Emirate of Afghanistan

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Emirate of Afghanistan
د افغانستان امارت  (Pashto)
Da Afghānistān Amārat
امارت افغانستان  (Persian)
Amārat-i Afghānistān
1823–1839
1842–1926
Flag of Afghanistan (1919-1928).svg
Flag
(1919–1926)
Afghanmap1893.JPG
Afghanistan before the 1893 Durand Line Agreement
StatusBritish protected state (1879–1919) [1]
Capital Kabul
Common languages Persian, Pashto
Religion
Sunni Islam, Shia Islam
Government Unitary Absolute emirate
Emir  
 1823–1839 (first)
Dost Mohammad Khan
 1919–1926 (last)
Amanullah Khan
Legislature Loya Jirga
Historical era 19th century
 Established
14 March 1823
 Disestablished
9 June 1926
Area
1893652,225 km2 (251,825 sq mi)
Currency Afghan rupee
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Durrani Empire
Kingdom of Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan (1931-1973).svg
Today part ofFlag of Taliban.svg  Afghanistan
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan

The Emirate of Afghanistan (Pashto : د افغانستان امارتDa Afghānistān Amārat; Persian : امارت افغانستانAmārat-i Afghānistān) was an emirate between Central Asia and South Asia that is now today's Afghanistan and some parts of today's Pakistan (before 1893). The emirate emerged from the Durrani Empire, when Dost Mohammed Khan, the founder of the Barakzai dynasty in Kabul, prevailed.

Contents

The history of the Emirate was dominated by 'the Great Game' between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom for supremacy in Central Asia. This period was characterized by the European influence in Afghanistan. The Emirate of Afghanistan continued the Durrani Empire's war with the Sikh Empire, losing control of the former Afghan stronghold of the Valley of Peshawar at the Battle of Nowshera on 14 March 1823. This was followed in 1839 by the First Anglo-Afghan War with British forces. The war eventually resulted in victory for Afghans, with the British withdrawal [2] and Dost Mohammad being reinstalled to the throne. [2] However, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1880), the British defeated the Afghans, and this time the British conquered many Afghan territories within modern-day Pakistan and took control of Afghanistan's foreign affairs until Emir Amanullah Khan regained them after the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 was signed following the Third Anglo-Afghan War.

In 1926, the Emirate's last Emir, Amanullah Khan, reformed the country as the Kingdom of Afghanistan, becoming its first King.

History

Escalated a few years after the establishment of the emirate, the Russian and British interests were in conflict between Muhammad Shah of Iran and Dost Mohammed Khan, which led to the First Anglo-Afghan War which was fought between 1839 and 1842. [3] During the war, Britain occupied the country, in an effort to prevent Afghanistan from coming under Russian control and curb Russian expansion. The war ended with a temporary victory for the United Kingdom, which, however, had to withdraw so that Dost Muhammad came to power again. [4]

Upon the death of Dost Muhammad in 1863, he was succeeded by his son, Sher Ali Khan. However, three years later, his older brother Mohammad Afzal Khan overthrew him. In 1868, Mohammad Afzal Khan was himself overthrown and replaced as Emir by Sher Ali, who returned to the Throne. Sher Ali had spent his few short years in exile in Russia. His return as Emir led to new conflicts with Britain. Subsequently, the British marched on 21 November 1878 into Afghanistan and Emir Sher Ali was forced to flee again to Russia, but he died in 1879 in Mazar-i-Sharif. [5] His successor, Mohammad Yaqub Khan, sought solutions for peace with Russia and gave them a greater say in Afghanistan's foreign policy. Meanwhile, he signed the Treaty of Gandamak with the British on 26 May 1879, relinquishing solely the control of Afghanistan foreign affairs to the British Empire. However, when the British envoy Sir Louis Cavagnari was killed in Kabul on 3 September 1879, the British offered to accept Abdur Rahman Khan as Emir. The British concluded a peace treaty with the Afghans in 1880, and withdrew again in 1881 from Afghanistan. The British in 1893 forced Afghanistan to consent to the Durand Line, which is still straight through the settlement area of the Pashtuns runs and about a third of Afghanistan to British India annexing. [6]

Afghan warriors, 1922 Afghani warriors, 1922.jpg
Afghan warriors, 1922

After the war, Emir Abdur Rahman Khan, who struck down the country reformed and repressed numerous uprisings. After his death in 1901 his son Habibullah Khan succeeded as emir and continued reforms. Habibullah Khan sought reconciliation with the UK, where he graduated in 1905 with a peace treaty with Russia, stretching for defeat in the Russo-Japanese War had to withdraw from Afghanistan. In the First World War, Afghanistan remained, despite German and Ottoman efforts, neutral (Niedermayer–Hentig Expedition). In 1919 Habibullah Khan was assassinated by political opponents. [7]

Habibullah Khan's son Amanullah Khan was in 1919 against the rightful heir apparent Nasrullah Khan, the then Emir of Afghanistan. Shortly afterwards another war broke which lasted for three months. [8] [9] [10] [11] This war was ended with the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 after which, the Afghans were able to resume the right to conduct their own foreign affairs as a fully independent state. [12] Amanullah Khan began the reformation of the country and was crowned 1926 Padshah (king) of Afghanistan and founded the Kingdom of Afghanistan. [13]

See also

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Mohammadzai, also spelled Moḥammadzay, is a sub-tribe or clan of the Barakzai which is part of the Durrani confederacy of tribes. They are primarily centered on Kandahar, Kabul and Ghazni in Afghanistan. The Mohammadzai ruled Afghanistan from 1823 to 1978, for a total 152 years. The monarchy ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah when his brother in law Sardar Daoud Khan took power via a coup.

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Mohammad Afzal Khan was the Emir of Afghanistan from May 1866 to 1867. The oldest son of Dost Mohammad Khan, Afzal Khan was born in Kabul in 1815. His father died on June 9, 1863 and a civil war broke out between Dost Mohammad Khan's sons. In May 1866 he seized power from his brother Sher Ali Khan and captured Kabul. Eventually contracted cholera and died on October 7, 1867. Following Afzal Khan's death, Mohammad Azam Khan was proclaimed Amir of Afghanistan. He was an ethnic Pashtun and belong to the Barakzai tribe.

Barakzai dynasty

The two branches of the Barakzai dynasty ruled modern day Afghanistan from 1823 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Musahiban Mohammed Zahir Shah. The Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power.

Mohammad Gul Khan Momand, also spelled as Mohmand, was both a literary figure and a well-known politician in Afghanistan. He was also known as Wazir Mohammad Gul Khan Momand or Momand Baba. Mohammad Gul Khan was an Army Officer during Afghanistan's Independence war in 1919. He served numerous Government and Leadership positions including Home Minister of Afghanistan.

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Muhammad Nadir Shah was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in November 1933. Previously, he served as Minister of War, Afghan Ambassador to France, and as a general in the military of Afghanistan. He and his son Muhammad Zahir Shah, who succeeded him, are part of the Musahiban.

Bārakzai is the name of a Pashtun tribe from present-day, Kandahar, Afghanistan. '"Barakzai" is a common name among the Pashtuns and it means "son of Barak" in Pashto. There are seven distinct Pashtun tribes named Barakzai, with the Zirak branch of the Durrani tribe being the most important and largest tribe with over 4 million people.

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Sultan Mohammad Khan, also known as "Sultan Muhammad Khan Telai" was an Afghan Aristocrat, Chief Minister and regent, who resigned in favor of his younger brother Amir Dost Muhammad Khan. His other brother was Fateh Khan died 1818. During the reign of his brother he was chief minister and governor of various regions of the Emirate. He was the first Musahiban, an ethnic Pashtun, and the 15th son of Sardar Payendah Khan who was killed in 1799 by Zaman Shah Durrani. Sultan Muhammad Khan's grandfather was Hajji Jamal Khan. His immense love for materialism, like clothes and golden cutlery led to his family giving him his nickname "Telai", meaning golden. The result was amongst other things no progress and social injustice. These cases of power abuses were well known in the Afghan monarchy, even during the regency of Sultan Muhammad Khan's descendants of the Musahiban branch.

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The Afghan Civil War was fought from 9 June 1863 to January 1869. It began as a result of Dost Mohammad Khan's death on 9 June 1863 and the subsequent power struggles among his sons. Dost Mohammad consolidated his power in the second half of his reign within his inner family. His sons were appointed governors of provinces and effectively acted autonomous from the central government. This would inevitably lead to his sons fighting for control after his death.

References

  1. Masato Toriya (2017). Afghanistan as a Buffer State between Regional Powers in the Late Nineteenth Century (PDF). Hokkaido Slavic-Eurasian Reserarch Center. pp. 49–62.
  2. 1 2 Kohn, George Childs (2013). Dictionary of Wars. Revised Edition. London/New York: Routledge. p. 5. ISBN   9781135954949.
  3. Shultz, Richard H.; Dew, Andrea J. (22 August 2006). Insurgents, Terrorists, and Militias: The Warriors of Contemporary Combat . Columbia University Press. ISBN   9780231503426.
  4. Baxter, Craig (2001). "The First Anglo–Afghan War". In Federal Research Division, Library of Congress (ed.). Afghanistan: A Country Study. Baton Rouge, LA: Claitor's Pub. Division. ISBN   1-57980-744-5 . Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  5. Dupree: Amir Sher Ali Khan Archived 30 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Smith, Cynthia (August 2004). "A Selection of Historical Maps of Afghanistan – The Durand Line". United States: Library of Congress . Retrieved 11 February 2011.
  7. Islam and Politics in Afghanistan, Olesen, page 101
  8. Dijk, Ruud van; Gray, William Glenn; Savranskaya, Svetlana; Suri, Jeremi; Zhai, Qiang (13 May 2013). Encyclopedia of the Cold War. Routledge. ISBN   9781135923105.
  9. Adamec, Ludwig W. (1 January 2012). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Scarecrow Press. ISBN   9780810878150.
  10. Pazhvāk, ʻabd al-Raḥmān (1959). Aryana, ancient Afghanistan.
  11. Jawed, Mohammed Nasir (1 January 1996). Year Book of the Muslim World. Medialine. ISBN   9788186420003.
  12. Barthorp 2002 , pp. 27 & 64
  13. "Afghanistan". World Statesmen. Retrieved 9 November 2015.

Further reading

Coordinates: 33°56′N66°11′E / 33.933°N 66.183°E / 33.933; 66.183