league place at the first attempt and held onto it until the 2010–11 season, when it was again relegated to the Football Conference.

Lincoln City was the first club managed by Graham Taylor, who went on to manage the England national football team from 1990 to 1993. He was at Lincoln City from 1972 to 1977, during which time the club won promotion from the Fourth Division as champions in 1976. The club also won the Football League Division Three North title on three separate occasions, a joint record. Its most successful era was in the early 1980s, winning promotion from the Fourth Division in 1981 and narrowly missing promotion to the Second Division in the two years that followed. [97] It reached the quarter-finals of the FA Cup in 2017, beating several teams in the top two tiers of English football before being defeated by Arsenal. [98] More recently Lincoln City won Football League Two in the 2018–2019 season and the EFL Trophy in 2018. It is currently managed by Michael Appleton.

Lincoln is also home to Lincoln United FC, Lincoln Moorlands Railway FC and Lincoln Griffins Ladies FC.

Lincoln hosts upcoming sports facilities such American football's Lincolnshire Bombers, which plays in the BAFA National Leagues, the Lincolnshire Bombers Roller Girls, the Imposters Rollergirls, and hosts Lincoln Rowing centre on the River Witham. Lindum Hockey Club plays in the north of the city. Since 1956 the city has played host to the Lincoln Grand Prix one-day cycle race, which for some 30 years has used a city-centre finishing circuit incorporating the challenging 1-in-6 cobbled ascent of Michaelgate. [99] Since 2013 the city has had a professional wrestling promotion and training academy, Lincoln Fight Factory Wrestling. The Lincoln Lions rugby union team has been playing since 1902.

Two short-lived greyhound racing tracks were opened by Lincolnshire Greyhound Racing Association. One was the Highfield track in Hykeham Road, which opened on 13 September 1931, and the second the Lincoln Speedway on the Rope Walk, which opened on 4 June 1932. [100] Racing at both was independent, as they were "flapping" tracks unaffiliated to the sport's governing body, the National Greyhound Racing Club. [101] [102]

Notable people

In alphabetical order:

International relations

Twin towns

Lincoln is twinned with: [113]

Freedom of the city

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Lincoln.

Individuals

Military units

Climate

Lincoln has a typical East Midland maritime climate of warm summers and mild winters. The nearest Met Office weather station is at RAF Waddington, 4 miles (6 kilometres) to the south. Temperature extremes since 1948 have ranged between 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) on 19 July 2022, [74] and −15.6 °C (3.9 °F) in February 1956. [121] A former weather station holds the record for the lowest daytime maximum temperature recorded in England in the month of December: −9.0 °C (15.8 °F) on 17 December 1981. [122] The coldest recent temperature was −10.4 °C (13.3 °F) in December 2010, [123] although another weather station at Scampton, a similar distance north of the city centre, fell to −15.6 °C (3.9 °F), so equalling Waddington's record low set in 1956. [124]

Climate data for Waddington [lower-alpha 3]
WMO ID: 03377; coordinates 53°10′31″N0°31′24″W / 53.17541°N 0.52334°W / 53.17541; -0.52334 (Met Waddington) ; elevation: 68 m (223 ft), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1948–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)14.2
(57.6)
17.4
(63.3)
22.4
(72.3)
27.0
(80.6)
27.8
(82.0)
32.4
(90.3)
40.3
(104.5)
34.8
(94.6)
31.0
(87.8)
29.2
(84.6)
17.8
(64.0)
15.5
(59.9)
40.3
(104.5)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)7.0
(44.6)
7.7
(45.9)
10.2
(50.4)
13.1
(55.6)
16.3
(61.3)
19.1
(66.4)
21.6
(70.9)
21.4
(70.5)
18.3
(64.9)
14.1
(57.4)
9.9
(49.8)
7.2
(45.0)
13.9
(57.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.3
(39.7)
4.7
(40.5)
6.6
(43.9)
9.0
(48.2)
12.0
(53.6)
14.8
(58.6)
17.1
(62.8)
17.0
(62.6)
14.4
(57.9)
10.9
(51.6)
7.1
(44.8)
4.6
(40.3)
10.2
(50.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)1.6
(34.9)
1.7
(35.1)
3.0
(37.4)
4.9
(40.8)
7.6
(45.7)
10.5
(50.9)
12.7
(54.9)
12.6
(54.7)
10.5
(50.9)
7.6
(45.7)
4.3
(39.7)
2.0
(35.6)
6.6
(43.9)
Record low °C (°F)−13.8
(7.2)
−15.6
(3.9)
−11.1
(12.0)
−4.7
(23.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
0.0
(32.0)
3.3
(37.9)
3.9
(39.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−3.2
(26.2)
−6.7
(19.9)
−14.0
(6.8)
−15.6
(3.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)47.6
(1.87)
38.4
(1.51)
36.4
(1.43)
44.3
(1.74)
47.0
(1.85)
60.3
(2.37)
60.3
(2.37)
58.3
(2.30)
52.0
(2.05)
61.4
(2.42)
56.9
(2.24)
51.9
(2.04)
614.8
(24.20)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)10.69.08.68.98.99.39.29.38.710.711.610.7115.5
Average relative humidity (%)86848079777777798084858781
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.286.0125.6168.2211.6190.8206.3192.0146.7109.371.361.31,631.2
Source 1: Met Office [79] NOAA (Relative humidity 1961–1990) [125]
Source 2: KNMI [81]
Climate data for Scampton [lower-alpha 4]
WMO ID: 03373; coordinates 53°18′25″N0°32′53″W / 53.3069°N 0.54811°W / 53.3069; -0.54811 (Met Scampton) ; elevation: 57 m (187 ft), 1991–2020 normals
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)6.9
(44.4)
7.7
(45.9)
10.2
(50.4)
13.2
(55.8)
16.2
(61.2)
19.1
(66.4)
21.6
(70.9)
21.4
(70.5)
18.4
(65.1)
14.1
(57.4)
9.8
(49.6)
7.0
(44.6)
13.8
(56.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.0
(39.2)
3.9
(39.0)
6.3
(43.3)
8.7
(47.7)
11.6
(52.9)
14.5
(58.1)
16.8
(62.2)
16.7
(62.1)
14.1
(57.4)
10.6
(51.1)
6.6
(43.9)
4.1
(39.4)
9.9
(49.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)1.1
(34.0)
1.0
(33.8)
2.3
(36.1)
4.1
(39.4)
7.0
(44.6)
10.0
(50.0)
12.1
(53.8)
12.0
(53.6)
9.8
(49.6)
7.0
(44.6)
3.6
(38.5)
1.1
(34.0)
5.9
(42.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)48.9
(1.93)
38.6
(1.52)
35.9
(1.41)
44.5
(1.75)
45.8
(1.80)
65.0
(2.56)
58.8
(2.31)
57.4
(2.26)
53.0
(2.09)
58.2
(2.29)
59.9
(2.36)
53.5
(2.11)
619.4
(24.39)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)10.69.58.89.08.99.69.69.49.410.411.911.0118.1
Source: Met Office [82]

Arms

Coat of arms of Lincoln, England
Escutcheon
Argent on a cross Gules a fleur-de-lis Or
Motto
Civitas Lincolnia, or Floreat Lindum [126]

See also

Attractions

Places

People

Societies and groups

Notes

  1. Weather station is located 4 miles (6 km) from the Lincoln city centre.
  2. Weather station is located 5 miles (8 km) from the Lincoln city centre.
  3. Weather station is located 4 miles (6 km) from the Lincoln city centre.
  4. Weather station is located 5 miles (8 km) from the Lincoln city centre

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lincolnshire</span> County of England

Lincolnshire, abbreviated Lincs, is a ceremonial county in the East Midlands and Yorkshire and the Humber regions of England. It is bordered by the East Riding of Yorkshire across the Humber estuary to the north, the North Sea to the east, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire and Rutland to the south, and Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire and South Yorkshire to the west. The county town is the city of Lincoln. Lincolnshire is the second largest county in England after North Yorkshire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lincoln Cathedral</span> Church in Lincolnshire, England

Lincoln Cathedral, also called Lincoln Minster and formally the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, is a Church of England cathedral in Lincoln, England. It is the seat of the bishop of Lincoln and is the mother church of the diocese of Lincoln. The cathedral is governed by its dean and chapter, and is a grade I listed building.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">River Witham</span> River in eastern England

The River Witham is a river almost entirely in the county of Lincolnshire in the east of England. It rises south of Grantham close to South Witham at SK8818, passes through the centre of Grantham, passes Lincoln at SK9771 and at Boston, TF3244, flows into The Haven, a tidal arm of The Wash, near RSPB Frampton Marsh. The name "Witham" seems to be extremely old and of unknown origin. Archaeological and documentary evidence shows the importance of the Witham as a navigable river from the Iron Age onwards. From Roman times it was navigable to Lincoln, from where the Fossdyke was constructed to link it to the River Trent. The mouth of the river moved in 1014 following severe flooding, and Boston became important as a port.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Foss Dyke</span> Canal that connects the River Trent to Lincoln

The Foss Dyke, or Fossdyke, connects the River Trent at Torksey to Lincoln, the county town of Lincolnshire, and may be the oldest canal in England that is still in use. It is usually thought to have been built around AD 120 by the Romans, but there is no consensus among authors. It was refurbished in 1121, during the reign of King Henry I, and responsibility for its maintenance was transferred to the city of Lincoln by King James I. Improvements made in 1671 included a navigable sluice or lock at Torksey, and warehousing and wharves were built at Brayford Pool in the centre of Lincoln.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Kesteven</span> District in England

North Kesteven is a local government district in Lincolnshire, England. The council is based in Sleaford. The district also contains the town of North Hykeham, which adjoins the neighbouring city of Lincoln, along with numerous villages and surrounding rural areas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Waddington, Lincolnshire</span> Human settlement in England

Waddington is a village and civil parish in the North Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England, situated approximately 4 miles (6 km) south of Lincoln on the A607 Grantham Road. The village is known for its association with RAF Waddington. At the 2001 Census Waddington had a population of 6,086, increasing to 6,122 at the 2011 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brayford Pool</span>

Brayford Pool is a natural pool formed from a widening of the River Witham in the centre of the city of Lincoln in England. It was used as a port by the Romans – who connected it to the River Trent by constructing the Foss Dyke – and has a long industrial heritage.

Lincolnshire, England derived from the merging of the territory of the ancient Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford. For some time the entire county was called 'Lindsey', and it is recorded as such in the Domesday Book. Later, Lindsey was applied to only the northern core, around Lincoln; it was defined as one of the three 'Parts of Lincolnshire', along with Holland in the south-east and Kesteven in the south west.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lincoln (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1885 onwards

Lincoln is a constituency in Lincolnshire, England represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2019 by Karl McCartney, a Conservative Party politician.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sleaford and North Hykeham (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1997 onwards

Sleaford and North Hykeham is a parliamentary constituency in Lincolnshire, England which elects a single Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the UK Parliament. It has been represented since 2016 by Dr Caroline Johnson, who is a member of the Conservative Party. The seat was created in 1997 and has always been represented by Members of Parliament (MPs) from the Conservative Party; like all British constituencies, it elects one candidate by the first-past-the-post voting system. Johnson became the MP for the constituency after a by-election in December 2016, following the resignation of the previous MP for the seat, Stephen Phillips. The constituency is considered a safe seat for the Conservatives.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Hykeham</span> Town in North Kesteven, Lincolnshire, England

North Hykeham is an industrial town and civil parish in the North Kesteven District of Lincolnshire, England. It is located directly south of the city of Lincoln, where it forms the southern part of the wider Lincoln Urban Area along with Waddington, Bracebridge Heath, Canwick and South Hykeham. The parish covering the town had a population of 16,844 in the 2021 Census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hykeham railway station</span> Railway station in Lincolnshire, England

Hykeham railway station serves both the town of North Hykeham and Lincoln city suburbs of Birchwood and Boultham Moor in Lincolnshire, England. The station is on the Nottingham to Lincoln Central Line, owned by Network Rail and managed by East Midlands Railway, which provide all the services.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">High Street, Lincoln</span> Street in Lincoln, England

High Street in Lincoln, England extends from the St Catherine's roundabout and ends approximately 1.2 miles further north at The Strait. The historic High Street has evolved through many changes over its 2000 year history, encompassing Roman roads and settlement, medieval buildings, markets, places of worship, civic buildings, bridges, the arrival of the railways and heavy industry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of Lincoln</span>

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Lincoln, the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Central Lincolnshire</span>

Central Lincolnshire is the name given to a region of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands, England. The area covers the districts of North Kesteven and West Lindsey as well as the City of Lincoln. The name is used for the planning and development of a part of Lincolnshire surrounding Lincoln, North Hykeham, Sleaford, Market Rasen, Caistor and Gainsborough as well as other outlying villages and hamlets.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lincoln City Centre</span> City and Historical Area of Lincoln in England

Lincoln City Centre is the historical and cultural area of Lincoln in Lincolnshire, England. It is defined as the areas along the city's High Street. Each part of the centre brings a differing main sector or sectors to the city with a small overlap between each area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">New Boultham</span> Suburb of Lincoln, England

New Boultham is an area of the city of Lincoln in Lincolnshire, England. It is located between the suburbs of Boultham and Newland areas. It is part of the Boultham Ward which had a population of 11,258 in the 2021 Census. It is mainly a mix of retail, leisure, industrial and residential units. It is more commonly known for being the site of the Lincoln Tank Memorial, part of the University of Lincoln and for the retail parks off the main A1192 aka Tritton Road.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bracebridge Low Fields</span> Suburb of Lincoln in Lincolnshire, England

Bracebridge Low Fields is a suburb to the south of Lincoln in Lincolnshire, England. It is located directly to the south of the city, close to the boundary with North Kesteven and the village of Waddington. The village is also located northeast of North Hykeham, south of Bracebridge, and west of Bracebridge Heath. The suburb was likely built at some point in time around the 19th-20th century and primarily built for the workers at the former Bracebridge Ironworks. The suburb now forms one of Lincoln's largest estates and suburbs.

References

Footnotes

  1. "Lincoln - LocalMotion". LocalMotion. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  2. "Lincoln Population: 2022". worldpopulationreview.com. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
  3. 1 2 UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Lincoln Local Authority (E07000138)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics . Retrieved 5 January 2024.
  4. 1 2 "TS001 - Number of usual residents in households and communal establishments - Nomis - Official Census and Labour Market Statistics". www.nomisweb.co.uk. Archived from the original on 14 November 2022. Retrieved 14 November 2022.
  5. "Waddington (Parish, United Kingdom) - Population Statistics, Charts, Map and Location". citypopulation.de. Archived from the original on 1 June 2023. Retrieved 1 June 2023.
  6. "Information on the District | North Kesteven District Council". www.n-kesteven.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 1 June 2023. Retrieved 1 June 2023.
  7. "History & Heritage of Lincoln – Iron Age, Roman, Medieval, Industrial, Modern | Visit Lincoln". Visit Lincoln. Archived from the original on 18 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  8. Matasović, Ranko (2009). Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic. Brill Academic Pub. ISBN   978-90-04-17336-1. Archived from the original on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  9. Harper, Douglas (2001–2011). "Lincoln". Online Etymology Dictionary. Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2011. Lincoln: English city, county town of Lincolnshire, O.E. Lindcylene, from L. Lindum Colonia from a Latinate form of British *lindo "pool, lake" (corresponding to Welsh llyn). Originally a station for retired IX Legion veterans.
  10. "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle – Parker MS: entry for 942". Archived from the original on 1 May 2011.
  11. Finds suggest a 100-to-1 preponderance over the nominal mints of Caistor, Horncastle and Louth; a hoard recovered at Corringham, near Gainsborough, consists mainly of coins minted at Lincoln and York (David Michael Metcalf, An Atlas of Anglo-Saxon and Norman Coin Finds, c. 973–1086, 1998:198–200).
  12. Richard Hall, Viking Age Archaeology (series Shire Archaeology) 2010:23.
  13. Historic England. "Lincoln castle (326536)". Research records (formerly PastScape). Retrieved 3 May 2013.
  14. "Jews House and Jews Court". City of Lincoln Council. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  15. Historic England. "Monument No. 326716". Research records (formerly PastScape). Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  16. 1 2 3 Weil, Eric (September 2003). "Lincolnshire Jewish Community". BBC News. Archived from the original on 8 July 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  17. Roger of Wendover; translated by J. A. Giles (1849). "The Battle of Lincoln (1217), according to Roger of Wendover". Flowers of History. London. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  18. "The Jewish Community of Lincoln". The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  19. A. Kissane, Civic Community in Late Medieval Lincoln: Urban Society and Economy in the Age of the Black Death, 1289–1409 (Woodbridge, 2017). Updated 4 January 2017.
  20. "Lincoln". Heraldry of the World. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  21. 1 2 Wedgwood 1970 , p. 248.
  22. Donald, David Herbert. "Lincoln". Simon & Schuster, 1995.
  23. "Sobraon Barracks". Heritage Connect Lincoln. Archived from the original on 27 November 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  24. "Drill Hall". Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  25. "100-year-old promise kept following typhoid epidemic in Lincoln". Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  26. R. J. Reece, 1907, "Report on the Epidemic of Enteric Fever in the City of Lincoln, 1904–05". In Thirty-Fifth Annual Report of the Local Government Board, 1905–06: Supplement Containing the Report of the Medical Officer for 1905–06. London:Local Government Board, 116.
  27. Houston, Alexander C. (1921). "B. Welchii, Gastro-Enteritis and Water Supply." Engineering News-Record. 87:12, 484.
  28. Moses N. Baker (1981), The Quest for Pure Water: the History of Water Purification from the Earliest Records to the Twentieth Century. 2nd ed., Vol. 1., Denver: American Water Works Association, p. 336.
  29. "west gate water tower". visitlincoln.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  30. "aviation history". visitlincoln.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  31. Lincolnshire Echo Monday 23 October 1944, page 3
  32. Lincolnshire Echo Tuesday 5 December 1944, page 3
  33. Lincolnshire Echo Monday 10 December 1945, page 3
  34. Lincolnshire Echo Saturday 21 August 1999, page 12
  35. Lincolnshire Echo Saturday 5 August 1961, page 4
  36. Lincolnshire Echo Tuesday 24 November 1987, page 6
  37. "Siemens identifies Lincolnshire site for relocation plans". siemens.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  38. "Home". www.itpaero.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2023. Retrieved 6 March 2023.
  39. Brouquet, Henri (October 2009). "ESATAN Thermal Modelling Suite Development Status 2009" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
  40. "Our History – About the University – University of Lincoln". lincoln.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  41. "Central Lincolnshire Local Plan Core Strategy – Strategic Management – Sustainability". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2018 via Scribd.
  42. Historic England. "Former Corn Exchange (1388501)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 3 May 2023.
  43. Historic England. "Market Building (1388502)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 17 July 2023.
  44. 1 2 "Central Lincolnshire Local Plan Core Strategy – Strategic Management – Sustainability". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2018 via Scribd.
  45. Cromar, Chris (5 February 2021). "Key Cities welcome four new authorities to organisation". Public Sector Executive. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  46. "Lincoln | Key Cities". keycities.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 February 2021. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  47. "Lincoln Think Tank the Home of Business Innovation". Think Tank. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  48. "Christmas Market cancelled". Lincoln, United Kingdom: BBC News. 2 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2010. Taking advice from partners, including Lincolnshire Police, East Midlands Ambulance Service and Lincolnshire County Council Highways, organisers at Lincoln Council have taken the decision to cancel the event.
    Rob Bradley from the City Council is in charge of safety at the event. He said: 'It is with extreme regret that we... cancel the Lincoln Christmas Market this year. It has taken extreme weather conditions to do this, the first time it's happened in the history of the market.'
  49. "Traders say decision to cancel Christmas market is 'a disgrace' and 'a disaster'". Lincolnshire Echo . Lincoln, United Kingdom: Northcliffe Media. 2 December 2010. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010. Retrieved 2 December 2010. Lincoln Christmas Market has been cancelled for the first time in its 28-year history
  50. "Details". Archived from the original on 29 May 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  51. "Country of birth - Census Maps, ONS". www.ons.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 1 June 2023. Retrieved 1 June 2023.
  52. "2021 Census: Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 February 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  53. "Churches of Lincoln". Archived from the original on 4 December 2023. Retrieved 11 February 2024.
  54. "34 Best churches in Lincoln". Wanderlog. Archived from the original on 6 November 2022. Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  55. "Lincolnshire Jewish Community (Progressive Congregation), Lincoln, Lincs., England". Jewish Communities and Records. Archived from the original on 11 January 2024. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  56. "Lincolnshire Jewish Community". Jewish Small Communities Network. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  57. "Lincoln Synagogue | England". Lincoln Synagogue. Archived from the original on 6 November 2022. Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  58. "St Nicholas' Church". www.stnicholaslincoln.org.uk. Archived from the original on 14 November 2023. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  59. Express, Britain. "Historic Churches in Lincolnshire | Historic Lincolnshire Guide". Britain Express. Archived from the original on 6 November 2022. Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  60. Kendrick, A F (1902) [1898, reprinted with corrections, 1899, 1902]. The Cathedral Church of Lincoln: a history and description of its fabric and a list of the Bishops. London, United Kingdom: George Bell & Sons. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  61. santos, cory. "When Lincoln Cathedral was the tallest building in the world". Archived from the original on 7 December 2023. Retrieved 11 February 2024.
  62. Kendrick, A. F. (1902). "2: The Central Tower". The Cathedral Church of Lincoln: A History and Description of its Fabric and a List of the Bishops. London: George Bell & Sons. p.  60. ISBN   978-1-178-03666-4. The tall spire of timber, covered with lead, which originally crowned this tower reached an altitude, it is said, of 525 feet, although this is doubtful. This blew down in a storm in January 1547-1548.
  63. Mary Jane Taber (1905), The Cathedrals of England: An account of some of their distinguishing characteristics, p. 100.
  64. "Lincoln Cathedral – History". The Dean and Chapter of Lincoln Cathedral. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2011. Between 1307 and 1311 the central tower was raised to its present height. Then about 1370–1400, the western towers were heightened. All three had spires until 1549, when the one on the central tower blew down.
  65. "Northern Lincolnshire Edge with Coversands and Southern Lincolnshire Edge" (PDF). Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
  66. 1 2 Beachy, Robert; Roth, Ralf (1 January 2007). Who Ran the Cities?: City Elites and Urban Power Structures in Europe and North America, 1750–1940. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 74–78. ISBN   978-0-7546-5153-6. Archived from the original on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  67. "Peregrines at Lincoln Cathedral". Lincoln Cathedral. 14 March 2016. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  68. "Explore the Brayford". Visit Lincoln. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  69. "Lincolnshire Live – Nice Day for a Stroll! Deer Shocks Locals by Walking through a Lincoln Housing Estate". 17 June 2019. Archived from the original on 18 June 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  70. Smith, Daniel (23 June 2014). "15 of the best fishing locations in Lincolnshire". lincolnshirelive. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  71. O'Flinn, Holly (3 May 2018). "Family of otters caught on camera swimming in the Witham in Lincoln". lincolnshirelive. Archived from the original on 4 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  72. "Conservationists and anglers clash over otters' return". Grantham Journal. 1 January 2018. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  73. UK Census (2011), "Local Area Report – Lincoln Built-up Area (E34005030)", Nomis, Office for National Statistics , retrieved 17 April 2021
  74. 1 2 "synop reports summary". KNMI. Archived from the original on 19 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  75. "1956 temperature". KNMI. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  76. "1981 temperature". UKMO. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  77. "2010 temperature". KNMI. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  78. "2010 Scampton temperature". KNMI. Archived from the original on 29 May 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
  79. 1 2 "Waddington (Lincolnshire) UK climate averages". Met Office. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  80. "Waddington climate normals 1961–1990". NOAA . Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  81. 1 2 "Indices Data – Waddington 351". KNMI. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  82. 1 2 "Scampton (Lincolnshire) UK climate averages". Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  83. Whitelam, Paul (15 December 2021). "Video shows past and present of Lincolnshire's lost railway". LincolnshireLive. Archived from the original on 3 July 2023. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  84. "MDR8651 - Lancashire, Derbyshire and East Coast Railway (route of), North East Derbyshire and Bolsover - Derbyshire Historic Environment Record". her.derbyshire.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 3 July 2023. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  85. "Grantham Railway History". Tracks through Grantham. Archived from the original on 3 July 2023. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  86. "Former railway station to be converted into events venue with food hall, bars and shops". The Lincolnite. 25 August 2022. Archived from the original on 3 July 2023. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  87. Schubert, Chris. "New Lincoln Eastern Bypass now open". Lincolnshire County Council. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  88. Schubert, Chris. "County council awarded £110 million towards North Hykeham Relief Road". Lincolnshire County Council. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  89. 1 2 "Lincoln, University of". The Independent. London. 27 July 2007. Archived from the original on 7 July 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  90. "Lincoln City Profile 2021 – 2022 Population". Lincoln.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 April 2023. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  91. "The College", Web.archive.org. Retrieved 16 November 2011
  92. "Access Creative College – Media – Games Design – Music – Education". Access Creative College – the new name for Access to Music. Archived from the original on 29 May 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  93. "How different LEAs performed". BBC News. 12 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  94. "Lincoln City Radio ready to launch". Lincolnshire Echo . Lincoln, United Kingdom: Northcliffe Media. 6 April 2010. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2010. New sounds will be hitting the airwaves as Lincoln City Radio prepares to launch after nearly 25 years of planning. The community radio station will be blasting out old-school classics from the '50s to the '90s on 103.6 FM.
  95. "The Lincolnite – Lincoln News, Jobs, Events & Property". thelincolnite.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  96. "The Linc". The Linc. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  97. "Football Club History Database – Lincoln City". fchd.info. Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  98. "Arsenal 5-0 Lincoln City". 11 March 2017. Archived from the original on 6 May 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  99. Griffin, Mike. "The Lincoln Grand Prix Cycle Race 1956-2013". Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  100. "Lincoln Rope Walk Greyhound Stadium". Greyhound Derby.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  101. Barnes, Julia (1988). Daily Mirror Greyhound Fact File. Ringpress Books. ISBN   0-948955-15-5.
  102. "Lincolnshire Greyhound Racing Association Opening Meetings – 7 June". Lincolnshire Echo. 1932.
  103. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Boole, George"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  104. Whiley, Mark (23 August 2017). "The success of Sam Clucas should inspire young footballers in Lincoln to follow their dreams". Lincolnshire Live. Archived from the original on 11 November 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  105. Jenny Turner: "In a Potato Patch". Review of Penelope Fitzgerald: A Life by Hermione Lee. London Review of Books 35/24, 19 December 2013.
  106. "Papers of Sir Francis Hill (1899–1980), Solicitor, Mayor of Lincoln and Chancellor of The University of Nottingham, 1768–1979 – Archives Hub". Archived from the original on 29 May 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  107. "The Guardian Interview: John Hurt" Archived 1 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine ; Guardian.co.uk, 27 April 2000. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  108. Elizabeth Allen, "Lany, Benjamin (1591–1675)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, UK: OUP, 2004) Retrieved 9 April 2016, pay-walled. Archived 19 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  109. "Success for past pupil Ross McLaren". Joyce Mason School of Dance. 11 October 2011. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  110. "Obituaries: Steve Race" Archived 27 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine , Telegraph.co.uk, 22 June 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  111. Neil R Wright (2016). Treading the Boards. SLHA.
  112. "History of the Usher Gallery". The collection web site. Lincolnshire county council. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  113. 1 2 3 4 5 Fenn, Kate. "Lincoln's Twin Towns". City of Lincoln Council, City Hall, Beaumont Fee, Lincoln. Archived from the original on 3 July 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  114. Norton, Emily (22 October 2014). "Lincoln Twinning agreed with Chinese city". The Lincolnite, Stonebow Media Ltd, Sparkhouse Studios, Lincoln, LN6 7DQ. Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  115. Jaines, Daniel (18 March 2022). "Lincoln arts champion to be presented with Freedom of the City". The Lincolnite. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  116. Pathé, British. "Astra Gazette 12". britishpathe.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  117. http://www.lincolnshireecho.co.uk/parade-shun-waddington-scampton-s-centenary-march/story-29132299-detail/story.html [ dead link ]
  118. "RAF stations set for Freedom of the City parade in Lincoln". 4 April 2017. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  119. The Royal Anglian. "The Royal Anglian and Royal Lincolnshire Regimental Association". The Royal Anglian and Royal Lincolnshire Regimental Association. Archived from the original on 17 October 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  120. "Privileges and Customs". Grenadier Guards. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012.
  121. "1956 temperature". KNMI. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  122. "1981 temperature". UKMO. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  123. "2010 temperature". KNMI. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  124. "2010 Scampton temperature". KNMI. Archived from the original on 29 May 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
  125. "Waddington climate normals 1961–1990". NOAA . Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  126. "East Midlands Region". Civic Heraldry of England. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2021.

Sources