|Etymology: Pashto: Kwaṭa (fortress)|
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor of Quetta||Seat Vacant|
|• Deputy Mayor of Quetta||Seat Vacant|
|• City||178 km2 (69 sq mi)|
|• Metro||3,501 km2 (1,352 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,680 m (5,510 ft)|
|• Rank||10th, Pakistan|
|• Density||5,600/km2 (15,000/sq mi)|
|• Demonym||Quettan or Quettawal|
|Time zone||UTC+05:00 (PST)|
|ZIP code format|
Quetta (Pashto : کوټهKwaṭa; Balochi : کویته;Hazaragi : کوٹه; Urdu : کوئٹہ; [ˈkʋeːʈə] (
Located in northern Balochistan near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, Quetta is a trade and communication centre between the two countries. The city is near the Bolan Pass route which was once one of the major gateways from Central Asia to South Asia. Quetta played an important role militarily for the Pakistani Armed Forces in the intermittent Afghanistan conflict.
Quetta, which is a variation of Kōṭ, is a Pashto word meaning "fortress".
The immediate area has long been one of pastures and mountains, with varied plants and animals relative to the dry plains to the west.
From 11th century CE and the land of Quetta was owned and ruled by the royal tribe of Pashtuns Kasi. It was captured by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi during his invasion of South Asia.In 1543, Mughal emperor Humayun came to Quetta en route to Safavid Persia, leaving his son and future Mughal emperor Akbar here. In 1709, the region was a part of Afghan Hotak dynasty and stayed a part until 1747 when Ahmed Shah Durrani conquered it and made it a part of Durrani Empire. The first European visited Quetta in 1828, describing it as mud-walled fort surrounded by three hundred mud houses.
In 1876 Quetta was occupied by the British and subsequently incorporated into British India.In 1856, British General John Jacob had urged his government to occupy Quetta given its strategic position on the western frontier. British Troops constructed the infrastructure for their establishment. By the time of the earthquake on 31 May 1935, Quetta had developed into a bustling city with a number of multi-storey buildings and so was known as "Little London". The epicenter of the earthquake was close to the city and destroyed most of the city's infrastructure, killing an estimated 40,000 people.
Quetta has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with a significant variation between summer and winter temperatures. Summer starts about late May and goes on until early September with average temperatures ranging from 24–26 °C (75–79 °F). The highest temperature in Quetta is 42 °C (108 °F) which was recorded on 10 July 1998. Autumn starts in mid-September and continues until mid-November with average temperatures in the 12–18 °C (54–64 °F) range. Winter starts in late November and ends in late February, with average temperatures near 4–5 °C (39–41 °F). The lowest temperature in Quetta is −18.3 °C (−0.9 °F) which was recorded on 8 January 1970. Spring starts in early March and ends in mid-May, with average temperatures close to 15 °C (59 °F). Unlike more easterly parts of Pakistan, Quetta does not have a monsoon season of heavy rainfall. Highest rainfall during 24 hours in Quetta is 113 millimetres (4.4 in) which was recorded on 17 December 2000, Highest monthly rainfall of 232.4 millimetres (9.15 in) was recorded in March 1982, also the year of the highest annual rainfall, at 949.8 millimetres (37.39 in). In the winter, snowfall has become quite erratic (December, January and February).
The city saw a severe drought from 1999 to 2001, during which the city did not receive snowfall and below normal rains. In 2002 the city received snow after a gap of five years. In 2004 and 2005, the city received normal rains after three years without snowfall while in 2006, 2007 and 2009 the city received no snow. In 2008 Quetta received a snowfall of 10 centimetres (4 in) in four hours on 29 January, followed on 2 February by 25.4 centimetres (10 in) in 10 hours – the city's heaviest snowfall in a decade. During the winter of 2010 it received no snow and saw below normal rains due to the presence of El-Nino over Pakistan.[ citation needed ]
|Climate data for Quetta, Pakistan|
|Record high °C (°F)||23.6|
|Average high °C (°F)||10.8|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.7|
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.4|
|Record low °C (°F)||−18.3|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||56.7|
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||22|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||220.1||209.05||232.5||273||334.8||327||313.1||313.1||294||306.9||279||238.7||3,341.25|
|Source 1: Hong Kong Observatory (altitude: 1589 m)|
|Source 2: PMD|
The population of the city is around one million. In 2016, it was estimated at 1,140,000,but the 2017 Census revealed a total of 1,001,205. This makes it the largest city in Balochistan province and one of the major cities of Pakistan. The scholars disagree about the demographics of the city. According to some, the city has a Pashtun plurality followed by Baloch people, other indigenous people of Balochistan, Hazaras and lastly the settlers from other areas of Pakistan. Others think the city has a Pashtun majority followed by Balochs Hazaras, Brahui, Punjabis and Muhajir people. Urdu being national language is used and understood by all the residents and serves as a lingua franca.
According to Reuters and the BBC, there are as many as 500,000-600,000 Hazaras living in Quetta and its surrounding areas.
At the local level, the city is governed by a municipal corporation consisting of 66 ward members which elects a mayor and a deputy mayor.
Quetta is on the western side of Pakistan and is connected to the rest of the country by a network of roads, railways and its international airport close to its center.
At an altitude of 1,605 metres (5,266 feet) above sea level, Quetta Airport is the second highest airport in Pakistan. Pakistan International Airlines has regular flights to and from the other major cities of Pakistan including Islamabad, Gwadar, Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar.
Quetta Railway Station is one of the highest railway stations in Pakistan at 1,676 metres (5,499 feet) above sea level. The railway track was laid in the 1890s during the British era to link Quetta with rest of the country. The extensive network of Pakistan Railways connects Quetta to Karachi in the south, by a 863 km (536 mi) track, Lahore in the northeast (1,170 km or 727 miles) and Peshawar further northeast (1,587 km or 986 miles). A metalled road runs alongside the railway that connects Quetta to Karachi via the nearby town of Sibi to Jacobabad and Rohri in the plain of the River Indus.
Quetta serves as the learning centre for the Balochistan province. The city has a number of government and private colleges, including the following:
Cricket and football are the two most popular sports among the people of Quetta. Football teams from Quetta include Quetta Zorawar, Muslim FC, Hazara Green Football, Baluch Football and Quetta Bazigars Club. The Quetta Bears represent the city in List A tournaments, while the Quetta Gladiators compete in the Pakistan Super League (PSL).
Boxing is highly popular, as well.In hockey, Quetta has produced Zeeshan Ashraf and Shakeel Abbasi, who were members of the Pakistan's national hockey team.
The Shaheed Nauoroz Stadium is the largest stadium in the city. The city also has Ayub National Stadium, a multipurpose stadium used for football and cricket and Bugti Stadium for cricket.
Local facilities were created in the city for mountain climbing and caving as well as water sports. Hayatullah Khan Durrani (Pride of Performance) is the chief executive of Hayat Durrani Water Sports Academy the Balochistan's first and only Rowing, Canoeing, Kayaking, Sailing, rough swimming and boating academy where all such facilities provides free to the youth members at Hanna Lake. In kayaking, Muhammad Abubakar Durrani, National Junior Champion was selected for the world Junior Canoeing Championship in 2009 in Moscow.
Balochistan is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. It is the largest province in terms of land area, forming the southwestern region of the country, but is the least populated. Its provincial capital and largest city is Quetta.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the International border with Afghanistan.
Peshawar is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and its largest city. It is the sixth-largest in Pakistan. Peshawar is also the largest Pashtun-majority city in Pakistan and is bilingual in Pashto and Hindko. Situated in the broad Valley of Peshawar near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan, Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 BCE, making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest cities in South Asia. As the center of the ancient Gandhara region, Peshawar served as the capital of the Kushan Empire; and was home to the Kanishka stupa. Peshawar was then sacked by the White Huns, before the arrival of Muslim empires. The city was an important trading centre during the Mughal era before serving as the winter capital of the Afghan Durrani Empire from 1757 until the city was captured by the Sikh Empire in 1818, who were then followed by the British in 1849.
Quetta is a district in the north-west of the Balochistan province of Pakistan, on the border with Kandahar province, Afghanistan. It is part of Quetta Division. The district is famous for its agriculture produce, most notably fruit orchards but also including apples and grapes. The Hanna Valley is an area where almonds are grown. The population counted in the 1998 census was 760,000, while in 2010 it was estimated at 1,235,000.
Pshin or Pxin is a district in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. In 1975 it was separated from Quetta District, while in 1994 part of it was split off to form the new district of Killa Abdullah. The name Pishin is a modernized form of ‘Pushang’, which is how the city was designated in Persian sources. Myth attributes the origin of the Persian designation to a son of the mythical Emperor Afrasiab. Fushing was the spelling used in the records of the Afghan government. The population of Pshin District was estimated to be over 300,000 in 2005. According to the 1998 census, the predominant first language in the district was Pashto, accounting for 99% of the population.
Chaman is the capital of Qilla Abdullah District, Balochistan Province, Pakistan. It is situated just south of the Wesh-Chaman border crossing with the neighbouring Kandahar Province of Afghanistan. After the capital Quetta, Chaman is the second-largest city and tehsil in the Pashtun majority northern part of Balochistan Province.
Musakhel is a district in the northeast of the Balochistan province of Pakistan. It became a separate district in 1992, prior to which it was a tehsil within Loralai District.
Sibi is a district in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. The main mountain ranges are Zen, Bambore and Dungan. The climatic and topography of Sibi District is quite varied compared to other districts of Balochistan. It is also known as the "Hot spot" of Pakistan where the temperatures in the summer exceed 52.6 °C (126.7 °F). Until 2013 the district had two sub-divisions, Sibi and Lehri, further organized into tehsils and sub-tehsils: Sibi, Lehri, Kutmandi and Sangan.
Pshin or Pxin is a city that is the capital of the Pishin District of Balochistan province, Pakistan. Pshin connects Quetta, the provincial capital, to Afghanistan. It is considered part of the Pashtun belt of Balochistan, and it is the largest district of Pashtun tribes in the region. Due to its high population and vast area, a new tehsil, Pshin, has been established, and Malikyar is popular place/village for its greenery and production of different kinds of fruits and vegetables. and beautiful lake Band Khushdil Khan is present in Malikyar.
Zhob, formerly known as Fort Sandeman or Appozai, is a city and district capital of Zhob District in Balochistan province of Pakistan. Zhob is located on the banks of Zhob River 337 km from Quetta, the capital of Balochistan.. The city was originally named Appozai after a nearby village. During the British colonial era it was named Fort Sandeman. It obtained its current name on 30 July 1976 when the then Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had the name changed.
Quetta is a natural fort, surrounded as it is by imposing hills on all sides. The encircling hills have the resounding names of Chiltan, Takatoo, Mordar and Zarghun. It is believed that the earliest Muslim inhabitants and rulers/owners of the city were the Pashtun Kasi Tribe. Quetta was first mentioned in the 11th century when it was captured by Mahmood of Ghazni on one of his invasions of the subcontinent. In 1543 the Mughal emperor Humayun rested here on his retreat to Persia, leaving his one-year-old son Akbar until he returned two years later. The Ghilzai power in Kandahar at the beginning of the eighteenth century, simultaneously with that of the Baloch in Kalat, Quetta and Pishin became the battle-ground between the Afghans and Baloch in the region. Ahmed Shah Durrani finally handed Quetta over to the Khan of Kalat Mir Noori Naseer Khan Baloch for helping him with his army in 1751 against the Marathas in the Battle of Panipat (1761), and against the Sikhs in 1765. Today, it is an important city in Pakistan. Quetta has more than 50% pashtoon population mainly Kasi, Kakar, Daavi, tareen, Achakzai, etc.
Killa Abdullah or Qilla Abdullah or Abdullah Qilla is a district in the north west of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Killa Abdullah was separated from Pishin District and made a new district in June 1993.
Ajristan also spelled Ajeristan, is a district in the western part of Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. Its population was estimated at 62,028 in 2001, of which 90% areHazara people with others from the Pashtun people. Sangar, in the center of the district, is the capital. Most of the population live in the Jikhai River valley and depend upon agriculture, the main source of its economy. The last decade of severe winters and droughts have affected the economy and quality of life..
Harnai is a district in the north-east of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Harnai is the principal town of this district and serves as its capital. The predominant first language is Pashto – in the 1998 census it accounted for 90% of the population of the Harnai subdivision of Sibi, while Balochi accounted for 7.2%. Wanetsi, a unique and archaic dialect of Pashto, is spoken in the district.
Shahzada Rehmatullah Khan Durrani was a Pakistan Movement activist born on 10 October 1919 in the Sadozai dynasty of Durrani, the ethnic Pashtun Sadozai tribe, section of the Popalzai sub clan of Durrani Abdali Pashtun tribe in British India, Quetta.
Quetta, Pakistan features a continental arid climate with a large variation between summer and winter temperatures. The highest temperature recorded in Quetta was 42 °C (108 °F) on 10 July 1998. The lowest temperature in Quetta is −18.3 °C (−0.9 °F) which was recorded on 8 January 1970.
Lōy Kandahār is a historical and cultural region of Afghanistan, comprising the modern Afghanistan provinces of Kandahar, Helmand, Farah, Urozgan, and Zabul, as well as parts of Nimruz, and the Pashtun majority northern part of Balochistan Province, Pakistan. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak made the region an independent kingdom and turned Kandahar city into the capital of the Hotak dynasty. In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Durrani dynasty, made Kandahar the capital of the Afghan Empire.
Mohammad Abubakar Durrani is a Pakistani canoeist and documentary/ short film maker, cameraman, cave photographer and owner of the Abdali Productions.
Jalila Haider is a human rights attorney and political activist from Quetta, a city in Balochistan, Pakistan. Haider is known to be the first woman lawyer from the Hazara minority of Quetta and has been an advocate for the rights of her persecuted community in Pakistan. She is a member of Awami Workers Party (AWP), leader of the Balochistan chapter of Women Democratic Front (WDF), and is also an activist in the Pashtun Tahafuz Movement (PTM). She founded a non-profit organisation, 'We the Humans – Pakistan', which aims to empower local communities in Balochistan by strengthening opportunities for vulnerable women and children.
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