Cambridgeshire

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Cambridgeshire
Ceremonial county
Cambridgeshire Flag.svg Arms of Cambridgeshire County Council.svg
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Corde Uno Sapientes Simus
("With one heart let us be wise")
Cambridgeshire UK locator map 2010.svg
Coordinates: 52°20′N0°0′W / 52.333°N -0.000°E / 52.333; -0.000 Coordinates: 52°20′N0°0′W / 52.333°N -0.000°E / 52.333; -0.000
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region East of England
Established1 April 1974
Established by Local Government Act 1972
Preceded by Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely
Huntingdon and Peterborough
Origin Ancient
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Julie Spence [1]
High Sheriff Timothy Seal (2020–21) [2]
Area3,389 km2 (1,309 sq mi)
  Ranked 15th of 48
Population (mid-2019 est.)852,523
  Ranked 28th of 48
Density252/km2 (650/sq mi)
Ethnicity94.6% White
2.6% S.Asian
Non-metropolitan county
County council Cambridgeshire County Council
Executive Conservative
Admin HQ Cambridge
Area3,046 km2 (1,176 sq mi)
  Ranked 11th of 26
Population651,482
  Ranked 18th of 26
Density214/km2 (550/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 GB-CAM
ONS code 12
GSS code E10000003
NUTS UKH12
Website www.cambridgeshire.gov.uk
Unitary authorities
Councils Peterborough City Council
Cambridgeshire Ceremonial Numbered.png
Districts of Cambridgeshire
Unitary County council area
Districts
  1. City of Cambridge
  2. South Cambridgeshire
  3. Huntingdonshire
  4. Fenland
  5. East Cambridgeshire
  6. City of Peterborough
Members of Parliament List of MPs
Police Cambridgeshire Constabulary
Time zone Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
  Summer (DST) British Summer Time (UTC+1)

Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.) [note 1] is a county in the East of England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the north-east, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. The city of Cambridge is the county town. Modern Cambridgeshire was formed in 1974 as an amalgamation of the counties of Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely and Huntingdon and Peterborough, the former covering the historic county of Cambridgeshire (including the Isle of Ely) and the latter covering the historic county of Huntingdonshire and the Soke of Peterborough, historically part of Northamptonshire. It contains most of the region known as Silicon Fen.

Contents

The county is now divided between Cambridgeshire County Council and Peterborough City Council, which, since 1998, forms a separate unitary authority. In the county there are five district councils, Cambridge City Council, East Cambridgeshire District Council, Fenland District Council, Huntingdonshire District Council and South Cambridgeshire District Council. [4]

History

Cambridgeshire is noted as the site of Flag Fen in Fengate, one of the earliest-known Neolithic permanent settlements in the United Kingdom, compared in importance to Balbridie in Aberdeen, Scotland. Must Farm quarry, at Whittlesey has been described as 'Britain's Pompeii due to its relatively good condition, including the 'best-preserved Bronze Age dwellings ever found'. A great quantity of archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age were made in East Cambridgeshire. Most items were found in Isleham.[ citation needed ]

Cambridgeshire was recorded in the Domesday Book as "Grantbridgeshire" (or rather Grentebrigescire) (related to the river Granta).

Covering a large part of East Anglia, Cambridgeshire today is the result of several local government unifications. In 1888 when county councils were introduced, separate councils were set up, following the traditional division of Cambridgeshire, for

In 1965, these two administrative counties were merged to form Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely. [5] Under the Local Government Act 1972 this merged with the county to the west, Huntingdon and Peterborough, which had been formed in 1965, by the merger of Huntingdonshire with the Soke of Peterborough (the latter previously a part of Northamptonshire with its own county council). The resulting county was called simply Cambridgeshire. [6]

Since 1998, the City of Peterborough has been a separately administered area, as a unitary authority. It is associated with Cambridgeshire for ceremonial purposes such as Lieutenancy, and joint functions such as policing and the fire service. [7]

In 2002, the conservation charity Plantlife unofficially designated Cambridgeshire's county flower as the Pasqueflower. [8]

The Cambridgeshire Regiment (nicknamed the Fen Tigers), the county-based army unit, fought in the Boer War in South Africa, the First World War and Second World War [9]

Due to the county's flat terrain and proximity to the continent, during the Second World War the military built many airfields here for RAF Bomber Command, RAF Fighter Command, and the allied USAAF. In recognition of this collaboration, the Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial is located in Madingley. It is the only WWII burial ground in England for American servicemen who died during that event.[ citation needed ]

Most English counties have nicknames for their people, such as a "Tyke" from Yorkshire and a "Yellowbelly" from Lincolnshire. The traditional nicknames for people from Cambridgeshire are "Cambridgeshire Camel" [10] or "Cambridgeshire Crane", referring to the wildfowl that were once abundant in the fens. The term "Fen Tigers" is sometimes used to describe the people who live and work in the fenlands. [11] Original historical documents relating to Cambridgeshire are held by Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies.

Geography

See also Geology of Cambridgeshire

Large areas of the county are extremely low-lying and Holme Fen is notable for being the UK's lowest physical point at 2.75 m (9 ft) below sea level. The highest point is in the village of Great Chishill at 146 m (480 ft) above sea level. Other prominent hills are Little Trees Hill and Wandlebury Hill (both at 74 m (243 ft)) in the Gog Magog Hills, Rivey Hill above Linton, Rowley's Hill and the Madingley Hills.

Green belt

Cambridgeshire contains all its green belt around the city of Cambridge, extending to places such as Waterbeach, Lode, Duxford, Little & Great Abingdon and other communities a few miles away in nearby districts, to afford a protection from the conurbation. It was first drawn up in the 1950s.

Politics

The banner of arms of Cambridgeshire County Council, used as de facto flag of the County of Cambridgeshire until 1 February 2015 Flag of Cambridgeshire.svg
The banner of arms of Cambridgeshire County Council, used as de facto flag of the County of Cambridgeshire until 1 February 2015

Cambridgeshire contains seven Parliamentary constituencies:

Constituency Member of Parliament
Cambridge   Daniel Zeichner
Huntingdon   Jonathan Djanogly
North East Cambridgeshire   Stephen Barclay
North West Cambridgeshire   Shailesh Vara
Peterborough   Paul Bristow
South Cambridgeshire   Anthony Browne
South East Cambridgeshire   Lucy Frazer

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Cambridgeshire at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of English Pounds Sterling.

YearRegional Gross Value Added [note 2] Agriculture [note 3] Industry [note 4] Services [note 5]
19955,8962281,6464,022
20007,9961662,0295,801
200310,1542072,1957,752

AWG plc is based in Huntingdon. The RAF has several stations in the Huntingdon and St Ives area. RAF Alconbury, 3 miles north of Huntingdon, is being reorganised after a period of obsolescence following the departure of the USAF, to be the focus of RAF/USAFE intelligence operations, with activities at Upwood and Molesworth being transferred there. Most of Cambridgeshire is agricultural. Close to Cambridge is the so-called Silicon Fen area of high-technology (electronics, computing and biotechnology) companies. ARM Limited is based in Cherry Hinton.

Education

Primary and secondary

Cambridgeshire has a completely comprehensive education system with 12 independent schools and over 240 state schools, not including sixth form colleges.

Some of the secondary schools act as Village Colleges, institutions unique to Cambridgeshire. For example, Bottisham Village College.

Tertiary

Cambridgeshire is home to a number of institutes of higher education:

In addition, Cambridge Regional College and Huntingdonshire Regional College both offer a limited range of higher education courses in conjunction with partner universities.

Settlements

Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904). Cambridge-260x345.jpg
Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904).

These are the settlements in Cambridgeshire with a town charter, city status or a population over 5,000; for a complete list of settlements see list of places in Cambridgeshire.

See the List of Cambridgeshire settlements by population page for more detail.

The town of Newmarket is surrounded on three sides by Cambridgeshire, being connected by a narrow strip of land to the rest of Suffolk.

Cambridgeshire has seen 32,869 dwellings created from 2002–2013 [12] and there are a further 35,360 planned new dwellings between 2016 and 2023. [13]

Climate

Cambridgeshire has a maritime temperate climate which is broadly similar to the rest of the United Kingdom, though it is drier than the UK average due to its low altitude and easterly location, the prevailing southwesterly winds having already deposited moisture on higher ground further west. Average winter temperatures are cooler than the English average, due to Cambridgeshire's inland location and relative nearness to continental Europe, which results in the moderating maritime influence being less strong. Snowfall is slightly more common than in western areas, due to the relative winter coolness and easterly winds bringing occasional snow from the North Sea. In summer temperatures are average or slightly above, due to less cloud cover. It reaches 25 °C (77 °F) on around 10 days each year, and is comparable to parts of Kent and East Anglia.

Climate data for Cambridge University Botanic Garden [lower-alpha 1] , elevation: 13 m (43 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1914–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)14.9
(58.8)
18.8
(65.8)
23.9
(75.0)
27.4
(81.3)
31.1
(88.0)
34.0
(93.2)
38.7
(101.7)
36.9
(98.4)
33.9
(93.0)
29.3
(84.7)
21.1
(70.0)
15.8
(60.4)
38.7
(101.7)
Average high °C (°F)7.4
(45.3)
8.0
(46.4)
11.1
(52.0)
13.8
(56.8)
17.5
(63.5)
20.4
(68.7)
23.1
(73.6)
22.8
(73.0)
19.6
(67.3)
15.2
(59.4)
10.5
(50.9)
7.7
(45.9)
14.8
(58.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.4
(39.9)
4.6
(40.3)
7.1
(44.8)
9.1
(48.4)
12.4
(54.3)
15.3
(59.5)
17.8
(64.0)
17.5
(63.5)
14.8
(58.6)
11.2
(52.2)
7.2
(45.0)
4.7
(40.5)
10.5
(50.9)
Average low °C (°F)1.4
(34.5)
1.2
(34.2)
3.0
(37.4)
4.3
(39.7)
7.3
(45.1)
10.2
(50.4)
12.4
(54.3)
12.2
(54.0)
10.0
(50.0)
7.2
(45.0)
3.9
(39.0)
1.7
(35.1)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F)−16.1
(3.0)
−17.2
(1.0)
−11.7
(10.9)
−6.1
(21.0)
−4.4
(24.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
2.2
(36.0)
3.3
(37.9)
−2.2
(28.0)
−6.1
(21.0)
−13.3
(8.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−17.2
(1.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)46.0
(1.81)
34.6
(1.36)
38.6
(1.52)
40.3
(1.59)
46.7
(1.84)
52.1
(2.05)
50.7
(2.00)
53.6
(2.11)
54.3
(2.14)
57.7
(2.27)
54.9
(2.16)
46.9
(1.85)
576.2
(22.69)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)10.78.49.98.98.19.28.48.28.49.510.29.7109.6
Source: KNMI [14]
  1. Weather station is located 0.8 miles (1.3 km) from the Cambridge city centre.
  2. Weather station is located 3 miles (5 km) from the Cambridge city centre.

Culture

Sports

Various forms of football have been popular in Cambridgeshire since medieval times at least. In 1579 one match played at Chesterton between townspeople and Cambridge University students ended in a violent brawl that led the Vice-Chancellor to issue a decree forbidding them to play "footeball” outside of college grounds. [16] During the nineteenth century, several formulations of the laws of football, known as the Cambridge rules, were created by students at the University. One of these codes, dating from 1863, had a significant influence on the creation of the original laws of the Football Association. [17]

Cambridgeshire is also the birthplace of bandy, [18] now an IOC accepted sport. [19] According to documents from 1813, Bury Fen Bandy Club was undefeated for 100 years. A member of the club, Charles Goodman Tebbutt, wrote down the first official rules in 1882. [18] Tebbutt was instrumental in spreading the sport to many countries. [20] Great Britain Bandy Federation is based in Cambridgeshire. [21]

Fen skating is a traditional form of skating in the Fenland. The National Ice Skating Association was set up in Cambridge in 1879, they took the top Fen skaters to the worldspeed skating championships where James Smart became world champion.[ citation needed ]

On 6–7 June 2015, the inaugural Tour of Cambridgeshire cycle race took place on closed roads across the county. The event was an official UCI qualification event, and consisted of a Time Trial on the 6th, and a Gran Fondo event on the 7th. The Gran Fondo event was open to the public, and over 6000 riders took part in the 128 km (80 mi) race.[ citation needed ]

There is only one racecourse in Cambridgeshire, located at Huntingdon.

Contemporary art

Cambridge is home to the Kettle's Yard gallery and the artist-run Aid and Abet project space. Nine miles west of Cambridge next to the village of Bourn is Wysing Arts Centre. [22] Cambridge Open Studios is the regions largest arts organisation with over 500 members. Every year, more than 370 artists open their doors to visitors during four weekends in July. [23]

Places of interest

Key
AP Icon.svg Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
UKAL icon.svg Accessible open space
Themepark uk icon.png Amusement/Theme Park
CL icon.svg Castle
Country parks.svg Country Park
EH icon.svg English Heritage
Forestry Commission
HR icon.svg Heritage railway
HH icon.svg Historic House
AP Icon.svg Mosques
Museum icon.svg
Museum icon (red).svg
Museum (free/not free)
NTE icon.svg National Trust
Drama-icon.svg Theatre
Zoo icon.jpg Zoo

Notable people from Cambridgeshire

See also

Notes

  1. Archaically known as the County of Cambridge. [3]
  2. Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  3. includes hunting and forestry
  4. includes energy and construction
  5. includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

Related Research Articles

East Anglia Region of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England. The area included has varied but the legally defined NUTS 2 statistical unit comprises the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, including the City of Peterborough unitary authority area. The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Angles, a tribe whose name originated in Anglia, northern Germany.

Huntingdonshire Historic county in England, today a region of Cambridgeshire

Huntingdonshire is a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire, as well as a historic county of England. Its council is based in Huntingdon. Other towns in the district are St Ives, Godmanchester, St Neots and Ramsey. The population was 169,508 at the 2011 Census. Henry II, on his accession in 1154, declared all of Huntingdonshire a royal forest, but its favourable arable soil, with loam, light clay and gravel, hence good drainage, meant it was largely farmland by the 18th century.

The Fens Natural region in United Kingdom

The Fens, also known as the Fenlands, is a coastal plain in eastern England. This natural marshy region supported a rich ecology and numerous species, as well as absorbing storms. Most of the fens were drained several centuries ago, resulting in a flat, dry, low-lying agricultural region supported by a system of drainage channels and man-made rivers and automated pumping stations. There have been unintended consequences to this reclamation, as the land level has continued to sink and the dykes must be built higher to protect it from flooding.

Wisbech Town and civil parish in Cambridgeshire, England

Wisbech also known as 'the capital of the fens' is a Fenland market town, inland port and civil parish in the Fens of the Isle of Ely, Cambridgeshire, England. It had a population of 31,573 in 2011. The town lies in the far north-east of the county, bordering Norfolk and only 5 miles (8 km) south of Lincolnshire. The tidal River Nene running through the town centre is spanned by two bridges. Before the Local Government Act 1972 came into force in 1974 Wisbech was a municipal borough.

Isle of Ely former county in England

The Isle of Ely is a historic region around the city of Ely in Cambridgeshire, England. Between 1889 and 1965, it formed an administrative county.

Huntingdon Market town in England

Huntingdon is a market town in Cambridgeshire, England, chartered by King John in 1205. Having been the county town of historic Huntingdonshire, it is now the seat of the Huntingdonshire District Council. It is well known as the birthplace of Oliver Cromwell, who was born there in 1599 and its Member of Parliament (MP) for the town in the 17th century. The former Conservative Prime Minister (1990–1997) John Major served as the MP for Huntingdon from 1979 until his retirement in 2001.

Huntingdon and Peterborough Former county in England

Huntingdon and Peterborough was a short-lived administrative and geographical county in East Anglia in the United Kingdom. It existed from 1965 to 1974, when it became part of Cambridgeshire.

Chatteris Human settlement in England

Chatteris is a civil parish and one of the four market towns in the Fenland district of Cambridgeshire, England, situated in The Fens between Huntingdon, March and Ely. The town is in the North East Cambridgeshire parliamentary constituency.

Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely former administrative county

Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely was, from 1965 to 1974, an administrative and geographical county in East Anglia in the United Kingdom. In 1974 it became part of an enlarged Cambridgeshire.

Cambridgeshire Constabulary

Cambridgeshire Constabulary is the local territorial police force that covers the territory of the counties of Cambridgeshire and Peterborough. It provides law enforcement and security for an area of just under 3400 km² and population of nearly a million people in a predominantly rural county. The force of Cambridgeshire includes the cities of Cambridge, Ely and Peterborough, the market towns of St Ives, Huntingdon and St Neots, and the historic Fenland towns of Ramsey, Chatteris, Wisbech, Whittlesey and March. The constabulary's logo is a crowned Brunswick star with two wavy blue lines representing the two major rivers that flow the area, the Cam and the Nene.

Bluntisham Human settlement in England

Bluntisham is a village and civil parish in Cambridgeshire, England. The population of the civil parish as of the 2011 census is 2,003. Bluntisham lies approximately 8 miles (13 km) east of Huntingdon. Bluntisham is situated within Huntingdonshire which is a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire as well as being a historic county of England. The villages of Earith, Colne, Woodhurst, and Somersham are all close by.

Holme, Cambridgeshire Human settlement in England

Holme is a village and civil parish in Cambridgeshire, England. Holme lies approximately 7 miles (11 km) south of Peterborough, near Conington and Yaxley. Holme is situated within Huntingdonshire which is a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire as well as being a historic county of England. The parish contains the lowest point in Great Britain, 2.75 metres (9.0 ft) below sea level.

Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies Service (CALS) is a UK local government institution which collects and preserves archives, other historical documents and printed material relating to the modern county of Cambridgeshire, which includes the former counties of Huntingdonshire and the Isle of Ely. CALS is part of Cambridgeshire County Council.

Earith Human settlement in England

Earith is a village and civil parish in Cambridgeshire, England. Earith lies approximately 10 miles (16 km) east of Huntingdon. Earith is situated within Huntingdonshire which is a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire as well as being a historic county of England. At Earith, two artificial diversion channels of the River Great Ouse, the Old Bedford River and the New Bedford River, leave the river on a course to Denver Sluice near Downham Market, where they rejoin the Great Ouse in its tidal part. At the 2001 census, the parish had a population of 1,677, reducing to 1,606 at the 2011 Census.

Wisbech Canal

The Wisbech Canal was a broad canal near Wisbech in the Fenland area of Cambridgeshire, England. It ran from the River Nene at Wisbech to the Well Creek at Outwell in Norfolk, which gave access to the River Great Ouse. It was abandoned in 1926 and filled in during the 1970s.

Fen skating ice skating variant

Fen skating is a traditional form of ice skating in the Fenland of England. The Fens of East Anglia, with their easily flooded meadows, form an ideal skating terrain. Bone skates date back to the mediaeval period.

References

Citations

  1. "Lord Lieutenant". Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  2. "No. 62943". The London Gazette . 13 March 2020. p. 5161.
  3. (EB 1878)
  4. "Local government in Cambridgeshire". Cambridgeshire County Council. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  5. The Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely Order 1964 (SI 1964/366), see Local Government Commission for England (1958 - 1967), Report and Proposals for the East Midlands General Review Area (Report No.3), 31 July 1961 and Report and Proposals for the Lincolnshire and East Anglia General Review Area (Report No.9), 7 May 1965.
  6. The English Non-metropolitan Districts (Definition) Order 1972 (SI 1972/2039) Part 5: County of Cambridgeshire
  7. The Cambridgeshire (City of Peterborough) (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996 Archived 10 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine (SI 1996/1878), see Local Government Commission for England (1992), Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Cambridgeshire, October 1994 and Final Recommendations on the Future Local Government of Basildon & Thurrock, Blackburn & Blackpool, Broxtowe, Gedling & Rushcliffe, Dartford & Gravesham, Gillingham & Rochester upon Medway, Exeter, Gloucester, Halton & Warrington, Huntingdonshire & Peterborough, Northampton, Norwich, Spelthorne and the Wrekin, December 1995.
  8. "County Flowers". Daily Telegraph. 5 May 2004.
  9. "Cambridgeshire Regiment". www.cambridgeshireregiment1914-18.co.uk. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  10. Grose (1790). Provincial Glossary.
  11. Francis Pryor (October 1991). Book of Flag Fen: prehistoric Fenland centre. Batsford. p. 18. ISBN   978-0-7134-6752-9.
  12. "Housing Development in Cambridgeshire 2013" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  13. "Dwelling Commitments in Cambridgeshire" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  14. "Indices Data - Cambridge (B. Gdns) Station 1639". KNMI . Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  15. "Cambridge NIAB 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  16. Association, The Football. "Sorry. Something's wrong with the pitch. - Cambridgeshire FA". www.cambridgeshirefa.com. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  17. 1 2 BBC. "A handy Bandy guide..." Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  18. "Federation of International Bandy-Olympic". Internationalbandy.com. 12 August 2004. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  19. "Cambridgeshire – History – A handy Bandy guide". BBC. 21 February 2006. Archived from the original on 27 April 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
  20. "Members - Federation of International Bandy". www.worldbandy.com. Archived from the original on 27 January 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  21. "cultunet". cultunet.com. 3 December 2012. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  22. https://www.camopenstudios.co.uk/

Sources