Third Anglo-Afghan War

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Third Anglo-Afghan War
Part of the Interwar Period
Date6 May – 8 August 1919
Location
Result

Treaty of Rawalpindi

  • Afghan diplomatic victory [1]
  • Inconclusive military operation [2]
  • Reaffirmation of the Durand Line
  • Afghan independence with full sovereignty in foreign affairs
Belligerents

Flag of Afghanistan (1919-1921).svg  Afghanistan

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom

Commanders and leaders
Strength
50,000-man standing army supported by up to 80,000 tribesmen 8 divisions, 5 independent brigades and 3 cavalry brigades, plus a number of modern aircraft, armoured cars and artillery
Casualties and losses
approx. 1,000 killed [3] 236 killed in action, 1,516 wounded or died of disease. [4]
Part of a series on the
History of Afghanistan
Shuja Shah Durrani of Afghanistan in 1839.jpg
Timeline
Associated Historical Names for the Region

The Third Anglo-Afghan War (Persian : جنگ سوم افغان-انگلیس), also known as the Third Afghan War, the British-Afghan war of 1919 [5] and in Afghanistan as the War of Independence, [5] began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] The war resulted in the Afghans winning back control of foreign affairs from Britain, and the British recognizing Afghanistan as an independent nation. [11] According to British author Michael Barthorp, it was also a minor strategic victory for the British because the Durand Line was reaffirmed as the political boundary between Afghanistan and the British Raj, and the Afghans agreed not to foment trouble on the British side.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Emirate of Afghanistan emirate in Central Asia between 1823-1926

The Emirate of Afghanistan was an emirate between Central Asia and South Asia, which is now today's Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The emirate emerged from the Durrani Empire, when Dost Mohammed Khan, the founder of the Barakzai dynasty in Kabul, prevailed. The history of the Emirate was dominated by 'the Great Game' between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom for supremacy in Central Asia. This period was characterized by the expansion of European colonial interests in South Asia. The Emirate of Afghanistan continued the war with the Sikh Empire, which led to the invasion of Afghanistan by British-led Indian forces who did not accomplish their war objectives. However, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the British again fought against the Afghans and this time the British took control of Afghanistan's foreign affairs until Emir Amanullah Khan regained them after the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 was signed following the Third Anglo-Afghan War.

Armistice situation in a war where the warring parties agree to stop fighting

An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting. It is not necessarily the end of a war, since it may constitute only a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace. It is derived from the Latin arma, meaning "arms" and -stitium, meaning "a stopping".

Contents

Background

The root cause of the Third Anglo-Afghan War lies many years before the actual fighting commenced. For the British in India, Afghanistan was long seen as a potential source of threat. For a long time the British worried about Russian intentions in the region, concerned that a possible invasion of India could be launched by Tsarist forces through Afghanistan. [12] This period became known as the Great Game. In an effort to negate this threat, the British made numerous attempts at imposing their will upon Kabul, and over the course of the 19th Century fought two wars: the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839–42) and the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–80). [13] [14]

Russian Empire Former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

Kabul Metropolis and municipality in Afghanistan

Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country. It is also a municipality, forming part of the greater Kabul Province. According to estimates in 2015, the population of Kabul is 4.635 million, which includes all the major ethnic groups of Afghanistan. Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the world's 75th largest city.

First Anglo-Afghan War one of the first major conflicts during the Great Game

The First Anglo-Afghan War was fought between the British East India Company and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842. Initially, the British successfully intervened in a succession dispute between emir Dost Mohammad (Barakzai) and former emir Shah Shujah (Durrani), whom they installed upon conquering Kabul in August 1839. The main British Indian and Sikh force occupying Kabul along with their camp followers, having endured harsh winters as well, was almost completely annihilated while retreating in January 1842. The British then sent an Army of Retribution to Kabul to avenge their defeat, and having demolished parts of the capital and recovered prisoners they left Afghanistan altogether by the end of the year. Dost Mohamed returned from exile in India to resume his rule.

The end of the Second Afghan War in 1880 marked the beginning of almost 40 years of good relations between Britain and Afghanistan under the leadership of Abdur Rahman Khan and Habibullah Khan, during which time the British attempted to manage Afghan foreign policy through the payment of a large subsidy. [15] Ostensibly, the country remained independent, however under the Treaty of Gandumak (1879) it accepted that in external matters it would "...have no windows looking on the outside world, except towards India". [15]

Abdur Rahman Khan Emir of Afghanistan, 1880-1901

Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. He is known for uniting the country after years of internal fighting. He is also known for signing the controversial Durand Line Agreement with British India.

Habibullah Khan Emir of Afghanistan (1901-1919)

Habibullah Khan was the Emir of Afghanistan from 1901 until 1919. He was the eldest son of the Emir Abdur Rahman Khan, whom he succeeded by right of primogeniture in October 1901. His grandfather was Mohammad Afzal Khan.

Treaty of Gandamak

The Treaty of Gandamak officially ended the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mohammad Yaqub Khan ceded various frontier areas to Britain while retaining full sovereignty over Afghanistan.

The death in 1901 of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan led indirectly to the war that began 18 years later. His successor, Habibullah, was a pragmatic leader who sided with Britain or Russia, depending on Afghan interests. [16] [17] Despite considerable resentment over not being consulted over the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 (Convention of St. Petersburg), Afghanistan remained neutral during the First World War (1914–18), resisting considerable pressure from the Ottoman Empire when it entered the conflict on the side of Imperial Germany and the Sultan (as titular leader of Islam) called for a holy war against the Allies. [18]

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Jihad is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim. In an Islamic context, it can refer to almost any effort to make personal and social life conform with God's guidance, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, religious proselytizing, or efforts toward the moral betterment of the ummah, though it is most frequently associated with war. In classical Islamic law, the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers, while modernist Islamic scholars generally equate military jihad with defensive warfare. In Sufi and pious circles, spiritual and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of greater jihad. The term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by terrorist groups.

Despite remaining neutral in the conflict, Habibullah did in fact accept a Turkish-German mission in Kabul and military assistance from the Central Powers as he attempted to play both sides of the conflict for the best deal. [17] [19] Through continual prevarication he resisted numerous requests for assistance, however he failed to keep in check troublesome tribal leaders, intent on undermining British rule in India, as Turkish agents attempted to foment trouble along the frontier. [18] The departure of a large part of the British Indian Army to fight overseas and news of British defeats at the hands of the Turks aided Turkish agents in efforts at sedition, and in 1915 there was unrest amongst the Mohmands and then the Mahsuds. Not withstanding these outbreaks, the frontier generally remained settled at a time when Britain could ill afford trouble. [18]

Central Powers group of countries defeated in World War I

The Central Powers, consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria—hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance —was one of the two main coalitions that fought World War I (1914–18).

Mohmand (Pashto:مومند) is a Pashtun tribe son of Daulatyar tribe grandson of Ghoryakhel mainly live in Nangarhar, Afghanistan and Mohmand Agency, FATA.

The Mahsud or Mehsud, also spelled Maseed, is a Karlani Pashtun tribe inhabiting mostly the South Waziristan Agency in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. A minor number of Maseed lineages are settled in the Logar Province of Afghanistan, especially in Charkh District, Baraki barak and Muhammad Agha, but also in Wardak, Ghazni and Kunduz Provinces. The Maseeds inhabit the center and north of South Waziristan valley, surrounded on three sides by the Darweshkhel Wazirs, and being shut off by the Bettanis on the east from the Derajat and Bannu districts. Two Pashtun tribes, the Ahmadzai Wazirs and the Maseeds, inhabit and dominate South Waziristan. Within the heart of Maseed territory in South Waziristan lies the influential Ormur (Burki) tribe's stronghold of Kaniguram. The Ormurs are considered by other tribes of South Waziristan to be close brethren of the Maseeds due to marital and other ties and the fact that the Ormurs have lived in and controlled Kaniguram for over a thousand years. There are also some Maseeds living in the UAE, Germany and the United Kingdom.

A Turco-German mission left Kabul in 1916. By that time, however, it had successfully convinced Habibullah that Afghanistan was an independent nation and that it should be beholden to no one. With the end of the First World War, Habibullah sought to gain reward from the British government for his assistance during the war. Looking for British recognition of Afghanistan's independence in foreign affairs, he demanded a seat at the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919. This request was denied by the Viceroy, Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, on the grounds that attendance at the conference was confined to the belligerents. Further negotiations were scheduled, but before they could begin Habibullah was assassinated on 19 February 1919. [16] [18] [20]

Frederic John Napier Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, was a British statesman who served as Governor of Queensland from 1905 to 1909, Governor of New South Wales from 1909 to 1913, and Viceroy of India from 1916 to 1921, where he was responsible for the creation of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms. After serving a short time as First Lord of the Admiralty in the government of Ramsay MacDonald, he was appointed the Agent-General for New South Wales by the government of Jack Lang before his retirement.

A belligerent is an individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat. Belligerent comes from Latin, literally meaning "one who wages war". Unlike the use of belligerent as an adjective to mean aggressive, its use as a noun does not necessarily imply that a belligerent country is an aggressor.

This resulted in a power struggle as Habibullah's brother Nasrullah Khan proclaimed himself as Habibullah's successor, while in Kabul Amanullah, Habibullah's third son, had also proclaimed himself Amir. However, the Afghan army suspected Amanullah's complicity in the death of his father. Needing a way of cementing his power, upon seizing the throne in April 1919 Amanullah posed as a man of democratic ideals, promising reforms in the system of government. He stated that there should be no forced labour, tyranny or oppression, and that Afghanistan should be free and independent and no longer bound by the Treaty of Gandamak. [15]

Upon seizing the throne, Amanullah had his uncle Nasrullah arrested for Habibullah's murder and had him sentenced to life imprisonment. Nasrullah had been the leader of a more conservative element in Afghanistan and his treatment rendered Amanullah's position as Amir somewhat tenuous. By April 1919 he realised that if he could not find a way to placate the conservatives he would be unlikely to maintain his hold on power. Looking for a diversion from the internal strife in the Afghan court and sensing advantage in the rising civil unrest in India following the Amritsar massacre, [21] [Note 1] Amanullah decided to invade British India. [22] [23]

Opposing forces

In 1919 the Afghan regular army was not a very formidable force, and was only able to muster some 50,000 men. These men were organised into 21 cavalry regiments and 75 infantry battalions, with about 280 modern artillery pieces, organised into 70 batteries, in support. [24] In addition to this, however, in a boost to the army's strength, the Afghan command could call upon the loyalty of up to 80,000 frontier tribesmen and an indeterminate number of deserters from local militia units under British command. In reality, the Afghan regular army was not ready for war. As in past years, the upper levels of the officer corps were riddled with political intrigue. In his book on the campaign, Lieutenant-General George Molesworth gave the following evaluation of the Amir's army:

Afghan regular units...were ill-trained, ill-paid, and probably under strength. The cavalry was little better than indifferent infantry mounted on equally indifferent ponies. Rifles varied between modern German, Turkish and British types, to obsolete Martinis and Snyders. Few infantry units had bayonets. Artillery was ponydrawn, or pack, and included modern 10cm Krupp howitzers, 75mm Krupp mountain guns and ancient 7 pounder weapons. There were a few, very old, four-barrel Gardiner machine guns. Ammunition was in short supply and distribution must have been very difficult. For the artillery much black powder was used, both as a propellent and bursting charge for shells. The Kabul arsenal workshops were elementary and mainly staffed by Sikh artificers with much ingenuity but little real skill. There was no organised transport and arrangements for supply were rudimentary. [25]

In support of the regulars, the Afghan command expected to call out the tribes, which could gather up to 20,000 or 30,000 Afridi fighters in the Khyber region alone. In stark contrast to the regulars, the tribal lashkars were probably the best troops that the Afghans had, being of excellent fighting quality, well armed, mainly with weapons that they had made themselves or stolen from the garrisons and with plenty of ammunition. [26]

In meeting this threat, the British could call on a much larger force. In May 1919, the British and British Indian Army, not including frontier militia, totalled eight divisions, as well as five independent brigades of infantry and three of cavalry. [24] However, of this force the entire North-West Frontier Province had three infantry divisions and two cavalry brigades, although there was also GHQ India's central reserve of one infantry division and one cavalry brigade. From this they formed a striking force of two infantry divisions and two cavalry brigades for offensive operations on the Kyber front with the possibility of using it also in the Tochi and Kurram areas. One infantry division and a so-called "mounted" brigade were also detailed for operations on the BaluchistanZhob front. [27] There were also three frontier brigades as well as a number of frontier militia and irregular corps. [28]

Artillery was also in short supply, and the three frontier divisions each had a British field artillery brigade of the Royal Field Artillery with two batteries of 18-pdrs and one battery of 4.5-inch howitzers, and an Indian mountain brigade with two batteries of 2.75-inch mountain guns. There were also two batteries of tractor drawn 6-inch howitzer and two British mountain batteries of the Royal Garrison Artillery, and were reinforced with 3.7-inch mountain howitzers. However, most batteries had only four guns. Finally there were also 15 pounder guns of the Frontier Garrison Artillery. [29]

A Royal Air Force Handley Page Type O Handley Page V1500.jpg
A Royal Air Force Handley Page Type O

Machine guns, at least on the Khyber front, were old .303 Maxims. The British gained a command and control advantage with their use of motor transport and wireless communications while armoured cars and RAF detachments increased their firepower and reach, the latter being demonstrated to the Afghans by a bombing raid on Kabul itself. [28] They could also direct the fire of the 60-pdrs. [29] The RAF squadrons involved were No. 31 Squadron and No. 114 Squadron. [30]

But the main problem for the British was discontent among their soldiers. The troops in India were no longer as uncritical as they had been when considering what they were being asked to do. [31] Like other units of the British Army many of the troops considered the war over and looked forward to being demobilised. The Indian Army had been heavily committed to the First World War and had suffered a large number of casualties. [Note 2] Many of its units still had not returned from overseas, and those that had, had begun the process of demobilisation and as such many regiments had lost almost all their most experienced men. [24] [32] Likewise, the British Army in India had been gutted. Prior to 1914 there had been 61 British regiments [Note 3] serving in India. However, of these all but 10 (two cavalry and eight infantry) had been withdrawn in order to fight in Europe or the Middle East. In their place, units of the Territorial Army (TA), part-time soldiers usually only intended for home defence but who had volunteered for overseas service, had been sent in order to release regular units for the fighting in France. [Note 4] After four years of mundane garrison duty, away from their families and disaffected, most of these men were really only interested in demobilisation and returning to Britain to get on with their lives. They were in no way prepared for a hard fought campaign on the Indian frontier. [19] [28]

Course of the war

The conflict began on 3 May 1919 when Afghan troops crossed the frontier at the western end of the Khyber Pass and captured the town of Bagh. [24] Bagh was strategically important to the British and Indians as it provided water to Landi Kotal, which was at the time garrisoned by just two companies of troops from the British Indian Army. [24] Although initially considered a minor border infraction, this attack was actually part of the wider invasion plan. For whatever reason the attack had been launched ahead of schedule, however, for Amanullah had intended initially to time it to coincide with an uprising that was being planned in Peshawar for 8 May. This served to alert the British Chief Commissioner of the North West Frontier, Sir George Roos-Keppel, who had become aware of the plan [24] and as a result he was able to successfully convince the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford, of the need to respond to the occupation of Bagh before it led to further unrest in Peshawar. [28]

In response to this the British Indian government declared war upon Afghanistan on 6 May and ordered a general mobilisation of the British and Indian forces. [19] [33] It was decided next that the two companies of Sikhs and Gurkhas that had been sent to Landi Kotal needed to be reinforced, however, the mobilisation process had only just begun and at that stage there was only one battalion available for this, so on 7 May the 2nd Battalion, Somerset Light Infantry [19] were brought up clandestinely through the Khyber Pass aboard a convoy of 37 lorries. [28] [34]

Meanwhile, a cordon was thrown around Peshawar and demands were made for the population to hand over the uprising's ringleaders. Amid threats that the city's water supply would be cut, the inhabitants complied and by dawn on 8 May the situation in the city was under control and the threat of an uprising abated. [28]

By this stage more reinforcements were available and the garrison at Landi Kotal grew to brigade-size, with the arrival of the rest of the 1st Infantry Brigade under Brigadier G.D. Crocker. [28] [35] On 9 May the British and Indian troops launched an attack on the Afghans that had seized Bagh the previous week. The attack, however, failed when the brigade commander decided to split his forces and detach almost half his force to protect his flank and as a result was unable to achieve the necessary concentration of force to capture all of his objectives. [28] [36] Coinciding with this, three BE2c aircraft from the Royal Air Force carried out a bombing raid on Dacca in Afghanistan, attacking a group of hostile tribesmen. [28] [37] [Note 5]

A Royal Air Force BE2C Avro BE2C ExCC.jpg
A Royal Air Force BE2C

Following this the 2nd and 3rd Infantry Brigades of the 1st Infantry Division were dispatched from Nowshera and Abbottabad, concentrating at Jamrud and Kacha Garhi. At the same time, the 6th Brigade from the 2nd Infantry Division moved up to Peshawar from Rawalpindi to help quell the unrest there. [38] Two days later, on 11 May, a second attack was made on Bagh by the 1st and 2nd Infantry Brigades, under Major General Fowler, and this time it proved successful. [39] Supported with 22 machine guns and 18 artillery pieces, the attack was preceded by a thirty-minute preparation bombardment before being carried by the 2nd Battalion, North Staffordshire Regiment and two battalions from the 11th Gurkhas who charged into the Afghan positions with bayonets fixed and drove them into the Lower Khyber where they were subjected to further indirect fire from mountain guns that had been set up in ambush. [19] [28] As the Afghans were forced back over the border the RAF followed them across and carried out a number of bombing runs. The rout was total and the tribesman that might have otherwise have been expected to counterattack in support of the Afghans decided against doing so, instead turning their efforts to looting the battlefield and gathering the arms and ammunition that the retreating Afghans had left behind. [19] Casualties during the battle, later known as the Second Battle of Bagh, amounted to 100 Afghans killed and 300 wounded, while the British and Indian forces lost eight killed and 31 wounded. [40]

Although Amanullah continued to profess that he had no untoward intentions, Roos-Keppel decided that it was prudent to continue the advance and ordered the army to pursue the Afghans across the border. [28] On 13 May British and Indian troops seized control of the western Khyber without opposition and occupied Dacca, [19] however, the British camp was poorly sited for defence and as a consequence they came under an intense long-range artillery barrage from Afghan artillery before Amanullah launched an infantry assault on them. This assault was defeated and the British launched a counter-attack the following day, however, they were unable to consolidate their position and as a result it was not until 17 May that the area was secured and the Afghans withdrew. [28]

Meanwhile, the previous day, British and Indian forces had launched an attack on 'Stonehenge Ridge', where an Afghan force of about 3,000 men had established themselves with a number of artillery pieces and machine guns. [41] Under cover of a preliminary bombardment to soften up the Afghan defences, men from the 11th Sikhs had launched the initial assault, however, they were forced to stop their attack when they ran out of ammunition at 08.00 hours, and although a resupply was effected at 10.30 hours, [42] it was not until 14.00 hours that the attack was able to be recommenced. [43] By this time the troops were exposed to the heat of the day; nevertheless, after another barrage was called down, the Sikhs attacked the Afghan line despite the heat and the attack was carried to the top of the ridge. Upon reaching the escarpment they found that the Afghans had left the battlefield, leaving most of their equipment, artillery and a number of standards. [44] During the assault the British and Indian forces lost 22 killed and 157 wounded, while Afghan losses were estimated at around 200 killed and 400 wounded. [41]

At this time, however, trouble struck in the British rear along their line of communications through the Khyber where the Khyber Rifles began to become disaffected by the situation and began to desert en masse. As a result, it was decided to disarm and disband the regiment in an effort to stop the spread of similar sentiment to other regiments. [45] Following this Lord Chelmsford decided that the situation could be resolved by continuing the advance further into Afghanistan and gave the order for the brigade in Dacca to march towards Jalalabad, however, this order was unable to be carried out as fighting broke out further to the south and in the eastern Khyber. [44]

As part of the attack on the Khyber, secondary attacks had been planned on Quetta and Kurram, and in the north in Chitral state and in the south in Baluchistan and the Zhob Valley. [46] On 23 May the British posts around the Kurram Valley had to be abandoned. [44] The following day Handley Page bombers attacked Kabul; [Note 6] however, it did little to stem the tide and the supply situation in Landi Kotal grew worse. [44]

On 27 May the British commander in Quetta decided to attack the Afghan fortress at Spin Baldak, capturing it (the last time the British Army used an escalade) [47] and, in the process, seized the initiative in the south; however, the situation in the centre of the war zone, around Kurram, remained desperate for the British. The Afghan forces in this area were under the command of General Nadir Khan [Note 7] and he possessed a force of some 14 battalions. Against this, the British at Thal, under Brigadier General Alexander Eustace, possessed only four battalions. [48] To make matters worse, the only troops protecting the upper Tochi Valley were the disaffected North Waziristan Militia. Concerned that they would rise up against him if left to their own devices, Eustace gave the order to abandon the militia outposts but in doing so precipitated the desertion of many of the militiamen. [49] This disaffection spread and the South Waziristan Militia in Wana turned on their officers and any men who had remained loyal and attacked them. The survivors, under Major Russell, the commandant, were forced to fight their way out to a column of the North Zhob Militia which had been sent out to relieve them. [44] [49] [50]

Seeing that the situation was deteriorating for the British and seeing an opportunity, Nadir Khan decided to attack Thal. As the Frontier Constabulary had abandoned their posts, on the night of 28/29 May the Afghans were able to occupy a tower 500 yards (460 m) from the fort and from there they were able to set fire to a number of food dumps. [51] This made the situation in the fort dire, as the supply situation had already been low, however, other factors stacked up against the British. Eustace's force was outnumbered and outgunned. He possessed no regular British infantry and his four battalions were all inexperienced Indian units, consisting mainly of young recruits. [11] After repelling an infantry assault on 29 May, the following day the garrison was subjected to a heavy bombardment from Afghan guns. [51] As a result of this, the British decided to bring the 16th Infantry Division, consisting of the 45th and 46th Infantry Brigades, up to Peshawar from Lahore, [51] for the purpose of advancing on Jalalabad and have it move up to Kurram. [11] While part of the division was detached to defend Kohat, the 45th Infantry Brigade under Brigadier General Reginald Dyer—who had been at the centre of the Amritsar massacre—set out to relieve Eustace's force at Thal. [52] Dyer's force consisted of only one British battalion, the 1st/25th London Regiment, as well as Dogras, Punjabis and Gurkhas, and short of rations and possessing no transport, they were forced to march through intense heat to effect the relief. [11]

Despite the conditions, however, the British and Indian troops under Dyer's command rose to the occasion and covered the last 18 miles (29 km) in under 12 hours [11] and on 1 June they ran into a blocking force of tribesman that barred both the northern and southern approaches to Thal. Dyer attacked both ends with his artillery, while sending his infantry against the southern approach. Unable to withstand the attack, the tribesmen withdrew and as a result the way through to Eustace's garrison was cleared. [11] During the siege, the British suffered 94 casualties, of which eight were killed, four died of wounds and 82 were wounded. [53]

The next day, 2 June, at dawn Dyer's brigade launched an attack on the Afghan regulars that were positioned away to the west of Thal and as this attack went in Nadir Khan sent out an envoy to deliver a message to the brigade commander. [44] The message told Dyer that Amir Amanullah had ordered Nadir Khan to cease hostilities and Nadir Khan asked Dyer to acknowledge that he would honour the request for an armistice that Amanullah had sent to the British Indian government on 31 May. Unaware that this request had been made, and uncertain as to whether the message and request for a cease fire was a ruse on Nadir Khan's part, Dyer decided that he would not take any chances and sent the reply: "My guns will give an immediate reply, but your letter will be forwarded to the Divisional Commander". [44] [54]

After this Dyer continued his attack and as Nadir Khan's force withdrew from the area, Dyer followed them up with cavalry and armoured cars from the 37th Lancers, while the RAF, using machine guns and iron bombs, attacked and dispersed about 400 tribesmen that were in the area and which posed a threat of counterattack. [11] [55]

On 3 June, the Afghan camp at Yusef Khel was seized by two platoons from the 1st/25th London and two troops from the 37th Lancers supported by a section of guns from the 89th Battery, and shortly afterwards the armistice was signed. With this a cease fire came into effect, however, some fighting continued, particularly in Chitral and in North Baluchistan, [56] and it was not until 8 August 1919 that the settlement was finally concluded when the Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed. [57]

Importance of British airpower

Although limited in numbers and quality, [Note 8] airpower proved to be one of the greatest assets that the British possessed during this conflict. Not only did it allow them to extend their reach beyond the border and bomb Kabul, but it also enabled them to harass the retreating enemy and to break up tribesmen as they attempted to form larger groups prior to launching an attack. The ability of the British to project airpower, even small scale raids, had considerable psychological effects. For example, the single-plane raid on the palace which took place of 24 May 1919, although effecting little actual damage nevertheless greatly impacted the morale of Afghan citizens and contributed to bringing King Amanullah to request an armistice. [58]

Indeed, as a result of the war and the lessons that were learned about the potential of airpower in the region, following the war, the Chief of the Air Staff, Sir Hugh Trenchard, proposed controlling the frontier by air power alone. This plan had proved highly successful in Mesopotamia, Aden and the Transjordan, however, due to the uniqueness of the North-West Frontier and also due to inter-service politics the plan was not accepted until later. In 1937, it was eventually decided that should another war break out with Afghanistan, or in the event of a major tribal uprising, the RAF would take the offensive, while the ground forces would act defensively. [59]

King Amanullah objected to the British about the air raids on Kabul citing British condemnation of the German Zeppelin attacks on London. In his letter to the British government he said, "It is a matter of great regret that the throwing of bombs by Zeppelins on London was denounced as a most savage act and the bombardment of places of worship and sacred spots was considered a most abominable operation, while now we see with our own eyes that such operations were a habit which is prevalent amongst all civilized people of the West." [60] During the course of the conflict, British aircraft losses included at least one plane crashed and two shot down. [61]

Outcome

2nd/5th Royal Gurkha Rifles, North-West Frontier 1923 5thRoyalGurkhaRiflesNorth-WestFrontier1923.JPG
2nd/5th Royal Gurkha Rifles, North-West Frontier 1923

Casualties during the conflict amounted to approximately 1,000 Afghans killed in action, [3] while the British and Indian forces lost 236 killed in action. In addition, 615 were wounded, 566 died from cholera, and 334 died as a result of other diseases and accidents. [4] Regardless of casualties, the outcome of the Third Anglo-Afghan War remains contentious. Ostensibly, the result of the conflict was a British tactical victory. This is by virtue of the fact that the British repulsed the Afghan invasion and drove them from Indian territory, while Afghan cities were subjected to attack by Royal Air Force bombers. Nevertheless, The Afghans were ultimately able to secure their strategic political goals in the aftermath of the conflict. Thus the extent of the British tactical victory was limited, and the Afghans also made strategic gains. [11]

The circumstances behind the war were complicated as was the final settlement. In going to war in 1919 against British India, Amir Amanullah's war aims were complicated. Even up against a depleted British Indian Army, a tactical victory was unlikely; however, the war served the dual purpose of deflecting domestic criticism and also offering the opportunity for strategic political gains. [15] [22] As a result of the peace treaty that was negotiated, the British ceased payment of the Afghan subsidy, and thus ended their claim to direct Afghan foreign policy, which had been the pro quid quo of the Emir accepting the subsidy. The British had traditionally wanted Afghanistan as a buffer state between India and the Russian Empire. In 1919, the Russian Civil War was raging and any threat from Russia to India at the time was potential rather than real. Moreover, the British were by far the largest supporters of the White movement in the Russian Civil War with the British contributing more arms to the Whites than all of the other nations supporting the Whites did combined. [62] It was assumed in London that if the Whites won the Civil War, a new era in Anglo-Russian relations might possibly open as the victorious Whites might be grateful for British support, rendering the need for a buffer state in Central Asia irrelevant. The British also stopped arms sales from India to Afghanistan. But, as British influence declined, the Afghans were able to gain control of their own foreign affairs and in the aftermath emerged as a fully independent state. [15] The British also made some political gains, most notably the reaffirmation of the Durand Line – which had long been a contentious issue between the two nations – as the political boundary separating Afghanistan from the North-West Frontier, and the undertaking that the Afghans made to stop interference on the British side of the line. [15]

Although the fighting concluded in August 1919, its effects continued to be felt in the region for some time afterwards. The nationalism and disruption that it had sparked stirred up more unrest in the years to come, particularly in Waziristan. [63] The tribesmen, always ready to exploit governmental weakness, whether real or perceived, banded together in the common cause of disorder and unrest. They had become well-armed as a result of the conflict, whence they benefitted greatly from the weapons and ammunition that the Afghans had left behind and from an influx of manpower in large numbers of deserters from the militia that had joined their ranks. With these additions they launched a campaign of resistance against British authority on the North-West Frontier that was to last until the end of the Raj. [63]

Battle honours

British and Indian infantry units that participated in the conflict received the battle honour "Afghanistan 1919". No other battle honours for individual engagements were issued. Additionally, unlike the first two Anglo-Afghan wars where individual campaign ribbons were issued for separate engagements, no campaign medal was struck for this conflict. Instead, participation in this conflict was recognised by a clasp to the India General Service Medal (1908–1935). [64]

The award of the battle honour was made in four separate Army and Governor General's orders. The earliest, Army Order 97/24, granted the honour to 14 British units. [65] Governor General's Order 193/26 made awards to Indian Army Corps. [66] Governor General's Order 1409/26 made awards to Indian States Forces [66] and finally a further Governor General's Order in 1927 made awards to a further three Gurkha regiments. [66]

The Army Order was unusual in that a mistake was made in awarding the Afghanistan 1919 battle honour to The Hampshire Regiment and the 21st Lancers. This was subsequently rectified and the award to these two units was withdrawn. [65]

Pursuant to Army Order 97/24: [67]


Pursuant to Governor General's Order 193/26: [67]

Pursuant to Governor General's Order 1409/26: [67]

Pursuant to Governor General's Order 1927: [67]

Many of these units did not exist at the time of the war but were formed as part of the reorganisation of the Indian Army in 1922, however, the decision was made to award the battle honour to the successor units of those involved in the war. [66] The honour was not awarded to regiments that had been disbanded, [66] e.g. 11th Gurkha Rifles, and that not all units that took part in the war were awarded the battle honour, e.g. 1/5th Battalion, Hampshire Regiment.

See also

Notes

Footnotes

  1. Following a similar trend to what was happening in Afghanistan, there had been a rising nationalist movement in India at the same time, culminating in riots and disorder in Punjab. On 13 April 1919, Dyer learnt that a large political meeting was taking place at the Jallianwala Bagh, an enclosed area in Amritsar. Fearing that the agitators would incite the crowd to violence and murder and that he had a very small force to protect the European community, Dyer marched 50 men into the Bagh and subsequently opened fire, killing 379 and wounding a further 1,500.Collett 2007
  2. The Indian Army sent over a million men overseas, and suffered approximately 115,000 casualties, see First World War casualties.
  3. The term regiments in this case is used to describe infantry battalions, or cavalry regiments.
  4. The order of battle shows, however, that of the 13 British infantry battalions nine were regular, although they had many men who had only volunteered for the First World War. One of the TA battalions had previously been engaged in operations in Waziristan in 1917.
  5. Loyn 2009 , p. 169 identifies these aircraft as two Sopwith Camels.
  6. Loyn 2009 , p. 169 states that there was only one aircraft involved in this attack, although Wilkinson-Latham 1998 , p. 24 describes multiple aircraft.
  7. Loyn 2009 , p. 169 uses the name "Nadir Shah".
  8. Loyn 2009 , pp. 169–170 describes British air assets as being "war torn" and lacking power to fly over the mountains, instead having to fly through the Khyber Pass or using gusts of wind to clear obstacles.

Citations

  1. Lansford 2017, p. 47.
  2. Cavanna 2015, p. xviii.
  3. 1 2 "Third Anglo-Afghan War 1919". OnWar.com. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  4. 1 2 Molesworth 1962, p. vii
  5. 1 2 Muḥammad, Fayz̤; McChesney, R. D. (1999). Kabul under siege: Fayz Muhammad's account of the 1929 Uprising. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 50. ISBN   9781558761544.
  6. Dijk, Ruud van; Gray, William Glenn; Savranskaya, Svetlana; Suri, Jeremi; Zhai, Qiang (13 May 2013). Encyclopedia of the Cold War. Routledge. ISBN   9781135923105.
  7. Adamec, Ludwig W. (2012). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Scarecrow Press. ISBN   9780810878150.
  8. Pazhvāk, ʻabd al-Raḥmān (195?). Aryana, ancient Afghanistan.Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. Jawed, Mohammed Nasir (1996). Year Book of the Muslim World. Medialine.
  10. "Anglo Afghan Wars". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Barthorp 2002 , p. 157
  12. Molesworth 1962 , p. 16
  13. Barthorp 2002 , pp. 27 & 64
  14. Wilkinson-Latham 1998 , pp. 4 & 13
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sidebotham, Herbert (1919). "The Third Afghan War". New Statesman, 16 August 1919. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
  16. 1 2 Wilkinson-Latham 1998 , p. 22
  17. 1 2 Molesworth 1962 , p. 20
  18. 1 2 3 4 Barthorp 2002 , p. 149
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Wilkinson-Latham 1998 , p. 23
  20. Molesworth 1962 , p. 22
  21. Molesworth 1962 , pp. 22–23
  22. 1 2 Barthorp 2002 , pp. 150–151
  23. Collett 2007
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Barthorp 2002 , p. 151
  25. Molesworth 1962 , pp. 25–26
  26. Barthorp 2002 , pp. 147–148
  27. Hughes 1992 , p. 125
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Barthorp 2002 , p. 152
  29. 1 2 Hughes 1992 , p. 126
  30. Cooksley 2000 , pp. 157–158
  31. Putkowski, Julian. "Mutiny in India in 1919". Vol. 8 No. 2. Revolutionary History. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  32. Molesworth 1962 , p. 25
  33. Molesworth 1962 , p. 27
  34. Molesworth 1962 , p. 38
  35. Molesworth 1962 , p. 40
  36. Molesworth 1962 , p. 46
  37. Loyn 2009 , pp. 169–170
  38. Molesworth 1962 , p. 48
  39. Molesworth 1962 , p. 49
  40. Molesworth 1962 , p. 53
  41. 1 2 Molesworth 1962 , p. 69
  42. Wilkinson-Latham 1998 , pp. 23–24
  43. Molesworth 1962 , pp. 65–67
  44. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Wilkinson-Latham 1998 , p. 24
  45. Barthorp 2002 , p. 154
  46. Molesworth 1962 , pp. 135, 147 and 155
  47. Beadle & Harrison 2007 , p. 112
  48. Barthorp 2002 , pp. 154–155
  49. 1 2 Barthorp 2002 , p. 155
  50. Molesworth 1962 , p. 114
  51. 1 2 3 Molesworth 1962 , p. 117
  52. Molesworth 1962 , p. 118
  53. Molesworth 1962 , p. 121
  54. Molesworth 1962 , p. 120
  55. Molesworth 1962 , pp. 120–121
  56. Molesworth 1962 , pp. 137–139
  57. Wilkinson-Latham 1998 , p. 25
  58. Jan, Ali. "Few Snapshots from our Aviation History". Khyber.org. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  59. Barthorp 2002 , pp. 167–168
  60. Singer 1984 , pp. 192–193
  61. Loyn 2009 , p. 170
  62. Pipes 1995, pp. 67–68.
  63. 1 2 Barthorp 2002 , pp. 157–158
  64. Barthorp 2002 , p. 179
  65. 1 2 Rodger 2003 , p. 84
  66. 1 2 3 4 5 Rodger 2003 , p. 88
  67. 1 2 3 4 Rodger 2003 , p. 208

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References

Further reading