Grenadier Guards

Last updated

The Grenadier Guards
Grenadier-Guards-Cap-Badge.jpg
Cap Badge of The Grenadier Guards
Active1656–present
CountryFlag of England.svg  England
(1660–1707)
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Great Britain
(1707–1800)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
(1801–present)
Allegiance Elizabeth II
BranchFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
Type Infantry
Role1st Battalion – Light Infantry/Public Duties
Nijmegen Company – Public Duties
SizeOne battalion
One independent company
Part of Guards Division
Garrison/HQRHQ – London
1st Battalion – Aldershot
Nijmegen Company – London
Nickname(s)The Bill Browns
Motto(s) French: Honi soit qui mal y pense
"Evil be to him who evil thinks"
MarchQuick: "The British Grenadiers"
Slow: "Scipio"
Engagements Waterloo
Commanders
Colonel in Chief The Queen
Colonel of the Regiment The Duke of York KG, GCVO, CD, ADC(P)
Commanding OfficerColonel Piers Ashfield DSO
Insignia
Tactical recognition flash GuardsTRF.svg
PlumeWhite
Left side of bearskin cap
Collar badgeGrenade
Shoulder badgeRoyal Cipher
AbbreviationGREN GDS

The Grenadier Guards (GREN GDS) is an infantry regiment of the British Army. It can trace its lineage back to 1656 when Lord Wentworth's Regiment was raised in Bruges to protect the exiled Charles II. [1] In 1665, this regiment was combined with John Russell's Regiment of Guards to form the current regiment, known as the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards. Since then, the regiment has filled both a ceremonial and protective role as well as an operational one. In 1900, the regiment provided a cadre of personnel to form the Irish Guards; while later, in 1915 it also provided the basis of the Welsh Guards upon their formation.

Contents

The regiment's early history saw it take part in numerous conflicts including the War of Spanish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession, the Seven Years' War, and the Napoleonic Wars; at the end of this period the regiment was granted the "Grenadier" designation by a Royal Proclamation. During the Victorian Era, the regiment took part in the Crimean War, the Anglo-Egyptian War, the Mahdist War, and the Second Boer War.

During the First World War, the Grenadier Guards was expanded from three battalions to five, of which four served on the Western Front, while later during the Second World War, six battalions were raised, and several were converted to an armoured role as part of the Guards Armoured Division. These units fought in France, North-West Europe, North Africa and Italy.

After the Second World War the regiment was reduced first to three battalions, then to two, and finally to one battalion in the mid-1990s. Major deployments during this time have included operations in Palestine, Malaya, Cyprus, Northern Ireland, the Gulf War, Afghanistan and Iraq.

History

The Grenadier Guards trace their lineage back to 1656, [2] when Lord Wentworth's Regiment was raised from gentlemen of the Honourable Artillery Company by the then heir to the throne, Prince Charles (later King Charles II), in Bruges, in the Spanish Netherlands (present-day Belgium), where it formed a part of the exiled King's bodyguard. [3] A few years later, a similar regiment known as John Russell's Regiment of Guards was formed. [4] In 1665, these two regiments were combined to form the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards, consisting of 24 companies of men. [4] Since then the Grenadier Guards have served ten Kings and four Queens, including the current Queen Elizabeth II. Throughout the 18th century, the regiment took part in a number of campaigns including the War of Spanish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War. [5] At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the regiment gained the name "Grenadier" in July 1815 following a Royal Proclamation. [6]

A Grenadier Guard, 1889 Grenadier Guards.jpg
A Grenadier Guard, 1889

During the Victorian era, the regiment took part in the Crimean War, participating in the fighting at the Alma river, Inkerman, and Sevastopol. [7] For their involvement in the Crimean War, four members of the 3rd Battalion received the Victoria Cross. [8] Later the regiment fought at Battle of Tel el-Kebir during the Anglo-Egyptian War in 1882, and then the Mahdist War in Sudan, both during the 1885 Suakin Expedition and in 1898, at the Battle of Omdurman. [8] During the Second Boer War, the 2nd and 3rd Battalions were deployed to South Africa, where they took part in a number of battles including the Battle of Modder River and the Battle of Belmont, as well as a number of smaller actions. [9] In 1900, seventy-five men from the regiment were used to raise a fourth Guards regiment, known as the Irish Guards in honour of the role that Irish regiments had played in the fighting in South Africa. [10]

First World War

Attack on Moyenneville. Men of the Grenadier Guards consolidating the former German second line. Near Courcelles, France, 21 August 1918. The Hundred Days Offensive, August-november 1918 Q6984.jpg
Attack on Moyenneville. Men of the Grenadier Guards consolidating the former German second line. Near Courcelles, France, 21 August 1918.

At the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, the regiment consisted of three battalions. [11] With the commencement of hostilities, the regiment raised a service battalion, the 4th Battalion, and a reserve battalion, known as the 5th (Reserve) Battalion, which was used to carry out ceremonial duties in London and Windsor during the war. [11] The 2nd Battalion of the regiment was sent to France in August, [12] and the 1st Battalion followed to Belgium in October. They took part in the early stages of the fighting during the period known as "Race to the Sea", during which time they were involved significantly at the First Battle of Ypres. [13] In February 1915, a fifth Guards regiment was raised, known as The Welsh Guards. [10] In recognition of the significant contribution Welshmen had made to The Grenadier Guards, the regiment transferred five officers and 634 other ranks to the newly formed unit. [14] A short time later, permission was received for the formation of the Guards Division, the brainchild of Lord Kitchener, and on 18 August 1915, the division came into existence, consisting of three brigades, each with four battalions. [10] [15] Following this the four service battalions of the regiment fought in a number of significant battles including Loos, the Somme, Cambrai, Arras and the Hindenburg Line. [16] Seven members of the regiment received the Victoria Cross during the war. [9]

Sentry of The Grenadier Guards outside Buckingham Palace Grenadier Guards Buckingham Palace 2013 (cropped).jpg
Sentry of The Grenadier Guards outside Buckingham Palace

Following the Armistice with Germany in November 1918, the regiment returned to just three battalions, which were used in a variety of roles, serving at home in the United Kingdom, as well as in France, Turkey and Egypt. [17]

Second World War

During the Second World War, the regiment was expanded to six service battalions, with the re-raising of the 4th Battalion, and the establishment of the 5th and 6th Battalions. [18] The Grenadier Guards' first involvement in the war came in the early stages of the fighting when all three regular battalions were sent to France in late 1939 as part of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). [19] The 1st and 2nd Battalions were serving in the 7th Guards Brigade, which also included the 1st Battalion, Coldstream Guards, and were part of the 3rd Infantry Division, led by Major General Bernard Montgomery. The 3rd Battalion was in the 1st Guards Brigade attached to the 1st Infantry Division, commanded by Major General Harold Alexander. [20] As the BEF was pushed back by the German blitzkrieg during the battles of France and Dunkirk, these battalions played a considerable role in maintaining the British Army's reputation during the withdrawal phase of the campaign before being themselves evacuated from Dunkirk. [19] After this, they returned to the United Kingdom, where they undertook defensive duties in anticipation of a possible German invasion. Between October 1940 and October 1941, the regiment raised the 4th, 5th, and 6th Battalions. [21] Later, in the summer of 1941, there was a need to increase the number of armoured and motorised units in the British Army and as a result many infantry battalions were converted into armoured regiments; the 2nd and 4th Battalions were re-equipped with tanks, while the 1st Battalion was motorised. [22] The 1st and 2nd (Armoured) Battalions were part of the 5th Guards Armoured Brigade, attached to the Guards Armoured Division, [23] and the 4th Battalion was part of the 6th Guards Tank Brigade Group. They subsequently served in the North West Europe Campaign of 1944–45, taking part in several actions, including the Battle for Caen, particularly in Operation Goodwood, as well as Operation Market Garden, the Battle of the Bulge and Operation Veritable. [24]

Universal Carriers of the 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards cross 'Euston Bridge' as they deploy for Operation 'Goodwood', 18 July 1944. The British Army in the Normandy Campaign 1944 B7526.jpg
Universal Carriers of the 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards cross 'Euston Bridge' as they deploy for Operation 'Goodwood', 18 July 1944.

The 3rd, 5th and 6th Battalions served in the North African Campaign and in the final stages of the Tunisia Campaign, under command of the British First Army, where they fought significant battles in the Medjez-el-Bab and along the Mareth Line. The battalions took part in the Italian Campaign at Salerno, Monte Camino, Anzio, Monte Cassino, and along the Gothic Line. [19] [25] The 3rd Battalion, still with the 1st Guards Brigade, was attached to the 78th Battleaxe Infantry Division for two months in Tunisia until it was exchanged for the 38th (Irish) Brigade and became part of the 6th Armoured Division, where it would remain for the rest of the war. [26] The 5th Battalion was part of 24th Guards Brigade and served with the 1st Division during the Battle of Anzio. After suffering devastating casualties, the brigade was relieved in March 1944 . [27] The 6th Battalion served with the 22nd Guards Brigade, later redesignated 201st Guards Motor Brigade, until late 1944 when the battalion was disbanded due to an acute shortage of Guards replacements. [28] During the course of the conflict, two men of the regiment were awarded the Victoria Cross. They were Lance Corporal Harry Nicholls of the 3rd Battalion, during the Battle of Dunkirk, and Major William Sidney of the 5th Battalion during the Battle of Anzio in March 1944. [29] [30]

After the Second World War

In June 1945, following the end of hostilities, the 2nd and 4th Battalions gave up their tanks and returned to an infantry role. [31] The regiment returned to three battalions at this time, with the 4th and 5th Battalions being disbanded along with the 6th, which had been removed from the order of battle before the end of the war. [32] Initially, the regiment was employed on occupation duties in Germany; however, the 3rd Battalion was deployed shortly afterwards to Palestine, where it attempted to keep the peace until May 1948, when it was replaced by the 1st Battalion. Further deployments came to Malaya in 1949, Tripoli in 1951 and Cyprus in 1956. [33] In 1960, shortly after returning from Cyprus, the 3rd Battalion paraded for the last time [34] and was subsequently placed in suspended animation. In order to maintain the battalion's customs and traditions, one of its companies, the Inkerman Company, was incorporated into the 1st Battalion. [35]

Since the mid-1960s, the 1st and 2nd Battalions have been deployed to Africa, South America and Northern Ireland where they undertook peacekeeping duties. They also undertook duties as part of the NATO force stationed in Germany during the Cold War. [36] In 1991, the 1st Battalion, which had been serving in Germany, was deployed to the Middle East, where it took part in the Persian Gulf War mounted in Warrior armoured personnel carriers, before returning for a six-month tour of Northern Ireland. [35]

In 1994, under the Options for Change reforms, The Grenadier Guards was reduced to a single battalion. The 2nd Battalion was put into 'suspended animation', and its colours passed for safekeeping to a newly formed independent company, which was named "The Nijmegen Company". [37] As a result of this, the regiment was reduced to its current composition: one full battalion, the 1st Battalion, consisting of three rifle companies (The Queen's Company, Number Two Company and Inkerman Company), a support company and a headquarters company, based at Wellington Barracks, London, and one independent company, The Nijmegen Company. [37] The Queen, as Colonel-in-Chief, presented new colours to the Nijmegen Company in 2013. [38]

Edward Barber, one of 14 members of The Grenadier Guards who have received the Victoria Cross Private Edward Barber VC.jpg
Edward Barber, one of 14 members of The Grenadier Guards who have received the Victoria Cross
Recruits practising drill on Catterick parade square Helles Barracks Parade Ground - geograph.org.uk - 1192460.jpg
Recruits practising drill on Catterick parade square
The Colonel-in-chief (Elizabeth II) alongside the then-Colonel of the Regiment (Prince Philip) in 2007. Trooping the Colour Queen Duke of Edinburgh 16th June 2007.jpg
The Colonel-in-chief (Elizabeth II) alongside the then-Colonel of the Regiment (Prince Philip) in 2007.
Donald Trump and the Prince of Wales inspect the 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards in the Garden at Buckingham Palace, June 2019. President Trump and First Lady Melania Trump's Trip to the United Kingdom (47995680802).jpg
Donald Trump and the Prince of Wales inspect the 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards in the Garden at Buckingham Palace, June 2019.

In recent years, the 1st Battalion has deployed as part of Operation Telic in Iraq, and Operation Herrick in Afghanistan. [37] In 2020 during the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, members of the regiment helped assist the NHS for testing of COVID-19 patients, and provided checkpoints throughout London in collaboration with the Royal Anglian Regiment. [39]

Current role

The Queen's Company of The Grenadier Guards traditionally provides the pallbearers for all deceased monarchs. [40]

The Grenadier Guards and other Guards regiments have a long-standing connection to The Parachute Regiment. Guardsmen who have completed P Company are transferred into the Guards Parachute Platoon, which is currently attached to the 3rd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment. The Guards Parachute Platoon maintains the tradition established by No 1 (Guards) Independent Parachute Company that was part of the original Pathfinder Group of 16th Parachute Brigade, which has since been designated as the 16th Air Assault Brigade. [41]

Battle honours

The 1st Foot Guards has received 78 battle honours, [42] gained for its involvement in a number of conflicts including:

Training

Recruits to the Guards Division go through a gruelling thirty-week training programme at the Infantry Training Centre (ITC). The training is two weeks longer than the training for the Regular line infantry regiments of the British Army; the extra training, carried out throughout the course, is devoted to drill and ceremonies. [43]

Colonels-in-Chief

The Grenadier Guards' various colonels-in-chief have generally been the British monarchs, including Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII, George VI, and currently Elizabeth II. [44]

Regimental Colonels

The following is a list of individuals who have served in the role of colonel of the regiment: [45]

Marches

The Regimental Slow March is the march Scipio, [40] from the opera of the same name by George Frideric Handel, inspired by the exploits of the Roman General Scipio Africanus. The first performance of Scipio was in 1726. Handel actually composed the eponymous slow march for the First Guards, presenting it to the regiment before he added it to the score of the opera. [47] The Quick March is The British Grenadiers . [40]

Football

Both the 2nd Grenadier Guards F.C. and the 3rd Grenadier Guards F.C. enjoyed considerable success in the London League. [48] [49]

Alliances

Lineage

Lineage
1st Regiment of Foot Guards
(later Grenadier Guards)
The Royal Regiment of Guards
John Russell's Regiment of Guards

Order of precedence

The Grenadier Guards is the most senior regiment of the Infantry in the British Army [50]

Preceded by
First in Order of Precedence
Infantry Order of Precedence Succeeded by
Coldstream Guards

See also

Notes

Footnotes

  1. Colonel of Lord Wentworth's Regiment. [45]
  2. Colonel of John Russell's Regiment of Guards until united with Wentworth's Regiment in 1665. [45]

Citations

  1. "History - British Army Website: Grenadier Guards". 29 September 2010. Archived from the original on 29 September 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  2. Fraser 1998 , p. 4
  3. "Britain and Belgium mark 360th anniversary of the Grenadier Guards". Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom). 2 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  4. 1 2 Fraser 1998 , p. 6
  5. Fraser 1998 , pp. 7–9
  6. "Branch notes (Northamptonshire)" (PDF). The Grenadier Gazette. 2014. p. 108. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  7. Fraser 1998 , pp. 14–15
  8. 1 2 Fraser 1998 , p. 17
  9. 1 2 Fraser 1998 , p. 18
  10. 1 2 3 Fraser 1998 , p. 20
  11. 1 2 Chappell 1997 , p. 4
  12. Craster & Jeffrey 1976 , pp. 13–14
  13. Fraser 1998 , p. 21
  14. Chappell 1997 , p. 5
  15. Chappell 1997 , p. 6
  16. Fraser 1998 , pp. 19–22
  17. Fraser 1998 , p. 22
  18. Fraser 1998 , p. 23
  19. 1 2 3 Fraser 1998 , p. 24
  20. Forbes 1949 , p. 4
  21. Forbes 1949 , pp. 53–56
  22. Forbes 1949 , p. 59
  23. Forbes 1949 , p. 56
  24. Chappell 1997 , pp. 28–55
  25. Nicolson 1949 , pp. vii–ix
  26. Nicolson 1949 , pp. 268 & 281
  27. Palmer, Rob. "1st Infantry Division" (PDF). British Military History. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  28. Nicolson 1949 , pp. 384–385
  29. Forbes 1949 , pp. 27–28
  30. Nicolson 1949 , pp. 407–408
  31. Forbes 1949 , p. 253
  32. Fraser 1998 , p. 26
  33. Fraser 1998 , pp. 26–27
  34. Fraser 1998 , p. 28
  35. 1 2 "History of the Grenadier Guards" (PDF). British Army. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  36. Fraser 1998 , pp. 28–29
  37. 1 2 3 "Grenadier Guards". British Army. Archived from the original on 22 July 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  38. "Grenadier Guards honoured by the Queen at Buckingham Palace".
  39. "Royal Anglian Regiment and Grenadier Guards boosts staff in London". Instagram. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  40. 1 2 3 Fraser 1998 , p. 40
  41. "No 1 (Guards) Independent Parachute Company". ParaData. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  42. "Battle Honours - History of the Grenadier Guards - History and Archives - Grenadier Guards". Grengds.com. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  43. "Combat Infantryman's Course – Foot Guards". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
  44. "Grenadier Guards". National Army Museum. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  45. 1 2 3 Fraser 1998 , p. 39
  46. "The Duke of York will take over the appointment from HRH The Duke of Edinburgh, who has been Colonel of the Grenadier Guards since 1975". Royal Family. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  47. Hanning 2006 , p. 80
  48. "2nd Grenadier Guards". Football Club History Database. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  49. "3rd Grenadier Guards". Football Club History Database. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  50. Defence Instructions and Notices (DIN) 2007DIN09-027, The Precedence of Regiments and Corps in the Army and within the Infantry, August 2007.

Related Research Articles

Infantry of the British Army overview about the infantry of the British Army

The Infantry of the British Army, part of the structure of the British Army, comprises 49 infantry battalions, from 19 regiments. Of these, 33 battalions are part of the Regular army and the remaining 16 a part of the Army Reserve. The British Army's Infantry forms a highly flexible organisation, taking on a variety of roles, including armoured, mechanised, air assault and light.

Units of the British Army

The units of the British Army are commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. This is broadly similar to the structures of the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force, in that the four-star (general-equivalent) commanders-in-chief have been eliminated since 2011 and service chiefs are given direct command of their respective services are responsible as Top Level Budget (TLB) holders. Army Headquarters is located in Andover, Hampshire. There is a Commander Field Army and a personnel and UK operations command, Home Command.

Coldstream Guards Unit of the British Army

The Coldstream Guards is a part of the Guards Division, Foot Guards regiments of the British Army.

Welsh Guards regiment of the British Army

The Welsh Guards, part of the Guards Division, is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army. It was founded in 1915 as a single-battalion regiment, during the First World War, by Royal Warrant of George V. Shortly after the regiment's formation, it was deployed to France where it took part in the fighting on the Western Front until the end of the war in November 1918. During the inter-war years, the regiment undertook garrison duties in the United Kingdom, except 1929–1930 when it deployed to Egypt, and late 1939 when it deployed to Gibraltar.

2nd Infantry Division (United Kingdom) 1809-2012 British Army formation

The 2nd Infantry Division was a Regular Army infantry division of the British Army, with a long history. Its existence as a permanently embodied formation dated from 1809, when it was established by Lieutenant General Sir Arthur Wellesley, as part of the Anglo-Portuguese Army, for service in the Peninsular War..

4th Infantry Division (United Kingdom) British Army combat formation

The 4th Infantry Division was a regular infantry division of the British Army with a very long history, seeing active service in the Peninsular War, the Crimean War, the First World War, and during the Second World War. It was disbanded after the war and reformed in the 1950s as an armoured formation before being disbanded and reformed again and finally disbanded on 1 January 2012.

The Canadian Grenadier Guards infantry regiment of the Canadian Armed Forces Reserve

The Canadian Grenadier Guards (CGG) is a reserve infantry regiment in the 34 Canadian Brigade Group, 2nd Canadian Division, of the Canadian Army. The regiment is the second-most-senior and oldest infantry regiment in the Primary Reserve of the Canadian Army. Located in Montreal, its primary role is the provision of combat-ready troops in support of Canadian regular infantry. However, as it is also a Household and Ceremonial Guard regiment, it performs similar ceremonial duties to the Guards regiments of the British Army, which primarily entails mounting the guard on Parliament Hill and at Rideau Hall in Ottawa, a task it shares with Canada's senior Household infantry regiment, the Governor General's Foot Guards. The Canadian Grenadier Guards is an allied regiment to the British Grenadier Guards.

North-West Europe 1944–1945 is a battle honour earned by regiments of the British Commonwealth forces during the Second World War that took part in the actions of the northern part of the war's Western Front. The battle honour North-West Europe is suffixed with the year, or years, in which the awarded unit took part in the action.

The Grenadiers Regiment of the Indian Army

The Grenadiers is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army, formerly part of the Bombay Army and later the pre-independence British Indian Army, when the regiment was known as the 4th Bombay Grenadiers. It has distinguished itself during the two world wars and also since the Independence of India. The regiment has won many battle honours and gallantry awards, and is considered to be one of India's most decorated regiments with three Param Vir Chakra awardees in three different conflicts.

The British Army primarily divides its infantry into regiments, which are subdivided into battalions. However, for various reasons, since the end of the Second World War it has also maintained companies that are independent of a particular battalion or regiment.

This is the complete order of battle of Allied and German forces involved during Operation Market Garden.

1st Armoured Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom) British Army formation

The 1st Armoured Infantry Brigade is an infantry brigade of the British Army with a long history including service during both World War I and World War II. It is based at Tidworth Camp. Previously, it has been designated 1st (Guards) Brigade, 1st Infantry Brigade, 1st Mechanised Brigade, and under the initial Army 2020 reforms assumed the title of 1st Armoured Infantry Brigade.

24th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom) combat formation of the British Army

The 24th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of the British Army from the First World War, serving through the Second World War, until 1999 when it was merged with the 5th Airborne Brigade to form 16 Air Assault Brigade.

Scots Guards part of the Guards Division;  Foot Guards regiment of the British Army

The Scots Guards (SG), is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army. Their origins lie in the personal bodyguard of King Charles I of England and Scotland. Its lineage can be traced back to 1642, although it was only placed on the English Establishment in 1686. It is the oldest formed Regiment in the Regular Army, more so than any other in the Household Brigade.

12th Armoured Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 12th Armoured Infantry Brigade, formerly the 12th Mechanized Brigade, is a regular brigade of the British Army which has been in almost continuous existence since 1899 and now forms part of 3rd Division.

5th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom) combat formation of the British Army

The 5th Infantry Brigade was a regular infantry brigade of the British Army that was in existence since before the First World War, except for a short break in the late 1970s, until amalgamating with 24th Airmobile Brigade, in 1999, to form 16 Air Assault Brigade.

This is the Operation Herrick ground order of battle, which lists any British ground forces that have taken part in the duration of Operation Herrick between 2002 and 2014.

Moro River Campaign order of battle

The Moro River Campaign order of battle is a listing of the significant formations that were involved in the fighting during the Moro River Campaign in December 1943, part of the Italian Campaign of World War II.

Guards Division (United Kingdom) operational division of the British Army in World War I and briefly after World War II

The Guards Division was an infantry division of the British Army that was formed in the Great War in France in 1915 from battalions of the Guards regiments from the Regular Army. The division served on the Western Front for the duration of the First World War. The division's insignia was the "All Seeing Eye".

Second Battle of Monte Cassino order of battle February 1944 is a listing of the significant formations that were involved in the fighting on the Winter Line in February 1944 during the period generally known as the Second Battle of Monte Cassino.

References