Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment)

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Royal East Kent Regiment ("The Buffs"); 3rd Regiment of Foot
Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment) Cap Badge.jpg
Badge of The Buffs
Active1572-1961
CountryFlag of England.svg  Kingdom of England (1572–1707)
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom (1801–1961)
BranchFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
Type Infantry
Role Line infantry
Garrison/HQ Howe Barracks, Canterbury
Nickname(s)Howard's Buffs
The Old Buffs.
Motto(s)Veteri Frondescit Honore
Latin: "Its Ancient Honour Flourishes"; "Its Ancient Honour is Ever-Green"
ColorsBuff Facings
MarchQuick:The Buffs
Slow:The Men of Kent
AnniversariesAlbuhera Day (16 May).
EngagementsCorunna (17 January 1809)
Albuhera (16 May 1811)
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Colonel Charles Churchill (1689–1707)
John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll (1707–1713)
Archibald Douglas, 2nd Earl of Forfar (1713–1715)
Lieutenant-General Thomas Howard (1737–1749)
Colonel Sir George Howard (1749–1763).
Modern stained-glass window in the Buff's Chapel ("Warriors' Chapel) of Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, showing the coats of arms of Queen Elizabeth I and various subsequent Colonels-in-Chief and Colonels, up to the 20th century Stained glass windows at Canterbury Cathedral JC 20.JPG
Modern stained-glass window in the Buff's Chapel ("Warriors' Chapel) of Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, showing the coats of arms of Queen Elizabeth I and various subsequent Colonels-in-Chief and Colonels, up to the 20th century

The Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment), formerly the 3rd Regiment of Foot, was a line infantry regiment of the British Army traditionally raised in the English county of Kent and garrisoned at Canterbury. It had a history dating back to 1572 and was one of the oldest regiments in the British Army, being third in order of precedence (ranked as the 3rd Regiment of the line). The regiment provided distinguished service over a period of almost four hundred years accumulating one hundred and sixteen battle honours. In 1881, under the Childers Reforms, it was known as the Buffs (East Kent Regiment) and later, on 3 June 1935, was renamed the Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment).

Contents

In 1961, it was amalgamated with the Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment to form the Queen's Own Buffs, The Royal Kent Regiment, which was later merged, on 31 December 1966, with the Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment, the Royal Sussex Regiment and the Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge's Own) to form the Queen's Regiment. This regiment was, in turn, amalgamated with the Royal Hampshire Regiment, in September 1992, to create the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment (Queen's and Royal Hampshires).

History

Formation to end 17th century

Buckingham, Colonel of the regiment 1673-1682 & 1684-1685 JohnSheffield.jpg
Buckingham, Colonel of the regiment 1673-1682 & 1684-1685

The Dutch fight for independence from Spain in the 1568-1648 Eighty Years' War was supported by Protestants across Europe; the origins of the regiment were Thomas Morgan's Company of Foot, a group of 300 volunteers from the London Trained Bands formed in 1572. [1] In 1586, these English and Scottish volunteer units were brought together in the Anglo-Scots Brigade, which in various formats served in the Dutch military until 1782. [2]

When the Second Anglo-Dutch War started in 1665, the Brigade's units were ordered to swear loyalty to the Stadtholder and those who disobeyed were cashiered. Using his own funds, Sir George Downing, the English ambassador to the Netherlands, raised the Holland Regiment from the starving remnants of those who refused to sign. [3] In 1665, it was known as the 4th (The Holland Maritime) Regiment and by 1668 as the 4th (The Holland) Regiment. [3]

Prince George of Denmark, the regiment's patron from 1689-1708 George, Prince of Denmark by Michael Dahl.jpg
Prince George of Denmark, the regiment's patron from 1689-1708

When the Third Anglo-Dutch War began in 1672, the Duke of Buckingham was authorised to recruit an additional eight companies but the two countries made peace in the February 1674 Treaty of Westminster. [4] These men were incorporated into the Anglo-Scots Dutch Brigade and fought in the 1672-1678 Franco-Dutch War; in November 1688, it accompanied William III to England. It was transferred onto the English military establishment as the "4th The Lord High Admiral's Regiment" and in 1689 became the 3rd (Prince George of Denmark's) Regiment of Foot. [3] During the 1689-1697 Nine Years War, it served in the Low Countries, including the battles of Walcourt, Steenkerque and Landen. It returned to England when the war ended with the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick. [5]

18th century

During the War of the Spanish Succession, it served in Marlborough campaigns, including the battles of Blenheim, Ramillies, Malplaquet and Oudenarde, before returning to England in August 1714. [6] Until the 1751 reforms, units were commonly named after their current colonel; it reverted to this practice when Prince George of Denmark died in 1708, although it was also referred to as the 'Holland Regiment' or "Buffs" after its coat facings. [7] It was also sometimes called "The Old Buffs", to distinguish it from "The Young Buffs", the 31st Foot. [3]

Apart from the 1719 Vigo expedition, the next 25 years were spent on garrison duty in England and Scotland. It returned to Flanders in 1742 during the War of the Austrian Succession, as Thomas Howard's regiment; to distinguish it from that led by Sir Charles Howard, one became the "Buffs", and the other the Green Howards. [3] It fought at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743 [8] and at the Battle of Fontenoy in May 1745. [9] With the outbreak of the 1745 Rising, it was sent to Scotland, taking part in the Battle of Falkirk Muir in January 1746 [10] and Battle of Culloden in April 1746. [11] It returned to the Netherlands in April 1747 and saw action at the Battle of Lauffeld in July. [12]

Following the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, it spent the next ten years on garrison duty in England; in 1751, it was retitled the 3rd Regiment of Foot, "The Buffs". [3] The Seven Years' War began in 1756; in autumn 1758, the regiment was posted to the West Indies, taking part in the January 1759 attacks on Martinique and Guadeloupe. [13] After returning home, it took part in the capture of Belle Île in June 1761. [14] It then moved to Portugal and fought at the Battle of Valencia de Alcántara in August 1762 [15] before returning to England in spring 1771. [16]

French Revolutionary Wars

Buffs at the Battle of Albuhera in May 1811 by William Barnes Wollen Battle of Albuhera, by William Barnes Wollen.jpg
Buffs at the Battle of Albuhera in May 1811 by William Barnes Wollen

The regiment was sent to the West Indies in December 1795 for service in the French Revolutionary Wars. [17] It took part in the capture of Grenada in March 1796 [18] and of Saint Vincent in June 1796 [19] and the capture of Trinidad in February 1797 [20] and of various other islands in March 1801 [21] before returning home in autumn 1802. [22]

Napoleonic Wars

The regiment embarked for Portugal in August 1808 for service in the Peninsular War. [23] The grenadier company of the regiment served under Sir John Moore at the Battle of Corunna in January 1809 before being evacuated to England later that month. [24] The rest of the regiment remained on the Peninsula and fought at the Battle of Talavera in July 1809 [25] and the Battle of Bussaco in September 1810 before falling back to the Lines of Torres Vedras. [26] It then saw action at Battle of Albuera in May 1811 [27] and the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813. [28] It then pursued the French Army into France and fought at the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813, [29] the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 [30] and the Battle of the Nive in December 1813 [31] as well as the Battle of Orthez in February 1814 and the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814. [32] It became part of the Army of Occupation of France in 1816 before returning home in autumn 1818. [33]

The Victorian era

The regiment had a tour of service from 1821 until 1827 in the British colony of New South Wales. For the duration of their service, The Buffs was divided into four detachments. The first was based in Sydney from 1821. The second arrived in Hobart in 1822. The third, entitled "The Buffs' Headquarters", arrived in Sydney in 1823. The fourth, arrived in Sydney in 1824, but variously saw service throughout the colonies, being stationed at Port Dalrymple, Parramatta, Liverpool, Newcastle, Port Macquarie and Bathurst. The regiment reunited and was transferred to Calcutta in 1827. During their service in New South Wales, The Buffs was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel W. Stewart and Lieutenant Colonel C. Cameron. [34] The regiment also saw action at the siege of Sevastopol in winter 1854 during the Crimean War. [3]

In 1858, the 2nd Battalion was stationed in Malta. Lieutenant John Cotter, Adjutant of the 2nd Buffs, [35] would shout "Steady, The Buffs!", a shout which has entered common parlance. [3] The 1st Battalion saw action in the Taku Forts action during the Second Opium War as well as in the Perak War [36] while the 2nd Battalion saw action in the Anglo-Zulu War. [37]

The regiment was not fundamentally affected by the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, which gave it a depot at Canterbury Barracks from 1873, or by the Childers reforms of 1881 – as it already possessed two battalions, there was no need for it to amalgamate with another regiment. [38] Under the reforms the regiment became the Buffs (East Kent Regiment) on 1 July 1881. [39] The East Kent Militia became the regiment's 3rd (Militia) Battalion (1881–1953) and its short-lived 4th (Militia) Battalion (1881–1888). At the same time two Kent rifle volunteer corps were redesignated as the 1st Volunteer Battalion and 2nd (The Weald of Kent) Volunteer Battalion of the Buffs. [3]

Memorial to Captain Naunton Henry Vertue of the 2nd Battalion who died at the Spion Kop in January 1900 Memorial-Naunton Henry Vertue-001.jpg
Memorial to Captain Naunton Henry Vertue of the 2nd Battalion who died at the Spion Kop in January 1900

The 1st Battalion saw action in the Anglo-Egyptian War, was from 1885 stationed at Malta, then moved to India where it saw several postings, including in Shwebo in inland Burma until late 1902 when it moved to Poona. [40]

The 2nd Battalion, 3rd Battalion, 1st Volunteer (Militia) Battalion and 2nd Volunteer (Weald of Kent) Battalion all saw action during the Second Boer War [41] with Captain Naunton Henry Vertue of the 2nd Battalion serving as brigade major to the 11th Infantry Brigade under Major General Edward Woodgate at the Battle of Spion Kop where he was mortally wounded in January 1900. [42]

Following the end of the war in South Africa in June 1902, 540 officers and men of the 2nd battalion returned to the United Kingdom on the SS St. Andrew leaving Cape Town in early October, and the battalion was subsequently stationed at Dover. [43]

In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve; [44] the regiment now had one Reserve and two Territorial battalions. [45] [46]

First World War

For service in the First World War, ten additional battalions were raised. [47]

Regular Army

The 1st Battalion was based in Fermoy as part of the 16th Brigade in the 6th Division until 12 August 1914 when it moved to Cambridge before landing in France on 8 September 1914. [48] The 2nd Battalion returned from Madras in December 1914 and remained in England as part of the 85th Brigade in the 28th Division; meanwhile the 3rd Battalion remained in Canterbury as a training unit. [47]

Territorial Force

The 1/4th Battalion sailed for India in October 1914 while the 1/5th (Weald of Kent) Battalion sailed for India in October 1914 and then transferred to Mesopotamia in November 1915. [47] The 2/4th Battalion, the 2/5th (Weald of Kent) Battalion, the 3/4th Battalion and the 3/5th (Weald of Kent) Battalion all remained in England throughout the war while the 10th (Royal East Kent and West Kent Yeomanry) Battalion was formed in Egypt in February 1917 and then transferred to France as part of the 230th Brigade in the 74th Division. [47]

New Armies

The 6th (Service) Battalion, 7th (Service) Battalion, 8th (Service) Battalion and 9th (Reserve) Battalion were all formed for active service in France. [47] Corporal William Richard Cotter was awarded the VC whilst serving with the 6th (Service) Battalion. [49]

After the end of the First World War, a small number of men from several battalions saw action during the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919. [36]

Second World War

The 1st Battalion served in many different brigades and divisions, mainly with British Indian Army units, and fought in many different battles and campaigns such as the North African Campaign, the Italian Campaign and the Battle of Anzio when they were a part of 18th Infantry Brigade, assigned to the 1st Infantry Division where they were involved in some of the fiercest fighting of the war. The 18th Brigade returned to the 1st Armoured Division in August 1944 but, on 1 January 1945, the division was disbanded and 18th Brigade was broken up and used as replacements for other units. The 1st Buffs spent the rest of the war with the 24th Guards Brigade attached to the 56th (London) Infantry Division. With the 56th Division, the battalion fought in Operation Grapeshot, the final offensive in Italy which effectively ended the campaign in Italy. [50]

The 2nd Battalion was sent to France in 1940 with the 132nd Infantry Brigade attached to the 44th (Home Counties) Infantry Division to join the British Expeditionary Force and fought in the short but fierce Battle of Dunkirk, after which it was evacuated back to Britain. The 44th Division was sent to fight in the North African Campaign, where it was broken up due to an apparently poor performance in the Battle of Alam el Halfa despite the division having just the 132nd Brigade under command as other brigades had been detached to other divisions. The 132nd Brigade disbanded and 2nd Buffs was then transferred to the Far East with the 26th Indian Infantry Brigade and remained there for the war. In 1944, the brigade was redesignated the 26th British Infantry Brigade, which itself became part of the 36th British Infantry Division and served with the British Fourteenth Army in the Burma Campaign. [51]

The 4th Battalion Buffs was a 1st Line Territorial Army unit that served with the BEF in France 1940. The battalion was transferred to the island of Malta in 1941 and served throughout the siege. The battalion then joined the 234th Infantry Brigade, which took part in the disastrous Battle of Leros in an attempt to capture the Dodecanese Islands in late 1943. The brigade and other Allied forces, mainly Italian, attempted to hold the island from the Germans, but without success. This was due mainly to German air superiority as the Allies had very few planes to cover them. The 234th Brigade Commander, Robert Tilney, ordered the surrender after many days of resistance and hard fighting. [52]

The 5th Battalion was reformed in 1939 as a 2nd Line duplicate of the 4th Battalion when the Territorial Army was doubled in size. Initially, the 5th Buffs was assigned to the 37th Infantry Brigade, part of the 12th (Eastern) Infantry Division, which was a 2nd Line duplicate of the 44th (Home Counties) Division. However, on 26 October 1939, it was transferred to the Division's 36th Infantry Brigade in exchange for the 2/6th East Surreys. [53] [54] The 5th Buffs, along with the 6th and 7th Royal West Kents, remained in the 36th Brigade for the rest of the war. Like the 2nd and 4th Battalions, it served with the BEF in France in 1940 and fought in the Battle of France and was evacuated at Dunkirk. The 12th Division suffered heavy casualties due mainly to most of the men having little training and the division having no artillery or support units. After returning to England, the division was disbanded in July 1940, due to the casualties it had sustained. In 1942, the 36th Brigade was assigned to the newly raised 78th Division and took part in Operation Torch, the Allied landings in North Africa, followed by the campaign in Tunisia, where the 78th Division, as part of the British First Army, distinguished itself during the crucial capture of Longstop Hill. [55] The division then fought in the Sicilian Campaign, as part of the British Eighth Army. The 5th Buffs and the rest of 78th Division then took part in the fighting in Italy and served there until the 1945 Offensive. [56]

The Buffs also raised many more battalions during the war, mainly for home defence or as training units. None, save the 7th Battalion, saw active service overseas. The 7th Battalion was raised in 1940 and was converted to the 141st Regiment Royal Armoured Corps in 1941 due to the shortage of armoured troops in the British Army. [57]

Post-War

Badge of the Buffs as shown on the grave of Private P.M. Godden, who died in 1947, at Stanley Military Cemetery, Hong Kong Coat of Arms of The Buffs.JPG
Badge of the Buffs as shown on the grave of Private P.M. Godden, who died in 1947, at Stanley Military Cemetery, Hong Kong

When the Territorial Army was reformed in 1947 the 4th and 5th Buffs were merged into a single battalion. In 1956 410 (Kent) Coast Regiment, Royal Artillery, was converted to the infantry role and became 5th Buffs. [58] [59] [60] [61] [62]

In 1961, the regiment was amalgamated with the Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment to form the Queen's Own Buffs, The Royal Kent Regiment, which was later merged, on 31 December 1966, with the Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment, the Royal Sussex Regiment and the Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge's Own) to form the Queen's Regiment. This, in turn, was amalgamated with the Royal Hampshire Regiment, in September 1992, to create the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment (Queen's and Royal Hampshires). [63]

Regimental museum

The Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment) still has some exhibits at Beany House, although most of the collection was subsumed into the National Army Museum in 2000. [64] [65]

Colonels-in-Chief

The Colonels-in-Chief were as follows: [3]

Colonels

The Colonels were as follows: [3]

The Holland Regiment
Prince George of Denmark's Regiment (1689-1708)
Named after the current Colonel or The Buffs (1708-1751)
3rd Regiment of Foot, or The Buffs - (1751)
3rd (the East Kent) Regiment of Foot - (1782)
The Buffs (East Kent Regiment) - (1881)
The Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment) - (1935)

Notable soldiers

Freedom of the City of London

The regiment was awarded the Freedom of the City of London, giving them the right to march through the City. [3]

Battle honours

The honours in bold were worn on the Colours. [46]

Victoria Cross

The following members of the regiment were awarded the Victoria Cross:

Uniform and insignia

Soldier of the 3rd Foot in 1742 Soldier of 3rd regiment 1742.jpg
Soldier of the 3rd Foot in 1742

In 1667 the Holland Regiment is recorded as wearing "red jackets lined with yellow". Subsequently, Nathan Brook's Army List of 1684 referred to "Coated red, lined with a flesh colour". This marked the beginning of the historic association of the regiment with buff facings (a dull-yellow colour). A notice in the London Gazette of 21 January 1685 describing the clothing of three deserters from what was still the Holland Regiment, referred for the first time to the colour buff:"a new Red Coat lin'd with a Buff colour'd lining, surtout Sleeves, cross Pockets with three scallops, large plain pewter Buttons, Breeches of ths same colour as the Coat lining". [79]

An illustration of the Colonel's colour in 1707 shows a dragon on a buff background, following the award of this distinctive symbol to the regiment as "a reward for its gallant conduct on all occasions"; according to the Army historian Richard Cannon in a book published in 1839. The dragon was believed to have been adopted as it was one of the supporters of the royal arms of Elizabeth I, who issued the warrant for the raising of the regiment in 1572. [80] Through the remainder of the 18th century both the dragon and the buff facings (worn on cuffs, lapels and coat linings) remained as particular distinctions of the regiment. A Royal Warrant of 1751 standardising all colours (flags), badges and uniforms listed the "3rd Regiment, or The Buffs". [80] The Buffs were at this time the only infantry regiment to owe their official title to their facing colours. The green dragon was recorded in the same document as the "ancient badge" of the Buffs – displayed as a woven or painted device on the mitre cap of the Regiment's grenadiers, the colours and the drums. [80]

In 1881, the reorganisation of most infantry regiments on a territorial basis under the Childers Reforms led to the newly renamed "The Buffs (East Kent Regiment)" losing its buff facings in favour of the white collars and cuffs intended to distinguish all non-Royal English and Welsh regiments. [81] The dragon survived as part of the (now metal) headdress badge, although replaced on collars by the white horse of Kent. [82] The horse had been the insignia of the East Kent Militia, which formed the 3rd battalion of the new regiment. Both changes were unpopular within the regiment, and in 1887 the Buffs were authorised to convert the white facings on their scarlet tunics to buff – at the regiment's expense and using a pipeclay mixture developed by an officer of the 2nd Battalion. [83] In 1890 buff was officially restored as the regimental colour on flags, tunics and mess jackets. [84] On 23 May 1894 approval was given for the dragon to be resumed as the collar badge. [85]

For the remainder of its existence as a separate entity, both dragon badge and buff facings remained as primary distinctions of the regiment. This was the case even on the simplified dark blue "No. 1 Dress" worn by most of the British Army as full dress after World War II, although the buff colour was here reduced to piping edging the shoulder straps. [86]

Alliances

See also

Notes

  1. Beckett, p. 52
  2. Glozier, Mathew (2001). Scotland and the Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648; Steve Murdoch et al. Brill. p. 126. ISBN   978-9004120860.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "The Buffs (East Kent Regiment)" (PDF). Kent Fallen. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  4. Boxer, CR (1969). "Some Second Thoughts on the Third Anglo-Dutch War, 1672–1674". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. 19: 88–90. doi:10.2307/3678740. JSTOR   3678740.
  5. Cannon, pp. 130-137
  6. Cannon, p. 164
  7. Cannon, p. 157
  8. Cannon, p. 169
  9. Cannon, p. 171
  10. Cannon, p. 173
  11. Cannon, p. 178
  12. Cannon, p. 180
  13. Cannon, p. 183
  14. Cannon, p. 184
  15. Cannon, p. 186
  16. Cannon, p. 189
  17. Cannon, p. 209
  18. Cannon, p. 210
  19. Cannon, p. 213
  20. Cannon, p. 214
  21. Cannon, p. 215
  22. Cannon, p. 216
  23. Cannon, p. 220
  24. Cannon, p. 221
  25. Cannon, p. 224
  26. Cannon, p. 226
  27. Cannon, p. 228
  28. Cannon, p. 232
  29. Cannon, p. 233
  30. Cannon, p. 234
  31. Cannon, p. 235
  32. Cannon, p. 236
  33. Cannon, p. 240
  34. Sargent, Clem (1995). "The Buffs in Australia—1822 to 1827". Sabretache. Military Historical Society of Australia. 36 (1): 3–15. ISSN   0048-8933.
  35. Hart, Lieut.-Col. H.T. (1858) The New Army List and Militia List, No. LXXIX, 1st July 1858. London: John Murray. p. 76
  36. 1 2 "Medals of the Buffs" . Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  37. "The Battle of Gingindlovu" . Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  38. "Training Depots 1873–1881". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. Retrieved 16 October 2016. The depot was the 45th Brigade Depot from 1873 to 1881, and the 3rd Regimental District depot thereafter
  39. "No. 24992". The London Gazette . 1 July 1881. pp. 3300–3301.
  40. "Naval & Military intelligence - The Army in India". The Times (36896). London. 11 October 1902. p. 12.
  41. "Canterbury Boer War Memorial Transcription" (PDF). Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  42. "Roll of Honour". Clifton College. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  43. "The Army in South Africa - Troops returning Home". The Times (36893). London. 8 October 1902. p. 8.
  44. "Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907". Hansard. 31 March 1908. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  45. These were the 3rd Battalion (Special Reserve), with the 4th Battalion at Northampton Street in Dover (since demolished) and the 5th Battalion at Newtown Road in Ashford (since demolished) (both Territorial Force)
  46. 1 2 "Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment)". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 28 October 2005. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  47. 1 2 3 4 5 "Buffs (East Kent Regiment)". The Long, Long Trail. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  48. Moody, p. 9-10
  49. "No. 29527". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 March 1916. p. 3410.
  50. "56th (London) Infantry Division" (PDF). British Military History. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  51. "British 36th Division". Burma Star Association. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  52. Gander, Leonard Marsland (1945). "Long Road to Leros" (PDF). Macdonald & Co. p. 174. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  53. "Orders of battle" . Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  54. "Orders of battle" . Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  55. Perrett p.160-70
  56. "The Road To Rome: Italian Campaign 1943-1944". Flames of War. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  57. Joslen, p. 372
  58. Buffs at Regiments.org.
  59. 1st KAVC at Regiments.org.
  60. 372–413 RA Rgts at British Army 1945 on.
  61. Buffs at British Army 1945 on.
  62. Norman E.H. Litchfield, The Territorial Artillery 1908–1988 (Their Lineage, Uniforms and Badges), Nottingham: Sherwood Press, 1992, ISBN   0-9508205-2-0, p. 110.
  63. "History of the Regiment". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  64. "Canterbury City Council Online". Unique national museum link for Canterbury. CCC. 4 September 2000. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
  65. "Army Museum; Ogilby Trust". Buffs, Royal East Kent Regiment Museum Collection. 2010. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  66. "No. 28307". The London Gazette . 12 November 1909. p. 8351.
  67. "Sir Francis Doyle: Moyse, the Private of the Buffs". The Heretical Press. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  68. "Sergeant Frederick Milne (Rorkes Drift)". The British Empire. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  69. 1 2 3 "Entry for MOODY, Colonel Richard Stanley Hawks, in Who Was Who (A & C Black, Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016)".
  70. Churchill, Winston L. Spencer (1898). The Story of the Malakand Field Force: an episode of frontier war, CHAPTER XII: AT INAYAT KILA. London, UK: Longmans, Green.
  71. "Obituary of Colonel Richard S. H. Moody, Windsor Paper, 13 March 1930".
  72. "Bibliography for Introduction to Military History (Part1)". University of Kent. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  73. "The Historical Records of The Buffs (East Kent Regiment), 3rd Regiment of Foot, 1914–1919, Naval and Military Press".
  74. "Royal Collection Trust: R. S. H. Moody, Historical Records of The Buffs, East Kent Regiment (3rd Foot) []".
  75. Spagnoly, Tony and Smith, Ted (1999), Cameos of the Western Front: Salient Points Three: Ypres & Picardy 1914-18, Pen and Sword Books Ltd, ISBN   978-0850527902 (pp. 27-31)
  76. "Private Percy James Fellows". Wartime Memories. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  77. "Bernard George Ellis". The Comprehensive Guide to the Victoria & George Cross. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  78. "Obituary: William Douglas-Home". The Independent. 29 September 1992. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  79. "No. 2106". The London Gazette . 21 January 1685. p. 2.
  80. 1 2 3 Edwards, T J (1953). Standards, Guidons and Colours of the Commonwealth Forces. Aldershot: Gale & Polden. pp. 192, 195, 204.
  81. G.O. 41/1881 1 May 1881 amended by G.O.70/1881 1 July 1881. "X. The facings, and the Officers lace will be the same for all regiments belonging to the same Country (Royal and Rifle Regiments excepted), and will as follows: English Regiments: Facings – White, Pattern of Lace – Rose"
  82. Kipling, Arthur L; King, Hugh L (2006). Head-Dress Badges of the British Army: Volume One – Up to The end of the Great War. Uckfield: Naval & Military Press. p. 140. ISBN   1-84342-512-2.
  83. Blaxland, Gregory (1972). The Buffs . Oxford: Osprey. p.  21. ISBN   978-0-85045-064-4.
  84. "Naval and Military Intelligence". The Times . 13 September 1890. p. 7. The regimental colours will in future be buff instead of white; and the Commander-in-Chief has directed that the facings of the regiment be described in the Queen's Regulations and the Army List as buff.
  85. Churchill, Colin (2002). History of the British Army Infantry Collar Badge. Uckfield: Naval & Military Press. pp. 26–28. ISBN   978-1-897632-69-7.
  86. W.Y. Carman, page 160 "British Military Uniforms from Contemporary Pictures", The Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd, 1957

Sources

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The Lancashire Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that saw distinguished service through many years and wars, including the Second Boer War, the First and Second World Wars, and had many different titles throughout its 280 years of existence. In 1968 the regiment was amalgamated with the other regiments of the Fusilier Brigade–the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, Royal Warwickshire Fusiliers and the Royal Fusiliers –to form the current Royal Regiment of Fusiliers.

Cheshire Regiment

The Cheshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales' Division. The 22nd Regiment of Foot was raised by the Duke of Norfolk in 1689 and was able to boast an independent existence of over 300 years. The regiment was expanded in 1881 as part of the Childers Reforms by the linking of the 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment of Foot and the militia and rifle volunteers of Cheshire. The title 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment continued to be used within the regiment.

Green Howards former infantry regiment of the British Army

The Green Howards , frequently known as the Yorkshire Regiment until the 1920s, was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, in the King's Division. Raised in 1688, it served under various titles until it was amalgamated with the Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire and the Duke of Wellington's Regiment, all Yorkshire-based regiments in the King's Division, to form the Yorkshire Regiment on 6 June 2006.

South Wales Borderers Former infantry regiment of the British Army

The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years.

Queens Own Royal West Kent Regiment

The Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army based in the county of Kent in existence from 1881 to 1961. The regiment was created on 1 July 1881 as part of the Childers Reforms, originally as the Queen's Own , by the amalgamation of the 50th Regiment of Foot and the 97th Regiment of Foot. In January 1921, the regiment was renamed the Royal West Kent Regiment and, in April of the same year, was again renamed, this time as the Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment.

Highland Light Infantry

The Highland Light Infantry (HLI) was a light infantry regiment of the British Army formed in 1881. It took part in the First and Second World Wars, until it was amalgamated with the Royal Scots Fusiliers in 1959 to form the Royal Highland Fusiliers which later merged with the Royal Scots Borderers, the Black Watch, the Highlanders and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland, becoming the 2nd Battalion of the new regiment.

Royal Warwickshire Regiment

The Royal Warwickshire Regiment, previously titled the 6th Regiment of Foot, was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in continuous existence for 283 years. The regiment saw service in many conflicts and wars, including the Second Boer War and both the First and Second World Wars. On 1 May 1963, the regiment was re-titled, for the final time, as the Royal Warwickshire Fusiliers and became part of the Fusilier Brigade.

Seaforth Highlanders military unit

The Seaforth Highlanders was a historic line infantry regiment of the British Army, mainly associated with large areas of the northern Highlands of Scotland. The regiment existed from 1881 to 1961, and saw service in World War I and World War II, along with many smaller conflicts. In 1961 the regiment was amalgamated with the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders to form the Queen's Own Highlanders, which merged, in 1994, with the Gordon Highlanders to form the Highlanders. This, however, later joined the Royal Scots Borderers, the Black Watch, the Royal Highland Fusiliers and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to create the present Royal Regiment of Scotland.

Royal Norfolk Regiment Infantry regiment of the British Army

The Royal Norfolk Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army until 1959. Its predecessor regiment was raised in 1685 as Henry Cornwall's Regiment of Foot. In 1751, it was numbered like most other British Army regiments and named the 9th Regiment of Foot.

Royal Lincolnshire Regiment

The Royal Lincolnshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army raised on 20 June 1685 as the Earl of Bath's Regiment for its first Colonel, John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath. In 1751, it was numbered like most other Army regiments and named the 10th Regiment of Foot. After the Childers Reforms of 1881, it became the Lincolnshire Regiment after the county where it had been recruiting since 1781.

Devonshire Regiment

The Devonshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army which served under various titles and served in many wars and conflicts from 1685 to 1958, such as the Second Boer War, the First World War and the Second World War. In 1958 the regiment was amalgamated with the Dorset Regiment to form the Devonshire and Dorset Regiment which, in 2007, was amalgamated with the Royal Gloucestershire, Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment, the Royal Green Jackets and The Light Infantry to form a new large regiment, The Rifles.

Middlesex Regiment

The Middlesex Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 until 1966. The regiment was formed, as the Duke of Cambridge's Own , in 1881 as part of the Childers Reforms when the 57th and 77th Regiments of Foot were amalgamated with the county's militia and rifle volunteer units.

Royal Sussex Regiment British Army regiment

The Royal Sussex Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that was in existence from 1881 to 1966. The regiment was formed in 1881 as part of the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 35th Regiment of Foot and the 107th Regiment of Foot. The regiment saw service in the Second Boer War, and both World War I and World War II.

31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment of Foot

The 31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1702. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 70th (Surrey) Regiment of Foot to form the East Surrey Regiment in 1881.

Royal Leicestershire Regiment

The Leicestershire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, with a history going back to 1688. The regiment saw service for three centuries, in numerous wars and conflicts such as both World War I and World War II, before being amalgamated, in September 1964, with the 1st East Anglian Regiment, the 2nd East Anglian Regiment and the 3rd East Anglian Regiment to form the present day Royal Anglian Regiment, of which B Company of the 2nd Battalion continues the lineage of the Royal Leicestershire Regiment.

East Yorkshire Regiment

The East Yorkshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, first raised in 1685 as Sir William Clifton's Regiment of Foot and later renamed the 15th Regiment of Foot. It saw service for three centuries, before eventually being amalgamated with the West Yorkshire Regiment in 1958, to form the Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire. Subsequently, the regiment amalgamated with the Green Howards and the Duke of Wellington's Regiment to form the Yorkshire Regiment on 6 June 2006.

Suffolk Regiment military unit

The Suffolk Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army with a history dating back to 1685. It saw service for three centuries, participating in many wars and conflicts, including the First and Second World Wars, before being amalgamated with the Royal Norfolk Regiment to form the 1st East Anglian Regiment in 1959 which, in 1964, was further amalgamated with the 2nd East Anglian Regiment, the 3rd East Anglian Regiment and the Royal Leicestershire Regiment to create the present Royal Anglian Regiment.

Kings Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster)

The King's Own Royal Regiment (Lancaster) was a line infantry regiment of the British Army. It served under various titles and fought in many wars and conflicts, including both the First and the Second World Wars, from 1680 to 1959. In 1959, the regiment was amalgamated with the Border Regiment to form the King's Own Royal Border Regiment.

Northamptonshire Regiment infantry regiment of the British Army from 1881 to 1960

The Northamptonshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 until 1960. In 1960, it was amalgamated with the Royal Lincolnshire Regiment to form the 2nd East Anglian Regiment, which was amalgamated with the 1st East Anglian Regiment, the 3rd East Anglian Regiment and the Royal Leicestershire Regiment to form the present Royal Anglian Regiment.