Last updated

A Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
White Cliffs of Dover, Kent.jpg
Saint Thomas Becket (Samuel Caldwell, 1919) crop.jpg
Rochester Castle Keep and Bailey 0038stcpcropped.png
Kent UK locator map 2010.svg
Ceremonial Kent within England
Kent - British Isles.svg
Historic Kent in the British Isles
Coordinates: 51°12′N0°42′E / 51.200°N 0.700°E / 51.200; 0.700
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region South East
Established Ancient
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of Parliament List of MPs
Police Kent Police
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Philip Sidney
High Sheriff Mrs Remony Millwater [1] (2020/21)
Area3,736 km2 (1,442 sq mi)
  Ranked 10th of 48
Population (2021)1,846,478
  Ranked 5th of 48
Density494/km2 (1,280/sq mi)
Ethnicity93.7% White
(89.1% White British) [2]
B includes energy and construction
C includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

North Kent is heavily industrialised, with cement-making at Northfleet and Cuxton, brickmaking at Sittingbourne, shipbuilding on the Medway and Swale, engineering and aircraft design and construction at Rochester, chemicals at Dartford, papermaking at Swanley, and oil refining at Grain. [24] There is a steel mini mill in Sheerness and a rolling mill in Queenborough. There are two nuclear power stations at Dungeness, although the older one, Dungeness A, built in 1965, was decommissioned in 2006. [45]

Cement-making, papermaking, and coal-mining were important industries in Kent during the 19th and 20th centuries. Cement came to the fore in the 19th century when massive building projects were undertaken. The ready supply of chalk and huge pits between Stone and Gravesend bear testament to that industry. There were also other workings around Burham on the tidal Medway. [46] Chalk, gravel and clay were excavated on Dartford Heath for centuries.

Kent's original paper mills stood on streams like the River Darent, tributaries of the River Medway, and on the River Stour. Two 18th century mills were on the River Len and at Tovil on the River Loose. In the late 19th century huge modern mills were built at Dartford and Northfleet on the River Thames and at Kemsley on The Swale. In pre-industrial times, almost every village and town had its own windmill or watermill, with over 400 windmills known to have stood at some time. Twenty-eight survive within the county today, plus two replica mills and a further two in that part of Kent now absorbed into London. All the major rivers in the county were used to power watermills.

From about 1900, several coal pits operated in East Kent. The Kent Coalfield was mined during the 20th century at several collieries, [47] including Chislet, Tilmanstone, Betteshanger, and the Snowdown Colliery, which ran from 1908 to 1986. [48]

The west of the county (including Tunbridge Wells, Tonbridge, and Sevenoaks) has less than 50% of the average claimant count for low incomes or worklessness as the coastal districts of Dover, Folkestone and Hythe, and Thanet (chiefly three resorts: Ramsgate, Broadstairs, and Margate). West and Central Kent have long had many City of London commuters.



Canterbury Cathedral Canterbury Cathedral - Portal Nave Cross-spire.jpeg
Canterbury Cathedral

Kent's geographical location between the Straits of Dover and London has influenced its architecture, as has its Cretaceous geology and its good farming land and fine building clays. Kent's countryside pattern was determined by a gavelkind inheritance system that generated a proliferation of small settlements. There was no open-field system, and the large tracts were owned by the two great abbeys, Christ Church, Canterbury and St Augustine's Abbey, that did not pass into the hands of the king during the Reformation. Canterbury Cathedral is the United Kingdom's metropolitan cathedral; it was founded in AD 598 and displays architecture from all periods. There are nine Anglo-Saxon churches in Kent. Rochester Cathedral is England's second-oldest cathedral, the present building built in the Early English Style. [49] These two dioceses ensured that every village had a parish church.

The sites of Richborough Castle and Dover Castle, along with two strategic sites along Watling Street, were fortified by the Romans and the Dukes of Kent. Other important sites include Canterbury city walls and Rochester Castle. [50] There remained a need to defend London and thus Kent. Deal Castle, Walmer Castle, Sandown Castle (whose remains were eroded by the sea in the 1990s) were constructed in late mediaeval times, and HM Dockyard, at Chatham and its surrounding castles and forts—Upnor Castle, Great Lines, and Fort Amherst—more recently.

Kent has three unique vernacular architecture forms: the oast house, the Wealden hall house, and Kentish peg-tiles.

Kent has bridge trusts to maintain its bridges, and though the great bridge (1387) at Rochester was replaced there are medieval structures at Aylesford, Yalding and Teston. [51] With the motorways in the late twentieth century came the M2 motorway bridge spanning the Medway and the Dartford tunnel and the Dartford Bridge spanning the Thames.

Literature and publishing

Kent has provided inspiration for several notable writers and artists. Canterbury's religious role gave rise to Chaucer's Canterbury Tales , a key development in the English language. The father of novelist Charles Dickens worked at the Chatham Dockyard; in many of his books, the celebrated novelist featured the scenery of Chatham, Rochester, and the Cliffe marshes. [52] During the late 1930s, Nobel Prize-awarded novelist William Golding worked as a teacher at Maidstone Grammar School, where he met his future wife Ann Brookfield. [53] William Caxton, who first introduced the printing press to England, was born in Kent; the recent invention was key in helping many Kent dialect words and spellings to become standard in English. Lord Northbourne hosted a biodynamic agriculture conference on his estate at Betteshanger in the summer of 1939, he coined the term 'organic farming' and published his manifesto of organic agriculture the following year spawning a global movement for sustainable agriculture and food. [54]

Visual arts

A number of significant artists came from Kent, including Thomas Sidney Cooper, a painter of landscapes, often incorporating farm animals, [55] Richard Dadd, a maker of faery paintings, and Mary Tourtel, the creator of the children's book character, Rupert Bear. The artist Clive Head was also born in Kent. The landscape painter J. M. W. Turner spent part of his childhood in the town of Margate in East Kent, and regularly returned to visit it throughout his life. The East Kent coast inspired many of his works, including some of his most famous seascapes. [56] Kent has also been the home to artists including Frank Auerbach, Tracey Emin and Stass Paraskos.

Kent was also the location of the largest number of art schools in the country during the nineteenth century, estimated by the art historian David Haste, to approach two hundred. This is believed to be the result of Kent being a front line county during the Napoleonic Wars. At this time, before the invention of photography, draughtsmen were used to draw maps and topographical representations of the fields of battle, and after the wars ended many of these settled permanently in the county in which they had been based. Once the idea of art schools had been established, even in small towns in Kent, the tradition continued, although most of the schools were very small one-man operations, each teaching a small number of daughters of the upper classes how to draw and make watercolour paintings. Nonetheless, some of these small art schools developed into much larger organisations, including Canterbury College of Art, founded by Thomas Sidney Cooper in 1868, which is today the University for the Creative Arts. [57]

Blean near Canterbury was home to Smallfilms, the production company founded by Oliver Postgate and Peter Firmin and responsible for children's TV favourites Noggin the Nog, Ivor the Engine and Bagpuss.

Performing arts

The county's largest theatre is the Marlowe Theatre in the centre of Canterbury. [58]

Music festivals that take place in Kent include Chilled in a Field Festival, Electric Gardens, Hop Farm Festival, In the Woods Festival, Lounge On The Farm and the annual Smugglers Festival near Deal. Other venues for live music include Leas Cliff Hall in Folkestone and the Assembly Hall in Tunbridge Wells.

Kentish independence

Kentish people have long viewed themselves as Kentish first and British second, and to this day refer to themselves as either 'Men of Kent' or 'Kentish men' depending on whether they live to the East or West of the River Medway. [15] After the 2016 Brexit referendum and subsequent proposals for "border checks" on the Kentish border, effectively making Kent a country within a country, [59] this pride in being Kentish began to form into calls from some areas for an independent Kent or an autonomous republic within the UK, especially from the county's prominent newspapers, with the idea being discussed in detail in some areas [60] - with some ideas such as mock passports [61] and "tongue-in-cheek" manifestos being created. [62] These calls for independence can be explained by the individualistic and rebellious mentality that has always existed in the county, which can be explained by the counties position in the very South-East of the United Kingdom, having been a prominent and independent kingdom for centuries as well as being the source of many major rebellions that have occurred in the United Kingdom.



The M2 and High Speed 1 crossing the Medway Valley, south of Rochester MedwayM2BridgeCloud0169.JPG
The M2 and High Speed 1 crossing the Medway Valley, south of Rochester

With the Roman invasion, a road network was constructed to connect London to the Channel ports of Dover, Lympne and Richborough. The London–Dover road was Watling Street. These roads are now approximately the A2, B2068, A257, and the A28. The A2 runs through Dartford (A207), Gravesend, Rochester, Canterbury, and Dover; the A20 through Eltham, Wrotham, Maidstone, Charing, Ashford. Hythe, Folkestone and Dover; the A21 around Sevenoaks, Tonbridge, Tunbridge Wells and on to Hastings in East Sussex. [24] In the 1960s, two motorways were built; the M2 from Medway to Faversham, and the M20 from Swanley to Folkestone. Part of the M25 runs through Kent, from Westerham to the Dartford Crossing. The M26 motorway, built in 1980, provides a short link between the M25 at Sevenoaks and the M20 near Wrotham. Kent currently has more motorways by distance than any other county in the UK, with sections of the M2, M20, M25 and M26 totalling 173 km (107 mi) within the extents of the ceremonial county.

In the run-up to Britain leaving the European Union, Government minister Michael Gove confirmed that the Government intended to impose a de facto border between Kent and the rest of England for freight lorries, [63] in order to deal with expected lorry queues of 7,000 or more [64] at Folkestone, Dover and other ports. Heavy goods vehicle operators need to apply for a 24-hour Kent Access Permit (KAP) to take a vehicle of 7.5 tonnes or more into Kent if their intention is to cross to the EU via Dover or the Eurotunnel. [65]


The medieval Cinque Ports, except for the Port of Dover, have all now silted up. The Medway Estuary has been an important port and naval base for 500 years. The River Medway is tidal up to Allington and navigable up to Tonbridge. Kent's two canals are the Royal Military Canal between Hythe and Rye, which still exists, and the Thames and Medway Canal between Strood and Gravesend. Built-in 1824, it was purchased in 1846 by the railways, which partially backfilled it. [24] Container ports are at Ramsgate and Thamesport. Following the closures across the lower Medway, and the Swale to the Isle of Sheppey, during the 20th century, the Woolwich Ferry is the only domestic ferry that runs in the broadest definition of the county.


A 300 km/h (186 mph) Eurostar train at km 48 (mile 30) on High Speed 1, near Strood StroodCTRL2.JPG
A 300 km/h (186 mph) Eurostar train at km 48 (mile 30) on High Speed 1, near Strood

The earliest locomotive-driven passenger-carrying railway in Britain was the Canterbury & Whitstable Railway which opened in 1830. [66] This and the London & Greenwich Railway later merged into South Eastern Railway (SER). [67] By the 1850s, SER's networks had expanded to Ashford, Ramsgate, Canterbury, Tunbridge Wells, and the Medway towns. SER's major London termini were London Bridge, Charing Cross, and Cannon Street. Kent also had a second major railway, the London, Chatham & Dover Railway. Originally the East Kent Railway in 1858, it linked the northeast Kent coast with London terminals at Victoria and Blackfriars.

The two companies merged in 1899, forming the South Eastern & Chatham Railway, further amalgamated with other railways by the Railways Act 1921 to form the Southern Railway. [67] Britain's railways were nationalised in 1948, forming British Railways. The railways were privatised in 1996 and most Kent passenger services were franchised to Connex South Eastern. [68] Following financial difficulties, Connex lost the franchise and was replaced by South Eastern Trains and after Southeastern. [69]

The Channel Tunnel was completed in 1994 and High Speed 1 in November 2007 with a London terminus at St Pancras. A new station, Ebbsfleet International, opened between Dartford and Gravesend, serving northern Kent. [70] The high speed lines will be utilised to provide a faster train service to coastal towns like Ramsgate and Folkestone. This station is in addition to the existing station at Ashford International, which has suffered a massive cut in service as a result.

Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway P9300406.JPG
Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway

In addition to the "main line" railways, there are several light, heritage, and industrial railways in Kent. There are three heritage, standard gauge railways; Spa Valley Railway near Tunbridge Wells on the old Tunbridge Wells West branch, East Kent Railway on the old East Kent coalfield area and the Kent & East Sussex Railway on the Weald around Tenterden. In addition, there is the 15-inch (380 mm) gauge, Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway on the southeast Kent coast along the Dungeness peninsula. Finally, there is the 2 ft 6 in (0.76 m), industrial Sittingbourne & Kemsley Light Railway, previously the Bowaters Paper Railway.


Charter flights are provided by Lydd Airport at Lydd.

In 2002, it was revealed that the government was considering building a new four-runway airport on the marshland near the village of Cliffe on Hoo Peninsula. [71] This plan was dropped in 2003 following protests by cultural and environmental groups. [72] However further plans for a Thames Estuary Airport on the Kent coast have subsequently emerged, including the Thames Hub Airport, again sited on the Isle of Grain and designed by Lord Foster, [73] [74] and the London Britannia Airport plan, colloquially known as "Boris Island" due to its being championed by the former Mayor of London Boris Johnson, which would see a six runway airport built on an artificial island to be towards the Shivering Sands area, north-east of Whitstable. [74] [75] Both of these options were dropped in 2014 in favour of expansion at either Gatwick or Heathrow Airport, the latter finally being the chosen option following Theresa May's installation as Prime Minister in summer 2016.

Manston Airport, located near the village of Manston in the Thanet district, was a former RAF facility that also handled some civilian flights. It closed in 2014. [76]


Kent has four universities: Canterbury Christ Church University with campuses throughout East Kent; University of Kent, with campuses in Canterbury and Medway; University of Greenwich (a London University), with sites at Woolwich, Eltham, London and Medway; the University for the Creative Arts (UCA) also has three of its five campuses in the county.

Although much of Britain adopted a comprehensive education system in the 1970s, Kent County Council (KCC) and Medway Unitary Authority are among around fifteen [77] local authorities still providing wholly selective education through the eleven-plus examination with students allocated a place at a secondary modern school or at a grammar school.

Together, the two Kent authorities have 38 of the 164 grammar schools remaining in Britain. [77] [78]

Kent County Council has the largest education department of any local council in Britain, [79] providing school places for over 289,000 pupils.

In 2005–06, Kent County Council and Medway introduced a standardised school year, based on six terms, as recommended by the Local Government Association in its 2000 report, "The Rhythms of Schooling". [80]

Kent County Council Local Education Authority maintains 96 secondary schools, of which 33 are selective schools and 63 are secondary modern schools.

Schools in Kent (data from 2000) [81]
Special Pupil
Independent City
Medway 0891463170120

Music education is provided by Kent Music (formerly Kent Music School), [82] which has its origins in the 1940s. Kent Music provides services across the county including Kent County Youth Orchestra, Kent Youth Choirs, and an annual summer school at Benenden School.

National Challenge schools

In 2010, Kent had the highest number of National Challenge schools in England: schools which are branded 'failing' based on the British Government's floor targets that 30% of pupils achieve at least 5 GCSE grades A* to C. [83] Of the 63 secondary modern schools, 33 missed this target; thus 52% of Kent secondary modern schools (34% out of all 96 maintained secondary schools) are 'failing'. [84]


Priestfield Stadium is the home of Gillingham FC, Kent's only Football League team Priestfield Stadium Medway Stand.jpg
Priestfield Stadium is the home of Gillingham FC, Kent's only Football League team

In association football, Kent's highest ranked football team is Gillingham FC (nicknamed 'The Gills') who play in Football League Two, having been demoted at the end of the 2021–22 season. [85] Maidstone United was a Football League side from 1989 until going bankrupt in 1992. Kent clubs in the higher levels of non-league football include the current incarnation of Maidstone United and Dover Athletic playing in the National League along with Ebbsfleet United, who were promoted in 2017. Dartford currently play in National League South, the sixth tier of the English football pyramid.

Kent is represented in cricket by Kent County Cricket Club. The club was a founder member of the County Championship in 1890 and has won the competition, the major domestic first-class cricket competition, seven times. The club is based at the St Lawrence Ground in Canterbury and also plays matches at the Nevill Ground in Royal Tunbridge Wells and the County Cricket Ground, Beckenham. [86] The Kent Women cricket team has won the Women's County Championship seven times since it was established in 1997. Cricket has traditionally been a popular sport in the county and Kent is considered one of the locations in which the game first developed. Teams have represented the county since the early 18th century. The Kent Cricket League is the top level of club competition within Kent and features teams from throughout the county, including areas such as Beckenham and Bexley which were formerly part of the county.

Canterbury Hockey Club and Holcombe Hockey Club both play in the top division in both the men's and women's England Hockey Leagues. Sevenoaks Hockey Club's women first XI plays in the second tier of national competition.

In rugby union, Tonbridge Juddians and Canterbury RFC play in the fourth-tier of English rugby in the National League 2 South. Gravesend RFC play in the seventh-tier London 2 South-East. Blackheath FC, a club within the historic boundaries of the county, play in fourth-tier National League 2 South. Both Tonbridge Juddians and Blackheath RFC played in National league 1 (the third-tier of English rugby) up until the end of the 2021–2022 season.

In motorsport, the Brands Hatch circuit near Swanley has played host to a number of national and international racing events and hosted 12 runnings of the British Grand Prix in various years between 1964 and 1986.

Kent is home to two National League netball clubs, both based in northwest Kent: Telstars (Premier Division 2) and KCNC (Premier Division 3).

In basketball, the Kent Panthers participate in Division 3 of the National Basketball League.

The 2021–2022 season has seen three Kentish clubs demoted from the third-tier of their respective sports to the fourth-tier, with rugby clubs Tonbridge Juddians and Blackheath RFC being demoted in rugby and Gillingham FC being demoted in football.[ citation needed ]

News and media


Much of Kent is served by the BBC's South East region, which is based in Tunbridge Wells and provides local news for the county and East Sussex. Its commercial rival is ITV Meridian Ltd, which has a newsroom at The Maidstone Studios despite the main studio being based in Hampshire. Main transmitters providing these services are at West Hougham, near Dover and Blue Bell Hill, between Chatham and Maidstone. A powerful relay transmitter at Tunbridge Wells serves the town and surrounding area. Those parts of Kent closest to London such as Swanley, Westerham, Dartford, Gravesend, and Sevenoaks lie within the ITV London and BBC London areas, taking their television signals from the Crystal Palace transmitter.


Kent has two county-wide stations – BBC Radio Kent, based in Tunbridge Wells; and the commercial station KMFM, owned by the KM Group. KMFM previously consisted of seven local stations which covered different areas of the county (and are still technically seven different licences) but have shared all programming since 2012 [87]

The county's first commercial station was originally known as Invicta FM and began broadcasting in 1984. After various buyouts, the station was rebranded into Heart Kent in 2009 as part of the Heart Network. The station was closed and merged with several other Heart stations in the south of England in 2019 to form Heart South, with the Kent studios in Whitstable closing and production moving to Fareham in Hampshire.

There are several community radio stations in Kent including:


The KM Group, KOS Media and Kent Regional News and Media all provide local newspapers for most of the large towns and cities. County-wide papers include the Kent Messenger , Kent on Saturday , Kent on Sunday , and the Kent and Sussex Courier .

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">A2 road (England)</span> Road in southern England

The A2 is a major road in south-east England, connecting London with the English Channel port of Dover in Kent. This route has always been of importance as a connection between London and sea trade routes to Continental Europe. It was originally known as the Dover Road. The M2 motorway has replaced part of the A2 as the strategic route.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Eastern Trains</span> Former British train operator

South Eastern Trains was a publicly owned train operating company that operated the South Eastern Passenger Rail Franchise between November 2003, when it took over from Connex South Eastern, and 1 April 2006, when Southeastern began operating the new Integrated Kent franchise.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tonbridge and Malling</span> Borough and non-metropolitan district in England

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Kent</span> English county history

Kent is a traditional county in South East England with long-established human occupation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Eastern Railway (England)</span> British pre-grouping railway company

The South Eastern Railway (SER) was a railway company in south-eastern England from 1836 until 1922. The company was formed to construct a route from London to Dover. Branch lines were later opened to Tunbridge Wells, Hastings, Canterbury and other places in Kent. The SER absorbed or leased other railways, some older than itself, including the London and Greenwich Railway and the Canterbury and Whitstable Railway. Most of the company's routes were in Kent, eastern Sussex and the London suburbs, with a long cross-country route from Redhill in Surrey to Reading, Berkshire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medway Valley line</span> Railway line in Kent

The Medway Valley line is the name given to the railway line linking Strood in the Medway Towns via Maidstone West to Tonbridge. High Speed services also link between Maidstone West, Snodland, Strood and London St Pancras International. The section from Maidstone West to Paddock Wood passes through some of Kent's most picturesque countryside along the narrower sections of the River Medway.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chatham Main Line</span> Main railway line in south-east England

The Chatham Main Line is a railway line in England that links London Victoria and Dover Priory / Ramsgate, travelling via Medway.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maidstone & District Motor Services</span> Bus company based in Maidstone, Kent

Maidstone & District Motor Services was a bus company based in Maidstone, Kent. The company operated bus and coach services in Mid and West Kent and East Sussex from 1911 until 1998. The company's surviving operations were absorbed into Arriva Southern Counties.

Transportation needs within the county of Kent in South East England has been served by both historical and current transport systems.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geography of Kent</span> Overview of the geography of Kent

Kent is the south-easternmost county in England. It is bounded on the north by the River Thames and the North Sea, and on the south by the Straits of Dover and the English Channel. The continent of Europe is 21 miles across the straits.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Grade I listed buildings in Kent</span>

The county of Kent is divided into 13 districts. The districts of Kent are Ashford, Canterbury, Dartford, Dover, Gravesham, Maidstone, Medway, Tonbridge and Malling, Tunbridge Wells, Sevenoaks, Shepway, Swale and Thanet.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">KM Media Group</span>

KM Media Group is a multimedia company in the county of Kent, England which originated as the publisher of the Kent Messenger. The Group now produces local newspapers, radio stations, TV and websites throughout the county. Iliffe Media acquired KM Media Group in April 2017.

The geology of Kent in southeast England largely consists of a succession of northward dipping late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks overlain by a suite of unconsolidated deposits of more recent origin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Grade II* listed buildings in Kent</span>

The county of Kent is divided into 13 districts. The districts of Kent are Ashford, Canterbury, Dartford, Dover, Folkestone and Hythe, Gravesham, Maidstone, Medway, Tonbridge and Malling, Tunbridge Wells, Sevenoaks, Swale and Thanet.

The Kent League was a football league which existed from 1894 until 1959, based in the English county of Kent. Another, unrelated, Kent League was formed in 1966, and is now known as the Southern Counties East Football League.

These awards were created to celebrate design excellence in Kent and were first staged in 2003 and are usually held every two years. They were then renamed 'Kent Design and Development Awards' in 2012. Then have stayed as the 'Kent Design and Development Awards' in 2014.


  1. "No. 62943". The London Gazette . 13 March 2020. p. 5161.
  2. "2011 Census: Cultural diversity in Kent" (PDF). Kent City Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 November 2021. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  3. "Kent | county, England, United Kingdom". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  4. G. O. Sayles, The Medieval Foundations of England (London 1967). p. 186.
  5. Wainwright, Martin (1 June 2006). "Kent loses its Garden of England title to North Yorkshire". The Guardian . ISSN   0261-3077. Archived from the original on 13 January 2022. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  6. "Kent". Etymonline. 12 November 1949. Archived from the original on 16 September 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  7. 1 2 3 Howe, Ian (2012). Kent Dialect. Bradwell Books. p. 26. ISBN   9781902674346.
  8. Ashbee, Paul (2005). Kent in prehistoric times. Tempus. ISBN   9780752431369.
  9. Glover, Judith (1976). Place names of Kent. B. T. Batsford. ISBN   9780713430691.
  10. Susan Harrington and Stuart Brookes, The Kingdom of Kent and Its People, AD 400–1066, pp. 24, 35.
  11. Witney, K. P. (1982). The Kingdom of Kent.
  12. "Victoria County History of Kent". May 2006. Archived from the original on 16 February 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  13. "Archbishop of Canterbury". Archived from the original on 18 June 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2007.
  14. Stenton, Frank M (1971), Anglo-Saxon England, The Oxford History of England, vol. II, Oxford University Press, ISBN   978-0-19-821716-9
  15. 1 2 Griffiths, Rhys (11 June 2020). "Are you a Kentish Man or a Man of Kent and which side of the Medway is the best place to be?". Kent Online. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  16. Graham, James (11 April 2023). "The River Medway: The river of Kent or Kentish river?". British Heritage. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  17. Bates, David (1975). The Character and Career of Odo, Bishop of Bayeux (1049/50-1097). Speculum.
  18. "Peasants' Revolt". Archived from the original on 4 April 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  19. "Wyatt's Rebellion". Brit Politics. Britology Ltd. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  20. The Historic Dockyard Chatham – where legends were created. Jarrold Publishing. 2005.
  21. "The Dutch in the Medway". Archived from the original on 17 May 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  22. Oliver, Richard (1995). Ordnance Survey maps: a concise guide for historians 2nd Ed. Ordnance Survey. ISBN   978-1-870598-24-8.
  23. "South-East England". Smuggler's Britain. Archived from the original on 16 May 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  24. 1 2 3 4 Jessup, Frank W. (1966). Kent History Illustrated. Kent County Council.
  25. "Medway". Communities and Local Government. Archived from the original on 27 April 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  26. English Channel. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. Archived from the original on 21 June 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  27. 1 2 Greensand Way in Kent. Kent Count Council. 1992. ISBN   978-1-873010-23-5.
  28. 1 2 3 Britain's Structure and Scenery, L.Dudley Stamp, Pub September 1946, Collins New Naturalist Series.
  29. "Kent Downs". Archived from the original on 5 April 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  30. "Geology of Kent and Boulonnais". The Geology Shop. 2000. Archived from the original on 5 November 2009. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
  31. Hill, Amelia; McKie, Robin (29 April 2007). "Quake causes Kent families to flee homes". The Observer. London. Archived from the original on 31 May 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2007.
  32. "Kent hit by 4.2 earthquake, shaking houses and waking residents". The Guardian. London. 22 May 2015. Archived from the original on 7 June 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  33. 1 2 Bowskill, Derek. Map of the River Medway.
  34. "Environmental Agency: River Medway". Archived from the original on 5 June 2011.
  35. Prynn, Jonathan (23 May 2014). "Massive oil reserves lie under commuter belt in South, says report". London Evening Standard . p. 8. Archived from the original on 27 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  36. "UK Records". BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 26 January 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  37. Climate averages 1981–2010 Archived 24 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine . Met Office (19 November 2008). Retrieved on 17 July 2013.
  38. Kent (Borough of Gillingham and City of Rochester upon Medway) (Structural Change) Order 1996 "Kent (Borough of Gillingham and City of Rochester upon Medway) (Structural Change) Order 1996". HMSO. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
  39. "Council and democracy". Kent County Council. Archived from the original on 6 February 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
  40. "Democratically elected representatives in Medway". Medway Council. Archived from the original on 12 May 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2007.
  41. 1 2 3 4 5 "Neighbourhood Statistics". Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  42. Climate Change Risk and Impact Assessment for Kent and Medway – Part 2: Agriculture Sector Summary (PDF) (Report). Kent County Council. June 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2021.
  43. "Hazelnut and walnut production" (PDF). Calu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  44. "Regional Gross Value Added" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
  45. "Closure of Dungeness Power Station". BBC News. 31 December 2006. Archived from the original on 15 March 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
  46. "The Chatham News Index" (PDF). Parret & Neves. 1996. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2006. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
  47. "Coal fields Heritage Initiative". Dover Museum. Archived from the original on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  48. "Snowdown Colliery". Archived from the original on 11 March 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
  49. Newman, John (1969). "The Buildings of Kent". In Pevsner (ed.). North East and East Kent. Buildings of England (3 ed.). Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. p. 35. ISBN   978-0140710397.
  50. Newman, John (1969). "The Buildings of Kent". In Pevsner (ed.). North East and East Kent. Buildings of England (3 ed.). Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. pp. 36–123. ISBN   978-0140710397.
  51. Newman, John (1969). "The Buildings of Kent". In Pevsner (ed.). North East and East Kent. Buildings of England (3 ed.). Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. p. 58. ISBN   978-0140710397.
  52. "Charles Dickens". InfoBritain. Archived from the original on 17 April 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  53. "William Golding – Biography". Archived from the original on 24 February 2003. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
  54. Paull, John (2021). Organic Agriculture - Invented in Kent Archived 14 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine , Kent Maps Symposium, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, 5 May.
  55. Edward Strachan and Roy Bolton, Russia & Europe in the Nineteenth Century (London: Sphinx Fine Art, 2008 ) p. 46.
  56. "The Turner Connection". Archived from the original on 23 July 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
  57. David Haste, The Art Schools of Kent (London: Werther Books, 2014).
  58. Kennedy, Maev (28 September 2011). "Marlowe theatre: curtain rises on Canterbury's £25.6m revamp". The Guardian . London. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  59. O'Carroll, Lisa (23 September 2020). "Lorry drivers will face de facto Brexit border in Kent, Gove confirms". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  60. West, Patrick (24 September 2020). "An independent Kent isn't as ridiculous as it sounds". The Spectator. Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  61. "Welcome to the Republic of Kent!". Kent Online. 24 September 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  62. James, John (24 September 2020). "The radical steps Kent must take to thrive as an 'independent nation'". KentLive. Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  63. McConnell, Ed (3 September 2020). "Worst case post-Brexit lorry havoc scenario for Kent revealed by Michael Gove to House of Commons". Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  64. "Brexit: Lorry drivers will need a permit to enter Kent after transition period". BBC News. 23 September 2020. Archived from the original on 4 January 2021. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  65. "Check an HGV is ready to cross the border (Kent Access Permit)". GOV.UK. 31 December 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  66. Oppitz, Leslie. "The lost railway". BBC. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2008.
  67. 1 2 "History of the South Eastern & Chatham Railway". The South Eastern & Chatham Railway Society. Archived from the original on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 22 April 2007.
  68. "Failed rail franchise 'needed time'". BBC. 13 November 2003. Archived from the original on 2 July 2004. Retrieved 13 May 2007.
  69. "Rail workers vote to hold strikes". BBC. 13 April 2006. Archived from the original on 14 April 2006. Retrieved 13 May 2007.
  70. "New station means Eurostar change". BBC. 12 September 2006. Archived from the original on 27 August 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2007.
  71. Davis, Matthew (12 September 2006). "Airport plan threatens Dickens' legacy". BBC. Archived from the original on 29 May 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2007.
  72. Feature, Advertisement (23 March 2008). "Saving nature". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
  73. Gwyn Topham and Nicholas Watt. "'Boris Island' airport plan grounded over Johnson's briefing to Telegraph". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  74. 1 2 "Nature blow to plans for "Boris Island"". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  75. "'Boris Island' London Airport designs unveiled". BBC News. 11 November 2013. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  76. "Threatened airport to shut next week". BBC News. 6 May 2014. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  77. 1 2 Garner, Richard (20 January 2007). "Call for end to selective education as 'grammar school areas' fail". The Independent. UK. Archived from the original on 27 January 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2007.
  78. "Grammar schools have expanded". BBC News. 26 March 2004. Archived from the original on 29 August 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
  79. "Kent's selective schools compared". BBC News. 17 January 2003. Archived from the original on 14 February 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2007.
  80. "Kent County Council". Kent County Council. Archived from the original on 25 February 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
  81. "Department for Education and Skills". Department for Education and Skills. Archived from the original on 2 April 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2007.
  82. Kent Music & Soundhub: Annual Report 2015 (PDF) (Report). Kent Music. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  83. "Brown threatens 'failing' schools". BBC News. 31 October 2007. Archived from the original on 13 January 2022. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  84. Archived 3 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  85. "Report | Gillingham 0-2 Rotherham United". Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  86. We ended up with a lake – Kent CEO Jamie Clifford Archived 19 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine . BBC Sport (13 June 2012). Retrieved on 17 July 2013.
  87. Clarkson, Stuart (16 February 2012). "KMFM group can have one breakfast show". Radio Today Industry News. Archived from the original on 17 February 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2015.