Hong Kong Observatory

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Hong Kong Observatory
Hong Kong Observatory Logo.svg
Agency overview
Formed2 March 1883;139 years ago (1883-03-02) [1]
Headquarters134A Nathan Road, Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Employees315 (March 2018) [2]
Annual budget381.4m HKD (2019–20) [2]
Agency executive
  • Dr. Cheng Cho-ming, Director of the Hong Kong Observatory
Parent agency Environment and Ecology Bureau
Website www.hko.gov.hk
Hong Kong Observatory
Chinese 香港 天文台
The 1883 building Hong Kong Observatory.jpg
The 1883 building
The Hong Kong Observatory Centenary Building Centenary Building - TST Observatory, HK - 2007-03-25 09h46m DSC07451.JPG
The Hong Kong Observatory Centenary Building

The Hong Kong Observatory is a weather forecast agency of the government of Hong Kong. The Observatory forecasts the weather and issues warnings on weather-related hazards. It also monitors and makes assessments on radiation levels in Hong Kong and provides other meteorological and geophysical services to meet the needs of the public and the shipping, aviation, industrial and engineering sectors.



The Observatory was established on 2 March 1883 as the Hong Kong Observatory by Sir George Bowen, the 9th Governor of Hong Kong, with William Doberck  [ sv ] (1852–1941) as its first director. Early operations included meteorological and magnetic observations, a time service based on astronomical observations and a tropical cyclone warning service. The Observatory was renamed the Royal Observatory Hong Kong (Chinese :皇家香港天文台) after obtaining a Royal Charter in 1912. [1] The Observatory adopted the current name and emblem in 1997 after the transfer of Hong Kong's sovereignty from the UK to China.

The Hong Kong Observatory was built in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon in 1883. Observatory Road in Tsim Sha Tsui is so named based on this landmark. However, due to rapid urbanisation, it is now surrounded by skyscrapers. As a result of high greenhouse gas emissions, the reflection of sunlight from buildings and the surfaces of roads, as well as the reduced vegetation, it suffers from a heat island effect. This was demonstrated by the considerable increase in average temperatures recorded by the Observatory between 1980 and 2005. In 2002, the Observatory opened a resource centre on the 23rd Floor of the nearby Miramar Tower, where the public can buy Hong Kong Observatory publications and access other meteorological information.

Hong Kong Observatory Grounds Hong Kong Observatory Grounds.JPG
Hong Kong Observatory Grounds

Buildings in the observatory

1883 building

This building, built in 1883, is a rectangular two-storey plastered brick structure. It is characterised by arched windows and long verandas. It now houses the office of the directorate and serves as the centre of administration of the Observatory. [3] The building is a declared monument of Hong Kong since 1984. [4] [5]

The Hong Kong Observatory Headquarters

This building is next to the 1883 Building; the Centenary Building, used as The Hong Kong Observatory Headquarters, was erected in 1983 as a commemoration of the centennial service of the Observatory. [6]


Over the years, the observatory has been led by:

Signs of Hong Kong Observatory in different years. HK Observatory Logo.jpg
Signs of Hong Kong Observatory in different years.
#NameTenure StartTenure EndLength of TenureNotes
1Dr. William Doberck2 March 188312 September 190724 years and 195 days
  • First Director
  • Longest serving Director
2Mr. Frederick George Figg13 September 190713 June 19124 years and 275 days
3Mr. Thomas Folkes Claxton14 June 19128 July 193220 years and 25 days
  • Second Director to serve over 20 years
4Mr. Charles William Jeffries9 July 193220 June 19418 years and 347 days
5Mr. Benjamin Davis Evans21 June 194130 April 19464 years and 314 days
6Mr. Graham Scudamore Percival Heywood1 May 19467 April 19569 years and 343 days
7Dr. Ian Edward Meni Watts8 April 195623 August 19659 years and 138 days
8Mr. Gordon John Bell24 August 196516 January 198115 years and 146 days
9Mr. John Edgar Peacock17 January 198114 March 19843 years and 58 days
  • Last British Director
10Mr. Patrick Sham Pak15 March 198425 May 199511 years and 72 days
  • First local Hong Kong Chinese Director
11Mr. Robert Lau Chi-kwan26 May 199521 December 19961 year and 210 days
12Dr. Lam Hung-kwan22 December 199613 March 20036 years and 82 days
13Mr. Lam Chiu-ying14 March 200310 May 20096 years and 58 days
14Dr. Lee Boon-ying11 May 200913 April 20111 year and 338 days
15Mr. Shun Chi-ming14 April 201114 February 20208 years and 307 days
16Dr. Cheng Cho-ming15 February 2020Incumbent2 years, 161 days

From 1885 to 1948, the HKO used the coat of arms of the United Kingdom in various styles for its logo but in 1949, this was changed to a circular escutcheon featuring pictures of weather observation tools, with the year 1883 at the bottom and a St Edward's Crown at the top. In 1981, the logo was changed to the old coat of arms, and in 1997, with the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, the current logo was introduced to replace the colonial symbols.

Outreach activities and publicity

Young visitors at the Observatory Hongkongobservatory.jpg
Young visitors at the Observatory
A sign with the old name before 1997 Royal Observatory HK.jpg
A sign with the old name before 1997

The Friends of the Observatory, an interest group set up in 1996 to help the Observatory to promote Hong Kong Observatory and its services to the public, provide science extension activities in relation to the works of the Observatory and foster communication between the Observatory and the public, now has more than 7,000 individual and family members in total. Activities organised for the Friends of the Observatory include regular science lectures and visits to Observatory's facilities. Newsletters (named 談天說地) were also published for members once every four months. Voluntary docents from this interest group lead a "HKO Guided Tour" to let the public who applied for visit in advance to visit the headquarters of the Observatory, and learn about the history, environment and meteorological science applied by the Observatory.

The Observatory regularly organises visits for secondary school students. This outreach programme was extended to primary school students, the elderly and community groups in recent years. Talks are also organised in primary schools during the winter time, when officials are less busy in the severe climate issues and watchouts. A roving exhibition for the public was also mounted in shopping malls in 2003. To promote understanding of the services provided by the Observatory and their benefits to the community, over 50 press releases were issued and 7 media briefings were held in 2003. From time to time, the Observatory also works closely with schools for a series of events, including with the Geography Society of PLK Vicwood KT Chong Sixth Form College between 2008 and 2009.

See also

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  1. 1 2 "History of the Hong Kong Observatory". Hong Kong Observatory. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  2. 1 2 "Head 168 – HONG KONG OBSERVATORY" (PDF). Hong Kong Observatory. Brand Hong Kong . Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  3. Hong Kong Observatory
  4. "Hong Kong Observatory, Tsim Sha Tsui". Antiquities and Monuments Office. Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  5. "Annex I Listing of Declared Monuments". Environmental Protection Department. Government of Hong Kong. 1 January 1999. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
  6. Hong Kong Observatory: Buildings
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Coordinates: 22°18′09″N114°10′27″E / 22.30250°N 114.17417°E / 22.30250; 114.17417