Rutland

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Rutland
Oakham Market Place (geograph 7627324).jpg
Normanton Church - geograph.org.uk - 2911781.jpg
High Street East, Uppingham (geograph 3341980).jpg
Oakham Buttercross; Rutland Water and Normanton Church; Uppingham High Street East.
Motto: 
Multum in Parvo ("Much in little")
Rutland UK locator map 2010.svg
Rutland within England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region East Midlands
Ceremonial county Rutlandshire (1204-1974)
Ceremonial county Leicestershire (1974-1997)
Ceremonial county Rutland (1997-present)
Settled1155
Ceremonial county 1204
Made a district of Leicestershire and loss of its county status1974
Separated from Leicestershire and become a county/unitary areaApril 1997
Founded by Edward the Confessor
Named for Edith of Wessex
Administrative HQ Oakham
Government
  Type Unitary authority and county
  Lord-Lieutenant of RutlandSarah Furness
  High Sheriff of RutlandDavid Wood [1] (2021–22)
Area
  Total147.4 sq mi (381.8 km2)
  Rank294th
Population
 (2021)
  Total41,381
  Rank294th
  Density280/sq mi (110/km2)
   Rank277th
Time zone UTC+0 (Greenwich Mean Time)
Postcodes
LE14-15
Area code 01572
ONS code E06000017 (GSS)
Website rutland.gov.uk

Rutland ( /ˈrʌtlənd/ ), archaically Rutlandshire, [2] is a ceremonial county in the East Midlands of England. It borders Leicestershire to the north and west, Lincolnshire to the north-east, and Northamptonshire to the south-west. Oakham is the largest town.

Contents

Rutland has an area of 382 km2 (147 sq mi) and a population of 41,049, the second-smallest ceremonial county population after the City of London. The county is rural, and the only towns are Oakham (12,149) and Uppingham (4,745), both in the west of the county; the largest settlement in the east is the village of Ketton (1,926). For local government purposes Rutland is a unitary authority area. The county was historically the smallest in England, a fact reflected in the motto of the county council: Multum in Parvo, or "much in little". [3]

The geography of Rutland is characterised by low, rolling hills, the highest of which is a 197 m (646 ft) point in Cold Overton Park. In the 1970s a large artificial reservoir, Rutland Water, was created in the centre of the county. It is now a nature reserve, serving as an overwintering site for wildfowl and a breeding site for ospreys. The older buildings in the county are built from local limestone or ironstone, and many have roofs of Collyweston stone slate or thatch.

There is little evidence of Prehistoric settlement in the county, though Roman habitation is suggested by the discovery of a large Roman mosaic and probable farming complex just west of Ketton. [4] It was certainly settled by the Angles from the fifth century and later formed part of Mercia. It is not mentioned as a distinct county until 1179, and during the Domesday Survey was treated as part of Nottinghamshire and Northamptonshire. During the High Middle Ages much of the county was forested and used as hunting grounds, a tradition which continues to the present with packs such as the Cottesmore Hunt. The county's main industry is agriculture, with wool being particularly important in the sixteenth century, and there is a limestone quarry near Ketton. Rutland bitter is a distinctive ale associated with the village of Langham. [5] [6] [7] [8]

Etymology

The origin of the name of the county is unclear. In a 1909 edition of Notes and Queries Harriot Tabor suggested "that the name should be Ruthland, and that there is a part of Essex called the Ruth, and that the ancient holders of it were called Ruthlanders, since altered to Rutland"; [9] however, responses suggest "that Rutland, as a name, was earlier than the Norman Conquest. Its first mention, as "Roteland", occurs in the will of Edward the Confessor; in Domesday it is "the King's soc of Roteland", not being then a shire; and in the reign of John it was assigned as a dowry to Queen Isabella. [10]

The northwestern part of the county was recorded as Rutland, a detached part of Nottinghamshire, in Domesday Book; the south-eastern part as the wapentake of Wicelsea in Northamptonshire. It was first mentioned as a separate county in 1159, but as late as the 14th century it was referred to as the 'Soke of Rutland'. Rutlandshire is an archaic and rarely used alternative name.

Rutland may be from Old English hryþr or hrythr "cattle" and land "land", as a record from 1128 as Ritelanede shows. However, A Dictionary of British Place-Names by A D Mills gives an alternative etymology, "Rota's land", from the Old English (Anglo-Saxon) personal name and land land. [11] It is from the alternative interpretation of red land that the traditional nickname for a male person from Rutland, a "Raddle Man", derives. [12]

History

Earl of Rutland and Duke of Rutland are titles in the peerage of England held in the Manners family, derived from the historic county of Rutland. The Earl of Rutland was elevated to the status of Duke in 1703 and the titles were merged. The family seat is Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire.

The office of High Sheriff of Rutland was instituted in 1129, and there has been a Lord Lieutenant of Rutland since at least 1559. Oakham Castle was built c.1180–1190 and is "one of the nation’s best-preserved Norman buildings" and is a Grade I listed building. [13]

The flag of Rutland Rutland County Flag.svg
The flag of Rutland

By the time of the 19th century it had been divided into the hundreds of Alstoe, East Rutland, Martinsley, Oakham and Wrandike.

Rutland covered parts of three poor law unions and rural sanitary districts (RSDs): those of Oakham, Uppingham and Stamford. The registration county of Rutland contained the entirety of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs, which included several parishes in Leicestershire and Northamptonshire – the eastern part in Stamford RSD was included in the Lincolnshire registration county. Under the Poor Laws, Oakham Union workhouse was built in 1836–37 at a site to the north-east of the town, with room for 100 paupers. The building later operated as the Catmose Vale Hospital, and now forms part of the Oakham School. [14]

Oakham Castle Oakham Castle.jpg
Oakham Castle

In 1894 under the Local Government Act 1894 the rural sanitary districts were partitioned along county boundaries to form three rural districts. The part of Oakham and Uppingham RSDs in Rutland formed the Oakham Rural District and Uppingham Rural District, with the two parishes from Oakham RSD in Leicestershire becoming part of the Melton Mowbray Rural District, the nine parishes of Uppingham RSD in Leicestershire becoming the Hallaton Rural District, and the six parishes of Uppingham RSD in Northamptonshire becoming Gretton Rural District. Meanwhile, that part of Stamford RSD in Rutland became the Ketton Rural District.

Oakham Urban District was created from Oakham Rural District in 1911. It was subsequently abolished in 1974. [15]

Rutland was included in the "East Midlands General Review Area" of the 1958–67 Local Government Commission for England. Draft recommendations would have seen Rutland split, with Ketton Rural District going along with Stamford to a new administrative county of Cambridgeshire, and the western part added to Leicestershire. The final proposals were less radical and instead proposed that Rutland become a single rural district within the administrative county of Leicestershire. [16]

District of Leicestershire (1974–1997)

Rutland became a non-metropolitan district of Leicestershire under the Local Government Act 1972, which took effect on 1 April 1974. The original proposal was for Rutland to be merged with what is now the Melton borough, as Rutland did not meet the requirement of having a population of at least 40,000. The revised and implemented proposals allowed Rutland to be exempt from this.

Unitary authority (1997–present)

Topiary with date at Clipsham Yew Tree Avenue, marking Rutland's
re-establishment in 1997 Clipsham Yew Tree Avenue - Rutland County Council - geograph.org.uk - 1533637.jpg
Topiary with date at Clipsham Yew Tree Avenue, marking Rutland's
re-establishment in 1997

In 1994, the Local Government Commission for England, which was conducting a structural review of English local government, recommended that Rutland become a unitary authority. This was implemented on 1 April 1997, when Rutland County Council became responsible for almost all local services in Rutland, with the exception of the Leicestershire Fire and Rescue Service and Leicestershire Police, which are run by joint boards with Leicestershire County Council and Leicester City Council. Rutland regained a separate lieutenancy and shrievalty, and thus also regained status as a ceremonial county.

Rutland was a postal county until the Royal Mail integrated it into the Leicestershire postal county in 1974. After a lengthy campaign, [17] and despite counties no longer being required for postal purposes, [18] the Royal Mail agreed to re-create a postal county of Rutland in 2007. This was achieved in January 2008 by amending the former postal county for all of the Oakham (LE15) post town and a small part of the Market Harborough (LE16) post town. [19]

Politics and subdivisions

The coat of arms of Rutland County Council Arms of Rutland County Council.svg
The coat of arms of Rutland County Council

Rutland County Council

Rutland County Council is a unitary authority and is responsible for almost all local services in Rutland, with the exception of the Leicestershire Fire and Rescue Service and Leicestershire Police, which are run by joint boards with Leicestershire County Council and Leicester City Council.

Following the 2023 council elections, the Liberal Democrats emerged as the largest group and subsequently formed a cabinet led by Gale Waller. [20]

Wards

As from the May 2019 elections, there are 27 councillors representing 15 wards on Rutland County Council. They represent a mixture of one, two and three-person wards.

Parliamentary constituencyWardCouncillorPartyTerm of office
Rutland and Melton
constituency
BarleythorpeDavid Blanksby Independent 2019–23
Sue Webb Independent 2019-23
Braunston & MartinsthorpeEdward Baines Conservative 2019–23
William Cross Conservative 2019-23
CottesmoreSamantha Harvey Conservative 2019-23
Abigail McCartney Liberal Democrats 2019–23
ExtonJune Fox Conservative 2016–23
GreethamNick Begy Conservative 2019-23
KettonGordon Brown Conservative 2019-23
Karen Payne Conservative 2019–23
LanghamOliver Hemsley Conservative 2019-23
LyddingtonAndrew Brown Independent 2019-23
NormantonKenneth Bool Conservative 2019-23
Gale Waller Liberal Democrats 2019-23
Oakham North EastJeff Dale Independent 2019–23
Alan Walters Independent 2019-23 [21]
Oakham North WestPaul Ainsley Conservative 2019–23
Leah Toseland Labour 2021-23 [22]
Oakham SouthJoanna Burrows Liberal Democrats 2019–23
Paul Browne Liberal Democrats 2022-23
Ray Payne Liberal Democrats 2022-23
Ryhall and CastertonRichard Coleman Conservative 2019-23
David Wilby Conservative 2019-23
UppinghamStephen Lambert Liberal Democrats 2022-23
Marc Oxley Independent 2019-23
Lucy Stephenson Conservative 2019–23
WhissendineRosemary Powell Independent 2019-23

Parliamentary constituency

Rutland formed a Parliamentary constituency on its own until 1918, when it became part of the Rutland and Stamford constituency, along with Stamford in Lincolnshire. Since 1983 it has formed part of the Rutland and Melton constituency along with Melton borough and part of Harborough district from Leicestershire.

As of the 2019 general election, Alicia Kearns is the member of parliament for Rutland and Melton, having received 62.6% of the vote.

Civil parishes

The county comprises 57 civil parishes, which range considerably in size and population, from Martinsthorpe (nil population) to Oakham (10,922 residents in the 2011 census).

Demographics

The population in the 2011 Census was 37,369, a rise of 8% on the 2001 total of 34,563. The population saw a nearly 1% increase in the population at the 2021 Census with a recorded population of 41,049.

YearPopulation
183119,380
186121,861
187122,073
188121,434
189120,659
190119,709
199133,228
200134,560
201137,400 [23]
202141.049

At the 2021 Census, the demographics for the county were recorded as follow:

Rutland had a recorded population of 41,049 at the 2021 census, an increase from the previous population recorded of 37,369 at the 2011 census and 34,563 at the 2001 census. [24] In the 2021 Census, there was an estimated 21,072 men and 19,977 women living in Rutland. [25]

The county had an ethnicity makeup at the 2021 Census of:

The county's religious makeup at the 2021 Census was:

In 2006 it was reported that Rutland has the highest fertility rate of any English county – the average woman having 2.81 children, compared with only 1.67 in Tyne and Wear. [26]

In December 2006, Sport England published a survey which revealed that residents of Rutland were the 6th most active in England in sports and other fitness activities. 27.4% of the population participate at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes. [27]

In 2012, the well-being report by the Office for National Statistics [28] found Rutland to be the "happiest county" in the mainland UK. [29]

Geography

Rutland Water Rutland water.jpg
Rutland Water

The particular geology of the area has given its name to the Rutland Formation, which was formed from muds and sand carried down by rivers and occurring as bands of different colours, each with many fossil shells at the bottom. The formation has also preserved a well-preserved specimen of the sauropod dinosaur Cetiosaurus oxienensis [30] at Great Casterton, currently on display at Leicester Museum & Art Gallery. At the bottom of the Rutland Formation is a bed of dirty white sandy silt. Under the Rutland Formation is a formation called the Lincolnshire limestone. The best exposure of this limestone (and also the Rutland Formation) is at the Ketton Cement Works quarry just outside Ketton. [31]

Rutland is dominated by Rutland Water, a large artificial lake formerly known as "Empingham Reservoir", in the middle of the county, which is almost bisected by the Hambleton Peninsula. The west part is in the Vale of Catmose. Rutland Water, when construction started in 1971, became Europe's largest man-made lake; construction was completed in 1975, and filling the lake took a further four years. This has been voted Rutland's favourite tourist attraction.

Hand-drawn map of Northampshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Rutland by Christopher Saxton from 1576 Northamptonia Bedfordia Cantabrigia Huntingdonia Rutlandia Atlas.jpg
Hand-drawn map of Northampshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Rutland by Christopher Saxton from 1576

The highest point of the county is at Cold Overton Park (historically part of Flitteriss Park) at 197 m (646 ft) above sea level close to the west border (OS Grid reference: SK8271708539). The lowest point is close to the east border, in secluded farmland at North Lodge Farm, northeast of Belmesthorpe, at just 17 m (56 feet) above sea level (OS Grid reference: TF056611122); this corner of the county is on the edge of The Fens and is drained by the West Glen.

Rivers

Economy

There are 17,000 people of working age in Rutland, of which the highest percentage (30.8%) work in Public Administration, Education and Health, closely followed by 29.7% in Distribution, Hotels and Restaurants and 16.7% in Manufacturing industries. Significant employers include Lands' End in Oakham and the Ketton Cement Works. Other employers in Rutland include two Ministry of Defence bases – Kendrew Barracks (formerly RAF Cottesmore) and St George's Barracks (previously RAF North Luffenham), two public schools – Oakham and Uppingham – and one prison, Stocken. The former Ashwell prison closed at the end of March 2011 after a riot and government review but, having been purchased by Rutland County Council, has now been turned into Oakham Enterprise Park. The county used to supply iron ore to Corby steel works but these quarries closed in the 1960s and early 1970s resulting in the famous walk of "Sundew" (the Exton quarries' large walking dragline) from Exton to Corby, which even featured on the children's TV series Blue Peter . Agriculture thrives with much wheat farming on the rich soil. Tourism continues to grow.

The Ruddles Brewery was Langham's biggest industry until it was closed in 1997. Rutland bitter is one of only three UK beers to have achieved Protected Geographical Indication status; this followed an application by Ruddles. When Greene King, the owners of Ruddles, closed the Langham brewery it was unable to take advantage of the registration. [32] However, in 2010 a Rutland Bitter was launched by Oakham's Grainstore Brewery. [33]

It is 348th out of 354 on the Indices of Deprivation for England, showing it to be one of the least economically deprived areas in the country. [34]

In March 2007, Rutland became only the fourth Fairtrade County.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Leicestershire and Rutland at current basic prices with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. [35]

YearRegional Gross Value Added Agriculture Industry Services
19956,6661452,7633,758
20007,8131122,8614,840
20039,5091423,0456,321

^ includes hunting and forestry

^ includes energy and construction

^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding

As far as the NHS is concerned Rutland is generally treated as part of Leicestershire.

Transport

A small part of the East Coast Main Line passes through Rutland's north-east corner, near Essendine. It was on this stretch that a train pulled by the locomotive Mallard set the world speed record for steam locomotives on 3 July 1938, with a speed of 125.55 mph (202.05 km/h).

Rutland was the last county in England without a direct rail service to London (apart from the Isle of Wight and several administrative counties which are unitary authorities). East Midlands Trains started running a single service from Oakham railway station to London St Pancras via Corby on 27 April 2009. [36]

Through the Rutland Electric Car Project, Rutland was the first county to offer a county-wide public electric-vehicle charging network. [37]

Rutland's small size has led to a number of humorous references such as Rutland Weekend Television , a television comedy sketch series hosted by Eric Idle. The county is the supposed home of the parody rock band The Rutles, who first appeared on Rutland Weekend Television.

The events in several Peter F. Hamilton books (including Misspent Youth and Mindstar Rising ) are situated in Rutland, where the author lives. Adam Croft is writing the Rutland crime series, beginning with What Lies Beneath (2020).

Rutland was the last county in England without a McDonald's restaurant. [38] However, in January 2020 a planning application for a McDonald's restaurant on the outskirts of Oakham was approved by the County Council [39] and the restaurant opened on 4 November 2020. [40]

Traditions

Rutland's traditions include:

Education

Harington School provides post-16 education in the county. Rutland County College closed in 2017.

Places of interest

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leicestershire</span> County of England

Leicestershire is a ceremonial county in the East Midlands of England. It is bordered by Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and Lincolnshire to the north, Rutland to the east, Northamptonshire to the south-east, Warwickshire to the south-west, and Staffordshire to the west. The city of Leicester is the largest settlement and the county town.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oakham</span> Market and county town of Rutland, England

Oakham is a market town and civil parish in Rutland in the East Midlands of England of which it is the county town. The town is located 25 miles (40.2 km) east of Leicester, 28 miles (45.1 km) south-east of Nottingham and 23 miles (37.0 km) north west of Peterborough. It had a population of 12,149 in the 2021 census. Oakham is to the west of Rutland Water and in the Vale of Catmose. Its height above sea level ranges from 325 to 400 ft.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Uppingham</span> Town in Rutland, England

Uppingham is a market town and civil parish in the ceremonial county of Rutland, England, off the A47 between Leicester and Peterborough, 6 miles (10 km) south of Oakham. It had a population of 4,745 according to the 2011 census, estimated at 4,853 in 2019.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Kesteven</span> Local government district in Lincolnshire, England

South Kesteven is a local government district in Lincolnshire, England, forming part of the traditional Kesteven division of the county. Its council is based in Grantham. The district also includes the towns of Bourne, Market Deeping and Stamford, along with numerous villages and surrounding rural areas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wing, Rutland</span> Village in the county of Rutland, England

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The history of the English county of Rutland, located in the East Midlands. It was reconstituted as a district of Leicestershire in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972. This district was given unitary authority status on 1 April 1997.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ketton</span> Human settlement in England

Ketton is a village and civil parish in Rutland in the East Midlands of England. It is about 8 miles (13 km) east of Oakham and 3 miles (5 km) west of Stamford, Lincolnshire. The 2011 Census recorded a parish population of 1,926, making it the fourth largest settlement in Rutland, after Oakham, Uppingham and Cottesmore. The village has a primary school.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Great Easton, Leicestershire</span> Human settlement in England

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Rutland County Council is the local authority for the unitary authority of Rutland in England. Between 1 April 1974 and 1 April 1997 Rutland was a non-metropolitan district in Leicestershire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oakham Rural District</span>

Oakham was a rural district in Rutland, England from 1894 to 1974, covering the north of the county.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Uppingham Rural District</span> Rutland, England

Uppingham was a rural district in Rutland, England from 1894 to 1974, covering the south of the county.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ketton Rural District</span>

Ketton was a rural district in Rutland, England from 1894 to 1974, covering the east of the county. The district was named after Ketton.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rutland County Council</span> Unitary authority of local government in the district and county of Rutland

Rutland County Council is the local authority for the unitary authority of Rutland in the East Midlands of England. The current council was created in April 1997. The population of the council's area at the 2011 census was 37,369.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">A6003 road</span> Road in England

The A6003 links Kettering and Corby in Northamptonshire, with Oakham in Rutland, via Leicestershire. The road forms the principal link between Rutland and Northamptonshire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2019 Rutland County Council election</span>


The 2019 Rutland County Council election took place on 2 May 2019 to elect members of Rutland County Council in England. This was on the same day as other local elections. New boundaries were used in this election and the number of councillors increased from 26 to 27.

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Bibliography

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