Quetta

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Quetta


  • کوټه
  • کویته
  • کویته
  • کوئٹہ
Quetta at night 2.jpg
Bolan mosque.jpg
Quetta Railway Station - 40311.jpg
Chiltan Mountain.jpg
Clockwise from top: Mount Chiltan, Quetta railway station, a view of Quetta City at night, Bolan Mosque
Quetta Metropolitan Corporation.png
Emblem
Etymology: Pashto: Kwaṭa (fortress)
Nickname(s): 
Little London
Pakistan Balochistan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Quetta
Pakistan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Quetta
Coordinates: 30°11′N67°00′E / 30.183°N 67.000°E / 30.183; 67.000 Coordinates: 30°11′N67°00′E / 30.183°N 67.000°E / 30.183; 67.000
Country Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
Region Flag of Balochistan.svg Balochistan
District Quetta
Incorporated1876
Government
  TypeMunicipal Corporation [1]
   Mayor of Quetta Seat Vacant
   Deputy Mayor of Quetta Seat Vacant
Area
   City 178 km2 (69 sq mi)
  Metro
3,501 km2 (1,352 sq mi)
Elevation
1,680 m (5,510 ft)
Population
 (2017) [2]
   City 1,001,205
  Rank 10th, Pakistan
  Density5,600/km2 (15,000/sq mi)
   Metro
2,275,669
   Demonym
Quettan or Quettawal
Time zone UTC+05:00 (PST)
ZIP code format
87xxx
Area code(s) 081
Website www.balochistan.gov.pk

Quetta (Pashto : کوټهKwaṭa; Balochi : کویته;Hazaragi : کوٹه; Urdu : کوئٹہ; [ˈkʋeːʈə] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); formerly known as Shalkot [3] (Pashto : شالکوټ) is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan. It is also the 10th largest city of Pakistan. [4] It was largely destroyed in the 1935 Quetta earthquake, but was rebuilt and has a population of 1,001,205 according to the census of 2017. [5] [2] [6] Quetta is at an average elevation of 1,680 metres (5,510 feet) above sea level, [7] making it Pakistan's only high-altitude major city. The city is known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan," due to the numerous fruit orchards in and around it, and the large variety of fruits and dried fruit products produced there. [8]

Contents

Located in northern Balochistan near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, Quetta is a trade and communication centre between the two countries. The city is near the Bolan Pass route which was once one of the major gateways from Central Asia to South Asia. Quetta played an important role militarily for the Pakistani Armed Forces in the intermittent Afghanistan conflict.

Etymology

Quetta, which is a variation of Kōṭ, is a Pashto word meaning "fortress". [9]

History

Quetta Fort Mirri Quetta Fort Mirri.jpg
Quetta Fort Mirri

The immediate area has long been one of pastures and mountains, with varied plants and animals relative to the dry plains to the west.

From 11th century CE and the land of Quetta was owned and ruled by the royal tribe of Pashtuns Kasi. It was captured by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi during his invasion of South Asia. [10] In 1543, Mughal emperor Humayun came to Quetta en route to Safavid Persia, leaving his son and future Mughal emperor Akbar here. In 1709, the region was a part of Afghan Hotak dynasty and stayed a part until 1747 when Ahmed Shah Durrani conquered it and made it a part of Durrani Empire. The first European visited Quetta in 1828, describing it as mud-walled fort surrounded by three hundred mud houses. [11]

In 1876 Quetta was occupied by the British and subsequently incorporated into British India. [10] In 1856, British General John Jacob had urged his government to occupy Quetta given its strategic position on the western frontier. [12] British Troops constructed the infrastructure for their establishment. By the time of the earthquake on 31 May 1935, Quetta had developed into a bustling city with a number of multi-storey buildings and so was known as "Little London". The epicenter of the earthquake was close to the city and destroyed most of the city's infrastructure, killing an estimated 40,000 people. [13]

Geography

Climate

Quetta has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with a significant variation between summer and winter temperatures. Summer starts about late May and goes on until early September with average temperatures ranging from 24–26 °C (75–79 °F). The highest temperature in Quetta is 42 °C (108 °F) which was recorded on 10 July 1998. [14] Autumn starts in mid-September and continues until mid-November with average temperatures in the 12–18 °C (54–64 °F) range. Winter starts in late November and ends in late February, with average temperatures near 4–5 °C (39–41 °F). The lowest temperature in Quetta is −18.3 °C (−0.9 °F) which was recorded on 8 January 1970. [14] Spring starts in early March and ends in mid-May, with average temperatures close to 15 °C (59 °F). Unlike more easterly parts of Pakistan, Quetta does not have a monsoon season of heavy rainfall. Highest rainfall during 24 hours in Quetta is 113 millimetres (4.4 in) which was recorded on 17 December 2000, [14] Highest monthly rainfall of 232.4 millimetres (9.15 in) was recorded in March 1982, also the year of the highest annual rainfall, at 949.8 millimetres (37.39 in). [14] In the winter, snowfall has become quite erratic (December, January and February).

The city saw a severe drought from 1999 to 2001, during which the city did not receive snowfall and below normal rains. In 2002 the city received snow after a gap of five years. In 2004 and 2005, the city received normal rains after three years without snowfall while in 2006, 2007 and 2009 the city received no snow. In 2008 Quetta received a snowfall of 10 centimetres (4 in) in four hours on 29 January, [15] followed on 2 February by 25.4 centimetres (10 in) in 10 hours [16] – the city's heaviest snowfall in a decade. During the winter of 2010 it received no snow and saw below normal rains due to the presence of El-Nino over Pakistan.[ citation needed ]

Climate data for Quetta, Pakistan
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)23.6
(74.5)
26.7
(80.1)
31.1
(88.0)
35.0
(95.0)
39.4
(102.9)
41.5
(106.7)
42.0
(107.6)
40.6
(105.1)
38.3
(100.9)
34.0
(93.2)
36.0
(96.8)
25.0
(77.0)
42.0
(107.6)
Average high °C (°F)10.8
(51.4)
12.9
(55.2)
18.7
(65.7)
24.8
(76.6)
30.4
(86.7)
35.3
(95.5)
35.9
(96.6)
34.8
(94.6)
31.4
(88.5)
25.5
(77.9)
19.2
(66.6)
13.3
(55.9)
24.4
(75.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.7
(38.7)
6.0
(42.8)
11.1
(52.0)
16.6
(61.9)
21.0
(69.8)
25.6
(78.1)
27.9
(82.2)
26.4
(79.5)
21.1
(70.0)
14.6
(58.3)
9.2
(48.6)
5.1
(41.2)
15.7
(60.3)
Average low °C (°F)−3.4
(25.9)
−0.9
(30.4)
3.4
(38.1)
8.3
(46.9)
11.5
(52.7)
15.9
(60.6)
19.9
(67.8)
17.9
(64.2)
10.9
(51.6)
3.8
(38.8)
−0.9
(30.4)
−3.2
(26.2)
6.9
(44.5)
Record low °C (°F)−18.3
(−0.9)
−16.7
(1.9)
−8.3
(17.1)
−3.9
(25.0)
−0.3
(31.5)
5.0
(41.0)
8.9
(48.0)
3.3
(37.9)
−0.6
(30.9)
−8.3
(17.1)
−13.3
(8.1)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−18.3
(−0.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)56.7
(2.23)
49
(1.9)
55
(2.2)
28.3
(1.11)
6
(0.2)
1.1
(0.04)
12.7
(0.50)
12.1
(0.48)
0.3
(0.01)
3.9
(0.15)
5.3
(0.21)
30.5
(1.20)
260.9
(10.23)
Average snowfall cm (inches)22
(8.7)
17
(6.6)
3.0
(1.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.51
(0.2)
14
(5.4)
56.51
(22.1)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 220.1209.05232.5273334.8327313.1313.1294306.9279238.73,341.25
Source 1: Hong Kong Observatory (altitude: 1589 m) [17]
Source 2: PMD [18]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1941 65,000    
1951 84,000+29.2%
1961 107,000+27.4%
1972 158,000+47.7%
1981 286,000+81.0%
1998 565,137+97.6%
2017 1,001,205+77.2%
Source: [19] [2]

The population of the city is around one million. In 2016, it was estimated at 1,140,000, [20] but the 2017 Census revealed a total of 1,001,205. This makes it the largest city in Balochistan province and one of the major cities of Pakistan. The scholars disagree about the demographics of the city. According to some, the city has a Pashtun plurality followed by Baloch people, other indigenous people of Balochistan, Hazaras and lastly the settlers from other areas of Pakistan. [21] Others think the city has a Pashtun majority followed by Balochs Hazaras, Brahui, Punjabis and Muhajir people. [22] [23] [24] Urdu being national language is used and understood by all the residents and serves as a lingua franca.

According to Reuters and the BBC, there are as many as 500,000-600,000 Hazaras living in Quetta and its surrounding areas. [25] [26]

Administration

At the local level, the city is governed by a municipal corporation consisting of 66 ward members which elects a mayor and a deputy mayor. [1]

Transportation

Quetta is on the western side of Pakistan and is connected to the rest of the country by a network of roads, railways and its international airport close to its center.

At an altitude of 1,605 metres (5,266 feet) above sea level, Quetta Airport is the second highest airport in Pakistan. [27] Pakistan International Airlines has regular flights to and from the other major cities of Pakistan including Islamabad, Gwadar, Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar.

Passengers boarding a Chaman bound train at Baleli, Quetta Baleli Railway Station, Quetta.jpg
Passengers boarding a Chaman bound train at Baleli, Quetta

Quetta Railway Station is one of the highest railway stations in Pakistan at 1,676 metres (5,499 feet) above sea level. The railway track was laid in the 1890s during the British era to link Quetta with rest of the country. The extensive network of Pakistan Railways connects Quetta to Karachi in the south, by a 863 km (536 mi) track, Lahore in the northeast (1,170 km or 727 miles) and Peshawar further northeast (1,587 km or 986 miles). A metalled road runs alongside the railway that connects Quetta to Karachi via the nearby town of Sibi to Jacobabad and Rohri in the plain of the River Indus. [28]

Education

Quetta serves as the learning centre for the Balochistan province. The city has a number of government and private colleges, including the following:

Sports

Cricket and football are the two most popular sports among the people of Quetta. Football teams from Quetta include Quetta Zorawar, Muslim FC, Hazara Green Football, Baluch Football and Quetta Bazigars Club. The Quetta Bears represent the city in List A tournaments, while the Quetta Gladiators compete in the Pakistan Super League (PSL).

Boxing is highly popular, as well. [30] In hockey, Quetta has produced Zeeshan Ashraf and Shakeel Abbasi, who were members of the Pakistan's national hockey team.

Musa Sports Complex Musa sports stadium, Quetta.jpg
Musa Sports Complex

Facilities

The Shaheed Nauoroz Stadium is the largest stadium in the city. The city also has Ayub National Stadium, a multipurpose stadium used for football and cricket and Bugti Stadium for cricket.

Local facilities were created in the city for mountain climbing and caving as well as water sports. Hayatullah Khan Durrani (Pride of Performance) is the chief executive of Hayat Durrani Water Sports Academy the Balochistan's first and only Rowing, Canoeing, Kayaking, Sailing, rough swimming and boating academy where all such facilities provides free to the youth members at Hanna Lake. In kayaking, Muhammad Abubakar Durrani, National Junior Champion was selected for the world Junior Canoeing Championship in 2009 in Moscow. [31] [32]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Quetta is a natural fort, surrounded as it is by imposing hills on all sides. The encircling hills have the resounding names of Chiltan, Takatoo, Mordar and Zarghun. It is believed that the earliest Muslim inhabitants and rulers/owners of the city were the Pashtun Kasi Tribe. Quetta was first mentioned in the 11th century when it was captured by Mahmood of Ghazni on one of his invasions of the subcontinent. In 1543 the Mughal emperor Humayun rested here on his retreat to Persia, leaving his one-year-old son Akbar until he returned two years later. The Ghilzai power in Kandahar at the beginning of the eighteenth century, simultaneously with that of the Baloch in Kalat, Quetta and Pishin became the battle-ground between the Afghans and Baloch in the region. Ahmed Shah Durrani finally handed Quetta over to the Khan of Kalat Mir Noori Naseer Khan Baloch for helping him with his army in 1751 against the Marathas in the Battle of Panipat (1761), and against the Sikhs in 1765. Today, it is an important city in Pakistan. Quetta has more than 50% pashtoon population mainly Kasi, Kakar, Daavi, tareen, Achakzai, etc.

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Quetta, Pakistan features a continental arid climate with a large variation between summer and winter temperatures. The highest temperature recorded in Quetta was 42 °C (108 °F) on 10 July 1998. The lowest temperature in Quetta is −18.3 °C (−0.9 °F) which was recorded on 8 January 1970.

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Jalila Haider is a human rights attorney and political activist from Quetta, a city in Balochistan, Pakistan. Haider is known to be the first woman lawyer from the Hazara minority of Quetta and has been an advocate for the rights of her persecuted community in Pakistan. She is a member of Awami Workers Party (AWP), leader of the Balochistan chapter of Women Democratic Front (WDF), and is also an activist in the Pashtun Tahafuz Movement (PTM). She founded a non-profit organisation, 'We the Humans – Pakistan', which aims to empower local communities in Balochistan by strengthening opportunities for vulnerable women and children.

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