Emirate of Afghanistan

Last updated
Emirate of Afghanistan

د افغانستان امارت
Da Afghānistān Amārat
1823–1926
Afghanmap1893.JPG
Afghanistan before the 1893 Durand Line Agreement
StatusBritish protectorate (1879–1919)[ citation needed ]
Capital Caubul
Common languages Pashto
Religion
Sunni Islam
Government Emirate
Emir  
 1823–1829 (first)
Dost Mohammad Khan
 1919–1926 (last)
Amanullah Khan
Legislature Loya Jirga
Historical era 19th century
 Established
1823
 Disestablished
1926
Area
1893652,225 km2 (251,825 sq mi)
Currency Afghan rupee
ISO 3166 code AF
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Herat until 1842.svg Durrani Empire
Kingdom of Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan (1931-1973).svg
British Raj British Raj Red Ensign.svg
Part of a series on the
History of Afghanistan
Minaret of jam 2009 ghor.jpg
Timeline
Associated Historical Regions

The Emirate of Afghanistan (Pashto : د افغانستان امارتDa Afghānistān Amārat) was an emirate between Central Asia and South Asia, which is now today's Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The emirate emerged from the Durrani Empire, when Dost Mohammed Khan, the founder of the Barakzai dynasty in Kabul, prevailed. The history of the Emirate was dominated by 'the Great Game' between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom for supremacy in Central Asia. This period was characterized by the expansion of European colonial interests in South Asia. The Emirate of Afghanistan continued the war with the Sikh Empire, which led to the invasion of Afghanistan by British-led Indian forces who did not accomplish their war objectives. However, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the British again fought against the Afghans and this time the British took control of Afghanistan's foreign affairs until Emir Amanullah Khan regained them after the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 was signed following the Third Anglo-Afghan War.

An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islamic monarch styled emir. It also means "kingdom".

Central Asia core region of the Asian continent

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".

South Asia Southern region of Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia, is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush. South Asia is bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean and on land by West Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia.

Contents

History

Escalated a few years after the establishment of the Emirates in 1837, the Russian and British interests were in conflict between Muhammad Shah of Iran and Dost Mohammed Khan, which led to the First Anglo-Afghan War which was fought between 1839 and 1842. [1] During the war, Britain occupied the country, in an effort to prevent Afghanistan from coming under Russian control and curb Russian expansion. The war ended with a temporary victory for the United Kingdom, which, however, had to withdraw so that Dost Muhammad came to power again. [2]

Russian Empire Former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

First Anglo-Afghan War one of the first major conflicts during the Great Game

The First Anglo-Afghan War was fought between the British East India Company and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842. Initially, the British successfully intervened in a succession dispute between emir Dost Mohammad (Barakzai) and former emir Shah Shujah (Durrani), whom they installed upon conquering Kabul in August 1839. The main British Indian and Sikh force occupying Kabul along with their camp followers, having endured harsh winters as well, was almost completely annihilated while retreating in January 1842. The British then sent an Army of Retribution to Kabul to avenge their defeat, and having demolished parts of the capital and recovered prisoners they left Afghanistan altogether by the end of the year. Dost Mohamed returned from exile in India to resume his rule.

Upon the death of Dost Muhammad in 1863, he was succeeded by his son, Sher Ali Khan. However, three years later, his older brother Mohammad Afzal Khan overthrew him. In 1868, Mohammad Afzal Khan was himself overthrown and replaced as Emir by Sher Ali, who returned to the Throne. Sher Ali had spent his few short years in exile in Russia. His return as Emir led to new conflicts with Britain. Subsequently, the British marched on 21 November 1878 into Afghanistan and Emir Sher Ali was forced to flee again to Russia, but he died in 1879 in Mazar-i-Sharif. [3] His successor, Mohammad Yaqub Khan, sought solutions for peace with Russia and gave them a greater say in Afghanistan's foreign policy. However, when the British envoy Sir Louis Cavagnari was killed in Kabul on the 3 September 1879, the British offered to accept Abdur Rahman Khan as Emir. The British concluded a peace treaty with the Afghans in 1880, and withdrew again in 1881 from Afghanistan. The British in 1893 forced Afghanistan to consent to the Durand Line, which is still straight through the settlement area of the Pashtuns runs and about a third of Afghanistan to British India annexing. [4]

Sher Ali Khan Emir of Afghanistan (1863-1879)

Sher Ali Khan (c. 1825 – February 21, 1879) was Amir of Afghanistan from 1863 to 1866 and from 1868 until his death in 1879. He was the third son of Dost Mohammed Khan, founder of the Barakzai Dynasty in Afghanistan.

Mohammad Afzal Khan Emir of Afghanistan (1865-1867)

Mohammad Afzal Khan was the Emir of Afghanistan from 1865 to 1867. The oldest son of Dost Mohammad Khan, Afzal Khan seized power from his brother Sher Ali Khan three years after their father's death. Following Afzal Khan's death the following year, Mohammad Azam Khan was proclaimed Amir of Afghanistan. He was an ethnic Pashtun and belong to the Barakzai tribe.

Mazar-i-Sharif City in Balkh Province, Afghanistan

Mazār-i-Sharīf, also called Mazār-e Sharīf, or just Mazar, is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a 2015 UN–Habitat population estimate 427,600. It is the capital of Balkh province and is linked by highways with Kunduz in the east, Kabul in the southeast, Herat in the west and Termez in Uzbekistan in the north. It is about 55 km (34 mi) from the Uzbek border. The city also serves as one of the many tourist attractions because of its famous shrines as well as the Islamic and Hellenistic archeological sites. The ancient city of Balkh is also nearby.

After the war, Emir Abdur Rahman Khan, who struck down the country reformed and repressed numerous uprisings. After his death in 1901 his son Habibullah Khan succeeded as emir and continued reforms. Habibullah Khan sought reconciliation with the UK, where he graduated in 1905 with a peace treaty with Russia, stretching for defeat in the Russo-Japanese War had to withdraw from Afghanistan. In the First World War, Afghanistan remained, despite German and Ottoman efforts, neutral (Niedermayer–Hentig Expedition).In 1919 Habibullah Khan was assassinated by political opponents. [5]

Habibullah Khan Emir of Afghanistan (1901-1919)

Habibullah Khan was the Emir of Afghanistan from 1901 until 1919. He was the eldest son of the Emir Abdur Rahman Khan, whom he succeeded by right of primogeniture in October 1901. His grandfather was Mohammad Afzal Khan.

Russo-Japanese War war between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan

The Russo-Japanese War was fought during 1904-1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea, Japan and the Yellow Sea.

Niedermayer–Hentig Expedition diplomatic mission to Afghanistan sent by the Central Powers in 1915–1916

The Niedermayer–Hentig Expedition was a diplomatic mission to Afghanistan sent by the Central Powers in 1915–1916. The purpose was to encourage Afghanistan to declare full independence from the British Empire, enter World War I on the side of the Central Powers, and attack British India. The expedition was part of the Hindu–German Conspiracy, a series of Indo-German efforts to provoke a nationalist revolution in India. Nominally headed by the exiled Indian prince Raja Mahendra Pratap, the expedition was a joint operation of Germany and Turkey and was led by the German Army officers Oskar Niedermayer and Werner Otto von Hentig. Other participants included members of an Indian nationalist organisation called the Berlin Committee, including Maulavi Barkatullah and Chempakaraman Pillai, while the Turks were represented by Kazim Bey, a close confidante of Enver Pasha.

Habibullah Khan's son Amanullah Khan was in 1919 against the rightful heir apparent Nasrullah Khan, the then Emir of Afghanistan. Shortly afterwards another war broke which lasted for three months. [6] [7] [8] [9] This war was ended with the Treaty of Rawalpindi after which, the Afghans were able to resume the right to conduct their own foreign affairs as a fully independent state. [10] Amanullah Khan began the reformation of the country and was crowned 1926 Padshah (king) of Afghanistan and founded the Kingdom of Afghanistan. [11]

Amanullah Khan King and Emir of Afghanistan (1919-1929)

Amānullāh Khān was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Afghanistan from 1919 to 1929, first as Emir and after 1926 as Malik (King). After the third Anglo-Afghan War, Afghanistan was able to pursue an independent foreign policy free from the influence of the United Kingdom, and his rule was marked by dramatic political and social change. He was the first Afghan ruler who attempted to modernize Afghanistan on Western designs. However, he did not succeed in this because of a popular uprising by Habibullah Kalakani and his followers. On 14 January 1929, Amanullah abdicated and fled to neighbouring British India whilst the country went into a short civil war. From British India he went to Europe where he died in Zürich, Switzerland, in 1960.

Nasrullah Khan (Afghanistan) Emir of Afghanistan (1919)

Nasrullah Khan (1874–1920), sometimes spelt as Nasr Ullah Khan, was shahzada of Afghanistan and second son of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan. He held the throne of Afghanistan as Emir for one week, from February 21 to February 28, 1919.

Kingdom of Afghanistan 1926-1973 kingdom in Central Asia

The Kingdom of Afghanistan was a constitutional monarchy in southern and central Asia established in 1926 as a successor state to the Emirate of Afghanistan. It was proclaimed by its first king, Amanullah Khan, seven years after his accession to the throne.

See also

European influence in Afghanistan

The European influence in Afghanistan refers to political, social, and mostly imperialistic influence several European nations and colonial powers have had on the historical development of Afghanistan.

Related Research Articles

Abdur Rahman Khan Emir of Afghanistan, 1880-1901

Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.

Mohammed Zahir Shah monarch, last king of Afghanistan (1933-1973)

Mohammed Zahir Shah was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973. He established friendly relations with many countries, including with both Cold War sides, and modernized the country from the 1950s. His long reign was marked by peace and stability that was lost afterwards.

Reforms of Amānullāh Khān and civil war

The reforms of Amānullāh Khān began following his accession in 1919 and his securing independence for Afghanistan in 1920. He proposed extensive reforms to many parts of Afghan life, seeking to establish a central, secular government modeled after Western countries. The reforms were not universally popular, and in November 1928, tribal forces marched on Kabul. Amānullāh Khān abdicated a few months later in January 1929, and after the abdication of his brother a few days later, control of the country was seized by Habibullah Kalakani, leader of the Tajik forces. His rule did not last long due to the increasing disillusionment of Pashtun tribes that had supported him and instability from other armed groups. In October 1929, Nadir Shah led forces across the Durand Line to Kabul, taking control of the country and crowning himself King of Afghanistan.

Dost Mohammad Khan (Emir of Afghanistan) first Emir of Afghanistan (1823-1863)

Dost Mohammad Khan was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty and one of the prominent rulers of Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War. With the decline of the Durrani dynasty, he became Emir of Afghanistan from 1826 to 1839 and then from 1843 to 1863. An ethnic Pashtun, he was the 11th son of Sardar Payendah Khan who was killed in 1799 by Zaman Shah Durrani. Dost Mohammad's grandfather was Hajji Jamal Khan.

Second Anglo-Afghan War war between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan, 1878–1880

The Second Anglo-Afghan War was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan.

Treaty of Gandamak

The Treaty of Gandamak officially ended the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mohammad Yaqub Khan ceded various frontier areas to Britain while retaining full sovereignty over Afghanistan.

Wazir Akbar Khan Emir of Afghanistan (1842-1845)

Wazīr Akbar Khān, born Mohammad Akbar Khān and also known as Amīr Akbar Khān, was an Afghan prince, general, and finally emir for about three years until his death. His fame began with the 1837 Battle of Jamrud, while attempting to regain Afghanistan's second capital Peshawar from the Sikh Empire.

Mohammadzai, also spelled "Moḥammadzay" is a sub-tribe or clan of the Barakzai which is part of the Durrani confederacy of tribes. They are primarily centered on Kandahar, Kabul and Ghazni in Afghanistan. The Mohammadzai ruled Afghanistan from 1826 to 1978, for a total 152 years. The monarchy ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah when his brother in law Sardar Daoud Khan took power via a coup.

Habibullāh Kalakāni King of Afghanistan (1929)

King Habibullah Kalakani, , was King of Afghanistan from January to October 1929 after deposing Amanullah Khan He was executed nine months later by Mohammed Nadir Shah. Khalilullah Khalili, a Kohistani poet laureate, depicts King Habibullah Kalakani as a best king of Afghanistan, "and best manager of govermental imports and exports." Kalakani was nicknamed Bacha-e Saqaw and bandit king.

The following lists events that happened during 1930 in Afghanistan.

Barakzai dynasty

The two branches of the Barkazi Dynasty ruled modern day Afghanistan from 1826 to 1973 when the monarchy ended under Musahiban Mohammed Zahir Shah. The Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power. During this era, Afghanistan saw much of its territory lost to the British in the south and east, Persia in the west, and Russia in the north. There were also many conflicts within Afghanistan, including the three major Anglo-Afghan Wars and the 1929 civil war.

Mohammed Nadir Shah King of Afghanistan (1929-1933)

Muhammad Nadir Shah was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in November 1933. Previously, he served as Minister of War, Afghan Ambassador to France, and as a general in the military of Afghanistan. He and his son Muhammad Zahir Shah, who succeeded him, are part of the Musahiban.

Barakzai family name

Bārakzai is the name of a Pashtun tribe from present-day, Kandahar, Afghanistan. '"Barakzai" is a common name among the Pashtuns and it means "son of Barak" in Pashto. There are seven distinct Pashtun tribes named Barakzai, with the Zirak branch of the Durrani tribe being the most important and largest tribe with over 4 million people.

Mahmud Tarzi Afghan writer

Sardar Mahmud Beg Tarzi was a politician and one of Afghanistan's greatest intellectuals. He is known as the father of Afghan journalism. As a prominent modern thinker, he became a key figure in the history of Afghanistan, following the lead of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Turkey by working for modernization and secularization, and strongly opposing religious extremism and obscurantism. Tarzi emulated the Young Turks coalition. Perhaps to the point of the emulation Pashtun nationalism.

References

  1. Shultz, Richard H.; Dew, Andrea J. (2006-08-22). Insurgents, Terrorists, and Militias: The Warriors of Contemporary Combat. Columbia University Press. ISBN   9780231503426.
  2. Baxter, Craig. "The First Anglo–Afghan War". In Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Afghanistan: A Country Study. Baton Rouge, LA: Claitor's Pub. Division. ISBN   1-57980-744-5 . Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  3. Dupree: Amir Sher Ali Khan Archived 2010-08-30 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Smith, Cynthia (August 2004). "A Selection of Historical Maps of Afghanistan – The Durand Line". United States: Library of Congress . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
  5. Islam and Politics in Afghanistan, Olesen, page 101
  6. Dijk, Ruud van; Gray, William Glenn; Savranskaya, Svetlana; Suri, Jeremi; Zhai, Qiang (2013-05-13). Encyclopedia of the Cold War. Routledge. ISBN   9781135923105.
  7. Adamec, Ludwig W. (2012-01-01). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Scarecrow Press. ISBN   9780810878150.
  8. Aryana, ancient Afghanistan.
  9. Jawed, Mohammed Nasir (1996-01-01). Year Book of the Muslim World. Medialine.
  10. Barthorp 2002 , pp. 27 & 64
  11. "Afghanistan". World Statesmen. Retrieved 9 November 2015.

Further reading

Coordinates: 33°56′N66°11′E / 33.933°N 66.183°E / 33.933; 66.183