Governor of Hong Kong

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Governor of Hong Kong
Flag of the Governor of Hong Kong (1959-1997).svg
Standard of the Governor, 1959–1997
Chris Patten -2008-10-31- (cropped).jpg
Chris Patten, the last Governor of Hong Kong
Style His Excellency
Residence Government House
Appointer Monarch of the United Kingdom
Formation26 June 1843
First holder Sir Henry Pottinger
Final holder Chris Patten
Abolished30 June 1997
Deputy Lieutenant Governor
Colonial Secretary
Chief Secretary
Salary HK$3,036,000 per annum (1997)
Governor of Hong Kong
Traditional Chinese 香港總督
Simplified Chinese 香港总督
Cantonese Yale Hēunggóng Júngdūk
Abbreviation
Chinese 港督
Cantonese Yale Góngdūk

The Governor of Hong Kong was the representative in Hong Kong of the British Crown from 1843 to 1997. In this capacity, the governor was president of the Executive Council and Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces Overseas Hong Kong. The governor's roles were defined in the Hong Kong Letters Patent and Royal Instructions. Upon the end of British rule and the transfer of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China in 1997, most of the civil functions of this office went to the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, and military functions went to the Commander of the People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison.

British Hong Kong Crown colony and British dependent territory in East Asia between 1841 and 1997

British Hong Kong was Hong Kong when it was governed as a colony and British Dependent Territory of the United Kingdom. Hong Kong was under British rule from 1841 and was briefly occupied by Japan from 1941 to 1945 before surrendering the territory back to British forces, resuming British rule from 1945 to 1997. The colonial period began with the occupation of Hong Kong Island in 1841 during the First Opium War. The island was ceded by Qing dynasty in the aftermath of the war in 1842 and established as a Crown colony in 1843. The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War and was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898.

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions. Legally ill-defined, the term has different meanings depending on context. It is used to designate the monarch in either a personal capacity, as Head of the Commonwealth, or as the king or queen of his or her realms. It can also refer to the rule of law; however, in common parlance 'The Crown' refers to the functions of government and the civil service.

Executive Council of Hong Kong official advisory body to the Chief Executive of Hong Kong

The Executive Council of Hong Kong is the cabinet of the Government of Hong Kong, acting as a formal body of advisers to the Chief Executive of Hong Kong that serves as a core policy-making organ assisting the Chief Executive. It is analogous to other Executive Councils in the Commonwealth such as the Federal Executive Council of Australia, the Executive Council of New Zealand, and the Privy Council of the United Kingdom.

Contents

The governor

Uniform of the Governor of Hong Kong HK History of HK Museum Uniform of HK Governor Edward Youde.JPG
Uniform of the Governor of Hong Kong

Authorities and duties of the governor were defined in the Hong Kong Letters Patent and Royal Instructions in 1843. The governor, appointed by the British monarch (on the advice of the Foreign Secretary), exercised the executive branch of the Government of Hong Kong throughout British sovereignty and, with the exception of a brief experiment after World War II, no serious attempt was made to introduce representative government, until the final years of British rule.

The expression 'Hong Kong Letters Patent' is most commonly used to refer to the Hong Kong Letters Patent 1917, one of the principal constitutional documents of British Hong Kong ; however, it may also refer to any other Hong Kong Letters Patent or be used as a generic term covering all Hong Kong Letters Patent.

The expression 'Hong Kong Royal Instructions' is most commonly used to refer to the Hong Kong Royal Instructions 1917, one of the principal constitutional documents of British Hong Kong ; however, it may also refer to any other Hong Kong Royal Instructions or any Hong Kong Additional Instructions, or be used as a generic term covering all Hong Kong Royal Instructions and all Hong Kong Additional Instructions.

Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs United Kingdom government cabinet minister heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The Foreign Secretary is a member of the Cabinet, and the post is considered one of the Great Offices of State. It is considered a position similar to that of Foreign Minister in other countries. The Foreign Secretary reports directly to the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

The Governor of Hong Kong chaired the colonial cabinet, the Executive Council (ExCo), and, until 1993, was also the President of the Legislative Council. The governor appointed most, if not all, of the members of the colony's legislature (known colloquially as LegCo), which was largely an advisory body until the first indirect election to LegCo was held in 1985. Initially both Councils were dominated by British expatriates.This was not given way to local Hong Kong Chinese appointees until only 15 years before Hong Kong was going to be returned to China. Historically, the Governors of Hong Kong were either professional diplomats or senior colonial officials, except for the last governor, Chris Patten, who was a career politician. In December 1996, the governor's salary was HK$3,036,000 per annum, tax-free. It was fixed at 125% of the Chief Secretary's salary. [1]

Cabinet (government) Group of high ranking officials, usually representing the executive branch of government

A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch. Members of a cabinet are usually called cabinet ministers or secretaries. The function of a cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate decision-making body with collective responsibility, while in others it may function either as a purely advisory body or an assisting institution to a decision making head of state or head of government. Cabinets are typically the body responsible for the day-to-day management of the government and response to sudden events, whereas the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures.

Legislative Council of Hong Kong legislative body of Hong Kong

The Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region or LegCo is the unicameral legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.

Chris Patten British politician and colonial administrator

Christopher Francis Patten, Baron Patten of Barnes, is a British politician who served as the 28th and final Governor of Hong Kong from 19 July 1992 until the end of British administration over the territory on 30 June 1997. He has been a Conservative member of the House of Lords since 2005 and previously represented Bath in the House of Commons from 1979 to 1992.

In the absence of the governor, the chief secretary immediately became the acting governor of the colony. The chief secretaries were historically drawn from the Colonial Office or British military. One Royal Navy Vice Admiral served as administrator after World War II. Four Japanese military officers (three Army officers and one naval Vice Admiral) served as administrators during the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong in World War II.

Colonial Office UK former government ministry

The Colonial Office was a government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of British North America but needed also to oversee the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire. Despite its name, the Colonial Office was never responsible for all Britain's Imperial territories; for example protectorates fell under the purview of the Foreign Office, British India was ruled by the East India Company until 1858, whilst the Dominions were later carved out as the Empire matured.

Royal Navy Maritime warfare branch of the United Kingdoms military

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Transport

The Governor of Hong Kong used a Daimler DS420 for day to day transport and a Rolls-Royce Phantom V landaulette for ceremonial occasions. Both vehicles were removed by the Royal Navy immediately following the handover to China on 1 July 1997.

Daimler DS420 large limousine

The Daimler limousine DS420, popularly known as the Daimler Limousine, is a large limousine produced by The Daimler Company Limited between 1968 and 1992. The vehicles have been used by the British, Danish and Swedish royal houses. The car is still commonly used in the wedding, funeral, and hotel trades.

Rolls-Royce Phantom V car model

The Rolls-Royce Phantom V is a large, ultra-exclusive four-door limousine produced by Rolls-Royce Limited from 1959 to 1968. Based on the Silver Cloud II, it shared a V8 engine and General Motors Hydra-Matic automatic gearbox with that model. Rolls-Royce assembled the cars' chassis and drivetrains with bodies made to standard designs by coachbuilders Park Ward, and James Young, former vendors absorbed by Rolls-Royce.

Residences

Henry Pottinger 1st Governor of Hong Kong

Lieutenant General Sir Henry Pottinger, 1st Baronet, GCB, PC, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and colonial administrator who became the first Governor of Hong Kong.

Baronet A hereditary title awarded by the British Crown

A baronet or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess, is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was originally introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds.

Former French Mission Building declared monument in Hong Kong

The Former French Mission Building is a declared monument located on Government Hill at 1, Battery Path, Central, Hong Kong. It housed the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong from 1 July 1997 to 6 September 2015.

List of governors

British administrators and governors (1841–1941)

PortraitName
(Born–Died)
Term of officeOriginBackgroundRef
Took officeLeft officeDuration
Charles Elliot.png Sir Charles Elliot
義律

(1801–1875)
Administrator

26 January 184112 August 1841198 days Dresden, Saxony Chief Superintendent of British Trade in China [2] [3]
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Alexander Robert Johnston
莊士敦

(1812–1888)
Acting Administrator

22 June 18411 February 1842224 days Colombo, Ceylon Deputy Superintendent of British Trade in China [4] [5]
HenryPottinger.jpg Sir Henry Pottinger, 1st Bt.
砵甸乍

(1789–1856)
Administrator

12 August 184126 June 18431 year, 318 days County Down, Ireland Lieutenant-General, East India Company [2] [6]
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Alexander Robert Johnston
莊士敦

(1812–1888)
Acting Administrator

13 June 18422 December 1842172 days Colombo, Ceylon Assistant and Registrar to the Superintendent of Trade [3] [7] [8]
1 HenryPottinger.jpg Sir Henry Pottinger, 1st Bt.
砵甸乍

(1789–1856)

26 June 18438 May 1844317 days County Down, Ireland Lieutenant-General [9]
2 Tcitp d073 John Francis Davis Bart.jpg Sir John Francis Davis, 1st Bt.
戴維斯

(1795–1890)

8 May 184418 March 18483 years, 315 days London, England Factor/President, East India Company; Second Superintendent of British Trade in China [10]
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg William Staveley
士他花利

(1784–1854)
Administrator

18 March 184821 March 18483 days York, England Commander and lieutenant governor, British Army
3 Sir Samuel George Bonham.jpg Sir George Bonham
文咸

(1803–1863)

21 March 184813 April 18546 years, 23 days London, England East India Company [11]
4 John Bowring 1867.jpg Sir John Bowring
寶靈

(1792–1872)

13 April 18542 May 18595 years, 19 days Exeter, England Member of Parliament [12]
Captain William Caine.jpg William Caine

(1799–1871)
Acting Governor

2 May 18599 September 1859130 days England Colonial Secretary [13]
5 LordRosmead.jpg Sir Hercules Robinson
羅士敏

(1824–1897)

9 September 185915 March 18655 years, 187 days London, England Colonial administrator [14] [15]
William Thomas MERCER.jpg William Thomas Mercer
孖沙

(1821–1879)
Acting Governor

15 March 186512 March 1866362 days London, England Colonial Secretary [15]
6 Richard Graves MacDonnell.jpg Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell
麥當奴

(1814–1881)

12 March 186611 April 18726 years, 30 days Dublin, Ireland Colonial administrator [16] [17] [18]
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Henry Wase Whitfield
威非路

(1814–1877)
Lieutenant-Governor

11 April 187216 April 18725 days England Commander and lieutenant governor [18]
7 ArthurEdwardKennedy.jpg Sir Arthur Kennedy
堅尼地

(1809–1883)

16 April 18721 March 18774 years, 319 days County Down, Ireland Colonial administrator [19] [20]
John Gardiner Austin.jpg John Gardiner Austin
柯士甸

(1812–1900)
Administrator

1 March 187723 April 187753 daysLowlands Plantation, Demerara Colonial administrator [20]
8 Sir John Hennessy.gif Sir John Pope Hennessy
軒尼詩

(1834–1891)

23 April 18777 March 18824 years, 318 days County Cork, Ireland Colonial administrator [21] [22]
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Malcolm Struan Tonnochy
杜老誌

(1841–1882)
Administrator

7 March 188228 March 188221 days Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, India Colonial administrator [22]
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir William Henry Marsh
馬殊

(1827–1906)
Administrator

28 March 188230 March 18831 year, 2 days England Colonial administrator [23]
9 George Bowen b.jpg Sir George Bowen
寶雲

(1821–1899)

30 March 188321 December 18852 years, 266 days County Donegal, Ireland Colonial administrator [24]
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir William Henry Marsh
馬殊

(1827–1906)
Officer Administrating the Government

21 December 188525 April 18871 year, 125 days England Colonial administrator [25]
William Gordon Cameron.jpg William Gordon Cameron
金馬倫

(1827–1913)
Officer Administering the Government

25 April 18876 October 1887164 days France Commander and lieutenant governor, British Army [26]
10 Sir G. William Des Voeux.jpg Sir William Des Vœux
德輔

(1834–1909)

6 October 18877 May 18913 years, 213 days Baden-Baden, German Confederation Colonial administrator [27]
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir George Digby Barker
白加

(1833–1914)
Officer Administering the Government

7 May 189110 December 1891217 daysUnknown Commander and lieutenant governor, British Army [28]
11 Sir William Robinson.jpg Sir William Robinson
羅便臣

(1836–1912)

10 December 18911 February 18986 years, 53 days Wetherden, England Colonial administrator [29] [30]
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Wilsone Black
布力

(1837–1909)
Officer Administering the Government

1 February 189825 November 1898297 days Glasgow , Scotland Commander and lieutenant governor [30]
12 Henry Arthur Blake.jpg Sir Henry Arthur Blake
卜力

(1840–1918)

25 November 189821 November 19034 years, 361 days Limerick, Ireland Colonial administrator [31] [32]
Sir-Francis-Henry-May.png Sir Francis Henry May
梅含理

(1860–1922)
Officer Administering the Government

21 November 190329 July 1904251 days Dublin, Ireland Colonial Secretary [32]
13 Sir Matthew Nathan.jpg Sir Matthew Nathan
彌敦

(1862–1939)

29 July 190420 April 19072 years, 265 days London, England Colonial administrator [33] [34]
Sir-Francis-Henry-May.png Sir Francis Henry May
梅含理

(1860–1922)
Officer Administering the Government

20 April 190729 July 1907100 days Dublin, Ireland Colonial Secretary [34]
14 LordLugard.jpg Sir Frederick Lugard
盧吉

(1858–1945)

29 July 190716 March 19124 years, 231 days Madras, India Colonial administrator [35]
Sir Claud Severn.jpg Claud Severn
施勳

(1869–1933)
Officer Administering the Government

16 March 19124 July 1912110 days Adelaide, South Australia Colonial administrator [35]
15 Sir-Francis-Henry-May.png Sir Francis Henry May
梅含理

(1860–1922)

4 July 191212 September 19186 years, 70 days Dublin, Ireland Colonial Secretary [36] [37] [38]
Sir Claud Severn.jpg Claud Severn
施勳

(1869–1933)
Officer Administering the Government

12 September 191830 September 19191 year, 18 days Adelaide, South Australia Colonial administrator [38]
16 SirReginaldStubbs.jpg Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs
司徒拔

(1876–1947)

30 September 191931 October 19256 years, 31 days Oxford, England Colonial administrator [39] [40] [41]
17 SIRCECILCLEMENTIHKU.jpg Sir Cecil Clementi
金文泰

(1875–1947)

1 November 19251 February 19304 years, 92 days Cawnpore, India Colonial administrator [42] [43]
Sir Thomas Southorn.jpg Thomas Southorn
修頓

(1879–1957)
Officer Administering the Government

1 February 19309 May 193097 days Durham, England Colonial Secretary [43]
18 SirWilliamPeel HK.jpg Sir William Peel
貝璐

(1875–1945)

9 May 193017 May 19355 years, 8 days Hexham, England Colonial administrator [44] [45]
Sir Thomas Southorn.jpg Thomas Southorn
修頓

(1879–1957)
Officer Administering the Government

17 May 193513 September 1935119 days Leamington Spa, England Colonial Secretary [45] [46]
Norman Lockhart Smith.jpg Norman Lockhart Smith
史美

(1887–1968)
Officer Administering the Government

13 September 19351 November 193549 days Durham, England Colonial administrator [46] [47]
Sir Thomas Southorn.jpg Thomas Southorn
修頓

(1879–1957)
Officer Administering the Government

1 November 193512 December 193541 days Leamington Spa, England Colonial Secretary [47]
19 Sir Andrew Caldecott.jpg Sir Andrew Caldecott
郝德傑

(1884–1951)

12 December 193516 April 19371 year, 125 days Kent, England Colonial administrator [48] [49]
Norman Lockhart Smith.jpg Norman Lockhart Smith
史美

(1887–1968)
Officer Administering the Government

16 April 193728 October 1937195 days Durham, England Colonial Secretary [49]
20 Sir Geoffry Northcote.jpg Sir Geoffry Northcote
羅富國

(1881–1948)

28 October 19376 September 19413 years, 313 days London, England Colonial administrator [50]
Norman Lockhart Smith.jpg Norman Lockhart Smith
史美

(1887–1968)
Officer Administering the Government

6 September 194110 September 19414 days Durham, England Colonial Secretary [51]
21 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Mark Aitchison Young
楊慕琦

(1886–1974)

10 September 194125 December 1941106 days India Colonial administrator [52]

Japanese occupation (1941–1945)

PortraitName
(Born–Died)
Term of officeRef
Took officeLeft officeDuration
Sakai Takashi.jpg Takashi Sakai
酒井隆

(1887–1946)
Administrator

25 December 194120 February 194257 days
Niimi Masaichi.jpg Masaichi Niimi
新見政

(1887–1993)
Administrator

1 Isogai Rensuke.jpg Rensuke Isogai
磯谷廉介
(1886–1967)
20 February 194224 December 19442 years, 308 days
2 Hisakazu.jpg Hisakazu Tanaka
田中久
(1889–1947)
1 February 194516 August 1945196 days

British administrators and governors (1945–1997)

PortraitName
(Born–Died)
Term of officeOriginBackgroundRef
Took officeLeft officeDuration
Frank Gimson.jpg Sir Franklin Charles Gimson
詹遜

(1890–1975)
Provisional governor

28 August 194530 August 19452 days Leicestershire, England Colonial Secretary
Cecil Harcourt.jpg Sir Cecil Harcourt
夏愨

(1892–1959)
Military administration

1 September 19451 May 1946242 days London, England Admiral (Royal Navy)
21 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Mark Aitchison Young
楊慕琦

(1886–1974)

1 May 194617 May 19471 year, 16 days India Colonial administrator
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg David Mercer MacDougall
麥道高

(1904–1991)
Administrator

17 May 194725 July 194769 days Scotland Colonial Secretary
22 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Alexander Grantham
葛量洪

(1899–1978)

25 July 194731 December 195710 years, 159 days London, England Colonial administrator
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Edgeworth Beresford David
戴維德

(1908–1965)
Administrator

31 December 195723 January 195823 days Dulwich, England Colonial Secretary
23 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Robert Brown Black
柏立基

(1906–1999)

23 January 195831 March 19646 years, 68 days Edinburgh, Scotland Colonial administrator
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Edmund Brinsley Teesdale
戴斯德

(1915–1997)
Administrator

31 March 196414 April 196414 days Shanghai, China Colonial Secretary
24 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir David C.C. Trench
戴麟趾

(1915–1988)

14 April 196419 October 19717 years, 188 days Quetta, India Colonial administrator
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Hugh Norman-Walker
羅樂民

(1916–1985)
Administrator

19 October 197119 November 197131 days London, England Colonial Secretary
25 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Murray MacLehose
麥理浩

(1917–2000)

19 November 19718 May 198210 years, 170 days Glasgow, Scotland UK Ambassador to Denmark
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Philip Haddon-Cave
夏鼎基

(1925–1999)
Acting governor

8 May 198220 May 198212 days Hobart, Australia Chief Secretary
26 Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir Edward Youde
尤德

(1924–1986)

20 May 19824 December 19864 years, 198 days Penarth, Wales UK Ambassador to China
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir David Akers-Jones
鍾逸傑

(1927–present)
Acting governor

4 December 19869 April 1987126 days Sussex, England Chief Secretary
27 David Wilson 2008.jpg Sir David Wilson
衛奕信

(1935–present)

9 April 19873 July 19925 years, 91 days Clackmannanshire, Scotland Diplomat
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Sir David Ford
霍德

(1935–2017)
Acting governor

3 July 199219 July 19926 days England Chief Secretary
28 Chris Patten -2008-10-31- (cropped).jpg Chris Patten
彭定康

(1944–present)

19 July 199230 June 19974 years, 346 days Lancashire, England Chairman of Conservative Party

Timeline

Chris PattenDavid Clive WilsonEdward YoudeMurray MacLehoseDavid TrenchRobert Brown BlackAlexander GranthamMark Aitchison YoungMark Aitchison YoungGeoffry NorthcoteAndrew CaldecottWilliam Peel (colonial administrator)Cecil ClementiReginald Edward StubbsFrancis Henry MayFrederick LugardMatthew NathanHenry Arthur BlakeWilliam Robinson (governor)William Des VœuxGeorge BowenJohn Pope HennessyArthur KennedyRichard Graves MacDonnellHercules RobinsonJohn BowringGeorge BonhamJohn Francis DavisHenry PottingerGovernor of Hong Kong

Firsts

Standards

See also

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References

  1. House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 17 Dec 1996 (pt 3) Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  2. 1 2 Civil and Miscellaneous Lists: Hong Kong Government. Hong Kong: Government Printer. 1973. p. 101.
  3. 1 2 Endacott, G. B. (2005) [1962]. A Biographical Sketch-book of Early Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. pp. 56–58. ISBN   962-209-742-1.
  4. The Chinese Repository . Volume 10. Canton. 1841. pp. 351–352.
  5. The Chinese Repository . Volume 11. Canton. 1842. p. 674.
  6. Norton-Kyshe, James William (1898). The History of the Laws and Courts of Hongkong . Volume 1. London: T. Fisher Unwin. p. 10.
  7. The Chinese Repository, vol. 11, p. 676
  8. The Chinese Repository, vol. 11, p. 685
  9. "Proclamation" (PDF). The Friends of China Hongkong Gazette Government Extraordinary. 30 June 1853.
  10. "Notice" (PDF). The Friends of China Hongkong Gazette Government. 11 May 1844.
  11. "Government Notifications" (PDF). The Friends of China Hongkong Gazette. 25 March 1854.
  12. "Government Notification" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette. 13 April 1854.
  13. "Government Notification No. 46" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette. 2 May 1859.
  14. "Government Notification No. 77 of 1859" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette. 9 September 1859.
  15. 1 2 "Government Notification No. 38 of 1865" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette. 15 March 1865.
  16. "Swearing in the Governor". Hong Kong Daily Press. 13 March 1866. p. 2. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  17. "Government Notification No. 40 of 1866" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 12 March 1866.
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