Governor of Hong Kong

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Governor of Hong Kong
Flag of the Governor of Hong Kong (1959-1997).svg
Standard of the Governor (1959–1997)
Official portrait of Lord Patten of Barnes crop 2.jpg
Chris Patten
Last Governor of Hong Kong
Style His Excellency
Residence Government House, Hong Kong
Appointer Monarch of the United Kingdom
Formation26 June 1843
First holder Sir Henry Pottinger
Final holder Chris Patten
Abolished30 June 1997
Salary HK$3,036,000 per annum (1997)
Governor of Hong Kong
Traditional Chinese 香港總督
Simplified Chinese 香港总督
Cantonese Yale Hēunggóng Júngdūk
Abbreviation
Chinese 港督
Cantonese Yale Góngdūk

The Governor of Hong Kong was the representative of the British Crown in Hong Kong from 1843 to 1997. In this capacity, the governor was president of the Executive Council and Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces Overseas Hong Kong. The governor's roles were defined in the Hong Kong Letters Patent and Royal Instructions. Upon the end of British rule and the handover of Hong Kong to China in 1997, most of the civil functions of this office went to the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, and military functions went to the Commander of the People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison.

Contents

The governor

Authorities and duties of the governor were defined in the Hong Kong Letters Patent and Royal Instructions in 1843. The governor, appointed by the British monarch (on the advice of the Foreign Secretary), exercised the executive branch of the Government of Hong Kong throughout British sovereignty and, with the exception of a brief experiment after World War II, no serious attempt was made to introduce representative government, until the final years of British rule.

White tropical dress (colonial service, 1st class) of the Gubernatorial uniform worn by Governor Edward Youde on the day he sworn in and numerous official ceremonies during his tenure, Hong Kong Museum of History. HK History of HK Museum Uniform of HK Governor Edward Youde.JPG
White tropical dress (colonial service, 1st class) of the Gubernatorial uniform worn by Governor Edward Youde on the day he sworn in and numerous official ceremonies during his tenure, Hong Kong Museum of History.

The Governor of Hong Kong chaired the colonial cabinet, the Executive Council (ExCo), and, until 1993, was also the President of the Legislative Council. The governor appointed most, if not all, of the members of the colony's legislature (known colloquially as LegCo), which was largely an advisory body until the first indirect election to LegCo was held in 1985. Initially, both Councils were dominated by British expatriates, but this progressively gave way to local Hong Kong Chinese appointees in later years. Historically, the Governors of Hong Kong were either professional diplomats or senior colonial officials, except for the last governor, Chris Patten, who was a career politician. In December 1996, the governor's salary was HK$3,036,000 per annum, tax-free. It was fixed at 125% of the Chief Secretary's salary. [1]

In the absence of the governor, the chief secretary immediately became the acting governor of the colony. The chief secretaries were historically drawn from the Colonial Office or British military. One Royal Navy Vice Admiral served as administrator after World War II. Four Japanese military officers (three Army officers and one naval Vice Admiral) served as administrators during the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong in World War II.

Transport

The Governor of Hong Kong used a Daimler DS420 for day to day transport and a Rolls-Royce Phantom V landaulet for ceremonial occasions. Both vehicles were removed by the Royal Navy immediately following the handover to China on 1 July 1997.

Residences

List of governors

British administrators and governors (1841–1941)

PortraitName
(Born–Died)
Term of officeOriginBackgroundRef
Took officeLeft officeDuration
Charles Elliot.png Sir Charles Elliot
義律

(1801–1875)
Administrator

26 January 184112 August 1841198 days Dresden, Saxony Chief Superintendent of British Trade in China [2] [3]
Alexander Robert Campbell Johnston.jpg Alexander Robert Johnston
莊士敦

(1812–1888)
Acting Administrator

22 June 18411 February 1842224 days Colombo, Ceylon Deputy Superintendent of British Trade in China [3] [4] [5]
13 June 18422 December 1842172 days
HenryPottinger.jpg Sir Henry Pottinger, 1st Bt.
砵甸乍

(1789–1856)
Administrator

12 August 184126 June 18431 year, 318 days Ballymacarrett, Ireland Lieutenant-General, East India Company [2] [6]
1 HenryPottinger.jpg Sir Henry Pottinger, 1st Bt.
砵甸乍

(1789–1856)

26 June 18438 May 1844317 days Ballymacarrett, Ireland Lieutenant-General [7]
2 Tcitp d073 John Francis Davis Bart.jpg Sir John Francis Davis, 1st Bt.
戴維斯

(1795–1890)

8 May 184421 March 18483 years, 315 days London, England Chief Superintendent of British Trade in China [8]
3 Sir Samuel George Bonham.jpg Sir George Bonham
文咸

(1803–1863)

21 March 184813 April 18546 years, 23 days London, England East India Company [9]
4 John Bowring 1867.jpg Sir John Bowring
寶靈

(1792–1872)

13 April 18542 May 18595 years, 19 days Exeter, England Member of Parliament [10]
Captain William Caine.jpg William Caine

(1799–1871)
Acting Governor

2 May 18599 September 1859130 days Maynooth, Ireland Colonial Secretary [11]
5 LordRosmead.jpg Sir Hercules Robinson
羅士敏

(1824–1897)

9 September 185915 March 18655 years, 187 days London, England Colonial administrator [12] [13]
William Thomas MERCER.jpg William Thomas Mercer
孖沙

(1821–1879)
Acting Governor

15 March 186512 March 1866362 days London, England Colonial Secretary [13]
6 Richard Graves MacDonnell.jpg Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell
麥當奴

(1814–1881)

12 March 186611 April 18726 years, 30 days Dublin, Ireland Colonial administrator [14] [15] [16]
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg Henry Wase Whitfield
威非路

(1814–1877)
Lieutenant-Governor

11 April 187216 April 18725 days England Commander and lieutenant governor [16]
7 ArthurEdwardKennedy.jpg Sir Arthur Kennedy
堅尼地

(1809–1883)

16 April 18721 March 18774 years, 319 days County Down, Ireland Colonial administrator [17] [18]
John Gardiner Austin.jpg John Gardiner Austin
柯士甸

(1811–1900)
Administrator

1 March 187723 April 187753 daysLowlands Plantation, Demerara Colonial administrator [18]
8 Sir John Hennessy.gif Sir John Pope Hennessy
軒尼詩

(1834–1891)

23 April 18777 March 18824 years, 318 days County Cork, Ireland Colonial administrator [19] [20]
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg Malcolm Struan Tonnochy
杜老誌

(1841–1882)
Administrator

7 March 188228 March 188221 days Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, India Colonial administrator [20]
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg Sir William Henry Marsh
馬師

(1827–1906)
Administrator

28 March 188230 March 18831 year, 2 days England Colonial administrator [21]
9 George Bowen b.jpg Sir George Bowen
寶雲

(1821–1899)

30 March 188321 December 18852 years, 266 days County Donegal, Ireland Colonial administrator [22]
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg Sir William Henry Marsh
馬殊

(1827–1906)
Officer Administrating the Government

21 December 188525 April 18871 year, 125 days England Colonial administrator [23]
William Gordon Cameron.jpg William Gordon Cameron
金馬倫

(1827–1913)
Officer Administering the Government

25 April 18876 October 1887164 days France Commander and lieutenant governor, British Army [24]
10 Sir G. William Des Voeux.jpg Sir William Des Vœux
德輔

(1834–1909)

6 October 18877 May 18913 years, 213 days Baden-Baden, German Confederation Colonial administrator [25]
Sir George Digby BARKER (1833-1914) photo in 1906 Suffolk Leaders.jpg Sir George Digby Barker
白加

(1833–1914)
Officer Administering the Government

7 May 189110 December 1891217 days Clare, England Commander and lieutenant governor, British Army [26]
11 Sir William Robinson.jpg Sir William Robinson
羅便臣

(1836–1912)

10 December 18911 February 18986 years, 53 days Wetherden, England Colonial administrator [27] [28]
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg Sir Wilsone Black
布力

(1837–1909)
Officer Administering the Government

1 February 189825 November 1898297 days Glasgow , Scotland Commander and lieutenant governor [28]
12 Henry Arthur Blake.jpg Sir Henry Arthur Blake
卜力

(1840–1918)

25 November 189821 November 19034 years, 361 days Limerick, Ireland Colonial administrator [29] [30]
Francis Henry May.png Sir Francis Henry May
梅含理

(1860–1922)
Officer Administering the Government

21 November 190329 July 1904251 days Dublin, Ireland Colonial Secretary [30]
13 Sir Matthew Nathan.jpg Sir Matthew Nathan
彌敦

(1862–1939)

29 July 190420 April 19072 years, 265 days London, England Colonial administrator [31] [32]
Francis Henry May.png Sir Francis Henry May
梅含理

(1860–1922)
Officer Administering the Government

20 April 190729 July 1907100 days Dublin, Ireland Colonial Secretary [32]
14 LordLugard.jpg Sir Frederick Lugard
盧吉

(1858–1945)

29 July 190716 March 19124 years, 231 days Madras, India Colonial administrator [33]
Sir Claud Severn.jpg Claud Severn
施勳

(1869–1933)
Officer Administering the Government

16 March 19124 July 1912110 days Adelaide, South Australia Colonial administrator [33]
15 Francis Henry May.png Sir Francis Henry May
梅含理

(1860–1922)

4 July 191212 September 19186 years, 70 days Dublin, Ireland Colonial Secretary [34] [35] [36]
Sir Claud Severn.jpg Claud Severn
施勳

(1869–1933)
Officer Administering the Government

12 September 191830 September 19191 year, 18 days Adelaide, South Australia Colonial administrator [36]
16 SirReginaldStubbs.jpg Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs
司徒拔

(1876–1947)

30 September 191931 October 19256 years, 31 days Oxford, England Colonial administrator [37] [38] [39]
17 SIRCECILCLEMENTIHKU.jpg Sir Cecil Clementi
金文泰

(1875–1947)

1 November 19251 February 19304 years, 92 days Cawnpore, India Colonial administrator [40] [41]
Sir Thomas Southorn.jpg Thomas Southorn
修頓

(1879–1957)
Officer Administering the Government

1 February 19309 May 193097 days Durham, England Colonial Secretary [41]
18 SirWilliamPeel HK.jpg Sir William Peel
貝璐

(1875–1945)

9 May 193017 May 19355 years, 8 days Hexham, England Colonial administrator [42] [43]
Sir Thomas Southorn.jpg Thomas Southorn
修頓

(1879–1957)
Officer Administering the Government

17 May 193513 September 1935119 days Leamington Spa, England Colonial Secretary [43] [44]
Norman Lockhart Smith.jpg Norman Lockhart Smith
史美

(1887–1968)
Officer Administering the Government

13 September 19351 November 193549 days Durham, England Colonial administrator [44] [45]
Sir Thomas Southorn.jpg Thomas Southorn
修頓

(1879–1957)
Officer Administering the Government

1 November 193512 December 193541 days Leamington Spa, England Colonial Secretary [45]
19 Sir Andrew Caldecott.jpg Sir Andrew Caldecott
郝德傑

(1884–1951)

12 December 193516 April 19371 year, 125 days Kent, England Colonial administrator [46] [47]
Norman Lockhart Smith.jpg Norman Lockhart Smith
史美

(1887–1968)
Officer Administering the Government

16 April 193728 October 1937195 days Durham, England Colonial Secretary [47]
20 Sir Geoffry Northcote.jpg Sir Geoffry Northcote
羅富國

(1881–1948)

28 October 19376 September 19413 years, 313 days London, England Colonial administrator [48]
Norman Lockhart Smith.jpg Norman Lockhart Smith
史美

(1887–1968)
Officer Administering the Government

6 September 194110 September 19414 days Durham, England Colonial Secretary [49]
21 Mark Young in 1930s.png Sir Mark Aitchison Young
楊慕琦

(1886–1974)

10 September 194125 December 1941106 days India Colonial administrator [50]

Japanese occupation (1941–1945)

PortraitName
(Born–Died)
Term of officeRef
Took officeLeft officeDuration
Sakai Takashi.jpg Takashi Sakai
酒井隆

(1887–1946)
Administrator

25 December 194120 February 194257 days
Niimi Masaichi.jpg Masaichi Niimi
新見政一

(1887–1993)
Administrator

1 Isogai Rensuke.jpg Rensuke Isogai
磯谷廉介
(1886–1967)
20 February 194224 December 19442 years, 308 days
2 Hisakazu.jpg Hisakazu Tanaka
田中久一
(1889–1947)
1 February 194516 August 1945196 days

British administrators and governors (1945–1997)

PortraitName
(Born–Died)
Term of officeOriginBackgroundRef
Took officeLeft officeDuration
Frank Gimson.jpg Sir Franklin Charles Gimson
詹遜

(1890–1975)
Provisional governor

28 August 194530 August 19452 days Leicestershire, England Colonial Secretary
Cecil Harcourt.jpg Sir Cecil Harcourt
夏愨

(1892–1959)
Military administration

1 September 19451 May 1946242 days London, England Admiral (Royal Navy)
21 Mark Young in 1930s.png Sir Mark Aitchison Young
楊慕琦

(1886–1974)

1 May 194617 May 19471 year, 16 days India Colonial administrator
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg David Mercer MacDougall
麥道高

(1904–1991)
Administrator

17 May 194725 July 194769 days Scotland Colonial Secretary
22 Sir Alexander Grantham
葛量洪

(1899–1978)

25 July 194731 December 195710 years, 159 days London, England Colonial administrator
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Edgeworth Beresford David
戴維德

(1908–1965)
Administrator

31 December 195723 January 195823 days Dulwich, England Colonial Secretary
23 Sir Robert Brown Black
柏立基

(1906–1999)

23 January 195831 March 19646 years, 68 days Edinburgh, Scotland Colonial administrator
Coat of arms of Hong Kong (1959-1997).svg Edmund Brinsley Teesdale
戴斯德

(1915–1997)
Administrator

31 March 196414 April 196414 days Shanghai, China Colonial Secretary
24 David Crosbie Trench.jpg Sir David C.C. Trench
戴麟趾

(1915–1988)

14 April 196419 October 19717 years, 188 days Quetta, India Colonial administrator
Coat of arms of Hong Kong (1959-1997).svg Sir Hugh Norman-Walker
羅樂民

(1916–1985)
Administrator

19 October 197119 November 197131 days London, England Colonial Secretary
25 Sir Murray MacLehose
麥理浩

(1917–2000)

19 November 19718 May 198210 years, 170 days Glasgow, Scotland UK Ambassador to Denmark
Coat of arms of Hong Kong (1959-1997).svg Sir Philip Haddon-Cave
夏鼎基

(1925–1999)
Acting governor

8 May 198220 May 198212 days Hobart, Australia Chief Secretary
26 Sir Edward Youde.jpg Sir Edward Youde
尤德

(1924–1986)

20 May 19824 December 19864 years, 198 days Penarth, Wales UK Ambassador to China
Coat of arms of Hong Kong (1959-1997).svg Sir David Akers-Jones
鍾逸傑

(1929–2019)
Acting governor

4 December 19869 April 1987126 days Sussex, England Chief Secretary
27 Official portrait of Lord Wilson of Tillyorn crop 2.jpg Sir David Wilson
衛奕信

(1935–present)

9 April 19873 July 19925 years, 91 days Clackmannanshire, Scotland Diplomat
Coat of arms of Hong Kong (1959-1997).svg Sir David Ford
霍德

(1935–2017)
Acting governor

3 July 19929 July 19926 days England Chief Secretary
28 Official portrait of Lord Patten of Barnes crop 2.jpg Chris Patten
彭定康

(1944–present)

9 July 199230 June 19974 years, 356 days Lancashire, England Chairman of Conservative Party Member of the Conservative Party. First and only governor had a party membership.

Timeline

Chris PattenDavid Clive WilsonEdward YoudeMurray MacLehoseDavid TrenchRobert Brown BlackAlexander GranthamMark Aitchison YoungMark Aitchison YoungGeoffry NorthcoteAndrew CaldecottWilliam Peel (colonial administrator)Cecil ClementiReginald Edward StubbsFrancis Henry MayFrederick LugardMatthew NathanHenry Arthur BlakeWilliam Robinson (governor)William Des VœuxGeorge BowenJohn Pope HennessyArthur KennedyRichard Graves MacDonnellHercules RobinsonJohn BowringGeorge BonhamJohn Francis DavisHenry PottingerGovernor of Hong Kong

Firsts

Standards

See also

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References

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  11. "Government Notification No. 46" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette. 2 May 1859.
  12. "Government Notification No. 77 of 1859" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette. 9 September 1859.
  13. 1 2 "Government Notification No. 38 of 1865" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette. 15 March 1865.
  14. "Swearing in the Governor". Hong Kong Daily Press. 13 March 1866. p. 2. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
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  30. 1 2 "No.788 of 1903" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 21 November 1903.
  31. "No.518 of 1904" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 29 July 1904.
  32. 1 2 "No.288 of 1907" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 20 April 1907.
  33. 1 2 "No.81 of 1912" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette. 16 March 1912.
  34. "No.218 of 1912" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 4 July 1912.
  35. "No.219 of 1912" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 4 July 1912.
  36. 1 2 "No.346 of 1918" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 12 September 1918.
  37. "No. 454 of 1919" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 30 September 1919.
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  41. 1 2 "No. 70 of 19305" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 1 February 1930.
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  43. 1 2 "No. 381 of 1935" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 17 May 1935.
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  45. 1 2 "No. 836 of 1935" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 1 November 1935.
  46. "No. 966 of 1935" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 12 December 1935.
  47. 1 2 "No. 260 of 1937" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 16 April 1937.
  48. "No. 755 of 1937" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 28 October 1937.
  49. "No. 1079 of 1941" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 6 September 1941.
  50. "No. 1085 of 1941" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 10 September 1941.