De jure

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In law and government, de jure ( /dˈʊəri,di-,-ˈjʊər-/ , Latin: [deːˈjuːre] ; lit.'by law') describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. [1] In contrast, de facto ('in fact') describes situations that exist in reality, even if not formally recognized. [2]



Between 1805 and 1914, the ruling dynasty of Egypt were subject to the rulers of the Ottoman Empire, but acted as de facto independent rulers who maintained a polite fiction of Ottoman suzerainty. However, starting from around 1882, the rulers had only de jure rule over Egypt, as it had by then become a British puppet state. [3] Thus, by Ottoman law, Egypt was de jure a province of the Ottoman Empire, but de facto was part of the British Empire.

In U.S. law, particularly after Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the difference between de facto segregation (segregation that existed because of the voluntary associations and neighborhoods) and de jure segregation (segregation that existed because of local laws that mandated the segregation) became important distinctions for court-mandated remedial purposes. [4]

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sovereignty</span> Supreme authority within a territory

Sovereignty can generally be defined as supreme authority. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body or institution that has the ultimate authority over other people in order to establish a law or change existing laws. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme legitimate authority over some polity. In international law, sovereignty is the exercise of power by a state. De jure sovereignty refers to the legal right to do so; de facto sovereignty refers to the factual ability to do so. This can become an issue of special concern upon the failure of the usual expectation that de jure and de facto sovereignty exist at the place and time of concern, and reside within the same organization.

De facto describes practices that exist in reality, regardless of whether they are officially recognized by laws or other formal norms. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure.

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  1. "de jure"., LLC. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
  2. "Definition of 'de facto' adjective from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
  3. Mak, Lanver (15 March 2012). The British in Egypt: Community, Crime and Crises 1882–1922. I.B.Tauris. ISBN   9781848857094.
  4. James Anderson; Dara N. Byrne (29 April 2004). The Unfinished Agenda of Brown V. Board of Education. Diverse: Issues In Higher Education. pp. 55–. ISBN   978-0-471-64926-7.