Peterborough Cathedral

Last updated

Peterborough Cathedral
The Cathedral Church of St Peter, St Paul and St Andrew
Peterborough Cathedral Exterior 2, Cambridgeshire, UK - Diliff.jpg
Peterborough Cathedral
Peterborough Cathedral
Coordinates: 52°34′21″N0°14′20″W / 52.5725°N 0.238889°W / 52.5725; -0.238889
Location Peterborough, Cambridgeshire
Denomination Church of England
Previous denomination Roman Catholic
Website Peterborough Cathedral
Dedication St Peter, St Paul, St Andrew
Consecrated 1238
Style Romanesque/Gothic
Years built1118–1237
Nave length147m
Number of towers 4
Number of spires 2
Province Canterbury
Diocese Peterborough (since 1542)
Bishop(s) Donald Allister
Dean Chris Dalliston
Subdean Tim Alban Jones (Vice-Dean)
Precentor Rowan C. Williams
Canon(s) one Diocesan Canon vacancy
Canon Missioner Steve Benoy (designate)
Director of music Tansy Castledine
Organist(s) Christopher Strange (Organist)
(Organ Scholar)

Peterborough Cathedral, properly the Cathedral Church of St Peter, St Paul and St Andrew – also known as Saint Peter's Cathedral [1] in the United Kingdom – is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Peterborough, dedicated to Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Andrew, whose statues look down from the three high gables of the famous West Front. Although it was founded in the Anglo-Saxon period, its architecture is mainly Norman, following a rebuilding in the 12th century. With Durham and Ely cathedrals, it is one of the most important 12th-century buildings in England to have remained largely intact, despite extensions and restoration.


Peterborough Cathedral is known for its imposing Early English Gothic West Front (façade) which, with its three enormous arches, is without architectural precedent and with no direct successor. The appearance is slightly asymmetrical, as one of the two towers that rise from behind the façade was never completed (the tower on the right as one faces the building), but this is only visible from a distance.


Anglo-Saxon origins

The original church, known as "Medeshamstede", was founded in the reign of the Anglo-Saxon King Peada of the Middle Angles in about 655 AD, as one of the first centres of Christianity in central England. [2] The monastic settlement with which the church was associated lasted at least until 870, when it was supposedly destroyed by Vikings. In an alcove of the New Building, an extension of the eastern end, lies an ancient stone carving: the Hedda Stone. This medieval carving of 12 monks, six on each side, commemorates the destruction of the Monastery and the death of the Abbot and Monks when the area was sacked by the Vikings in 864. The Hedda Stone was likely carved sometime after the raid, when the monastery slipped into decline. [3]

In the mid-10th century monastic revival (in which churches at Ely and Ramsey were also refounded) a Benedictine Abbey was created and endowed in 966, principally by Athelwold, Bishop of Winchester, from what remained of the earlier church, with "a basilica [church] there furbished with suitable structures of halls, and enriched with surrounding lands" and more extensive buildings which saw the aisle built out to the west with a second tower added. The original central tower was, however, retained. [4] It was dedicated to St Peter and surrounded by a palisade, called a burgh, hence the town surrounding the abbey was eventually named Peter-burgh. The community was further revived in 972 by Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury. [2] [5]

This newer church had as its major focal point a substantial western tower with a "Rhenish helm" and was largely constructed of ashlars.[ citation needed ] Only a small section of the foundations of the Anglo-Saxon church remain beneath the south transept but there are several significant artefacts, including Anglo-Saxon carvings such as the Hedda Stone, from the earlier building.

In 2008, Anglo-Saxon grave markers were reported to have been found by workmen repairing a wall in the cathedral precincts. The grave markers are said to date to the 11th century, and probably belonged to "townsfolk". [6]

Norman and medieval architectural evolution

The nave Peterborough Cathedral Nave, Cambridgeshire, UK - Diliff.jpg
The nave
Plan PeterPlanDehio.jpg

Although damaged during the struggle between the Norman invaders and local folk-hero, Hereward the Wake, it was repaired and continued to thrive until destroyed by an accidental fire in 1116. [7] This event necessitated the building of a new church in the Norman style, begun by Abbot John de Sais on 8 March 1118 (Old Style). [2] By 1193, the building was completed to the western end of the Nave, including the central tower and the decorated wooden ceiling of the nave. The ceiling, completed between 1230 and 1250, still survives. It is unique in Britain and one of only four such ceilings in the whole of Europe. [8] It has been over-painted twice, once in 1745, then in 1834, but still retains the character and style of the original. (The painted nave ceiling of Ely Cathedral, by contrast, is entirely a Victorian creation.)

The church was largely built of Barnack limestone from quarries on its own land, and it was paid annually for access to these quarries by the builders of Ely Cathedral and Ramsey Abbey in thousands of eels (e.g. 4,000 each year by Ramsey). [9] Cathedral historians believe that part of the placing of the church in the location it is in is due to the easy ability to transfer quarried stones by river and then to the existing site allowing it to grow without being relocated.

Then, after completing the Western transept and adding the Great West Front Portico in 1237, the medieval masons switched over to the new Gothic style. Apart from changes to the windows, the insertion of a porch to support the free-standing pillars of the portico and the addition of a "new" building at the east end around the beginning of the 16th century, the structure of the building remains essentially as it was on completion almost 800 years ago. The completed building was consecrated in 1238 by Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, within whose diocese it then fell.

The choir Peterborough Cathedral Choir, Cambridgeshire, UK - Diliff.jpg
The choir
The New Building Peterborough Cathedral Lady Chapel, Cambridgeshire, UK - Diliff.jpg
The New Building

The trio of arches forming the Great West Front, the defining image of Peterborough Cathedral, is unrivalled in medieval architecture. The line of spires behind it, topping an unprecedented four towers, evolved for more practical reasons. Chief amongst them was the wish to retain the earlier Norman towers, which became obsolete when the Gothic front was added. Instead of being demolished and replaced with new stretches of wall, these old towers were retained and embellished with cornices and other gothic decor, while two new towers were added to create a continuous frontage.

The Norman tower was rebuilt in the Decorated Gothic style in about 1350–1380 (its main beams and roof bosses survive) with two tiers of Romanesque windows combined into a single set of Gothic windows, with the turreted cap and pinnacles removed and replaced by battlements. Between 1496 and 1508, the Presbytery roof was replaced and the "New Building", a rectangular building built around the end of the Norman eastern apse, with Perpendicular fan vaulting (probably designed by John Wastell, the architect of King's College Chapel, Cambridge and the Bell Harry Tower at Canterbury Cathedral), was added.

Monastic life

Fan vaulting (detail) in Peterborough Cathedral Fan vaulting (detail) in Peterborough Cathedral.jpg
Fan vaulting (detail) in Peterborough Cathedral

The existing mid-12th-century records of Hugh Candidus, a monk, list the Abbey's reliquaries as including two pieces of swaddling clothes which wrapped the baby Jesus, pieces of Jesus' manger, a part of the five loaves which fed the 5,000, a piece of the raiment of Mary the mother of Jesus, a piece of Aaron's rod, and relics of St Peter, St Paul and St Andrew – to whom the church is dedicated. [10]

The supposed arm of Oswald of Northumbria disappeared from its chapel, probably during the Reformation, despite a watch-tower having been built for monks to guard its reliquary. Various contact relics of Thomas Becket were brought from Canterbury in a special reliquary by its Prior Benedict (who had witnessed Becket's assassination) when he was "promoted" to Abbot of Peterborough.

These items underpinned the importance of what is today Peterborough Cathedral. At the zenith of its wealth just before the Reformation it had the sixth-largest monastic income in England, and had 120 monks, an almoner, an infirmarian, a sacristan and a cellarer.


In 1541, following Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries, the relics were lost. The church survived by being selected as the cathedral of the Anglican Diocese of Peterborough. Henry's former wife, Catherine of Aragon, had been buried there in 1536. Her grave can still be seen and is still honoured by visitors who decorate it with flowers and pomegranates (her symbol). It carries the legend "Katharine Queen of England", a title she was denied at the time of her death. A festival to commemorate the Queen, is held yearly.

In 1587, the body of Mary, Queen of Scots was initially buried here after her execution at nearby Fotheringhay Castle, but it was later removed to Westminster Abbey on the orders of her son, King James I of England.

Civil War to present

West prospect in the seventeenth century Peterborough Cathedral - West prospect C17 - Project Gutenberg eText 13618.jpg
West prospect in the seventeenth century
The high altar Peterborough Cathedral High Altar, Cambridgeshire, UK - Diliff.jpg
The high altar

The cathedral was vandalised during the English Civil War in 1643 by Parliamentarian troops. As was common at the time, almost all the stained glass and the medieval choir stalls were destroyed, and the high altar and reredos were demolished, as were the cloisters and Lady Chapel. All the monuments and memorials of the Cathedral were also damaged or destroyed.

Some of the damage was repaired during the 17th and 18th centuries. Extensive restoration work began in 1883, which was initiated after large cracks appeared in the supporting pillars and arches of the main tower. These works included rebuilding of the central tower and its foundations, interior pillars, the choir and re-enforcements of the west front under the supervision of John Loughborough Pearson. New hand-carved choir stalls, cathedra (bishop's throne), choir pulpit and the marble pavement and high altar were added. A stepped level of battlements was removed from the central tower, reducing its height slightly.

The cathedral was hit by a fire on the early evening of 22 November 2001; it is thought to have been started deliberately amongst plastic chairs stored in the North Choir Aisle. [11] Fortunately the fire was spotted by one of the vergers allowing a swift response by emergency services. [12] The timing was particularly unfortunate, for a complete restoration of the painted wooden ceiling was nearing completion. [13] The oily smoke given off by the plastic chairs was particularly damaging, coating much of the building with a sticky black layer. [14] The seat of the fire was close to the organ and the combination of direct damage from the fire, and the water used to extinguish necessitated a full-scale rebuild of the instrument, putting it out of action for several years.

An extensive programme of repairs to the west front began in July 2006 and has cost in excess of half a million pounds. This work is concentrated around the statues located in niches which have been so badly affected by years of pollution and weathering that, in some cases, they have only stayed intact thanks to iron bars inserted through them from the head to the body. The programme of work has sought donors to "adopt a stone". [15]

The sculptor Alan Durst was responsible for some of the work on the statues on the West Front. [16]


Peterborough Cathedral Youth Choir with conductor David Humphreys Peterborough Cathedral Youth Choir.jpg
Peterborough Cathedral Youth Choir with conductor David Humphreys

There has been a choir at Peterborough Cathedral since its beginnings as a monastery.


The Peterborough Cathedral most probably had a set of over thirty misericords dating from the fourteenth century. However, only three now survive. [17]

Dean and chapter

As of 1 January 2022: [18]


The grave of Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII. The gold lettering is modern. Peterborough Cathedral Catherine of Aaragon Grave, Cambridgeshire, UK - Diliff.jpg
The grave of Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII. The gold lettering is modern.

Other Memorials

Memorial to Edith Cavell, Peterborough Cathedral by Mahomet Thomas Phillips Memorial to Edith Cavell, Peterborough Cathedral.jpg
Memorial to Edith Cavell, Peterborough Cathedral by Mahomet Thomas Phillips

Reliquary at Peterborough

A number of saints were interred in the altar at Peterborough [26] Wilfrid, Tatberht, Sicgrid nicknamed Pius Pater, Botwine reverndus sacerdos, [26] Albert praeclarus minister, Wulfgar and Wildegel modestus.

Cathedral music


Details of the organ from the National Pipe Organ Register


The records of organists at Peterborough Cathedral list Richard Storey as organist in 1540. Notable organists of Peterborough Cathedral have included Stanley Vann, Sir Malcolm Sargent and Sir Thomas Armstrong.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lincoln Cathedral</span> Church in Lincolnshire, England

Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln Minster, or the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln and sometimes St Mary's Cathedral, in Lincoln, England, is a Grade I listed cathedral and is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Lincoln. Construction commenced in 1072 and continued in several phases throughout the High Middle Ages. Like many of the medieval cathedrals of England it was built in the Early Gothic style.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Canterbury Cathedral</span> Church in Kent, England

Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England. It forms part of a World Heritage Site. It is the cathedral of the Archbishop of Canterbury, currently Justin Welby, leader of the Church of England and symbolic leader of the worldwide Anglican Communion. Its formal title is the Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Christ at Canterbury.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">St Albans Cathedral</span> Church in Hertfordshire , United Kingdom

St Albans Cathedral, officially the Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban but often referred to locally as "the Abbey", is a Church of England cathedral in St Albans, England. Much of its architecture dates from Norman times. It ceased to be an abbey following its dissolution in the 16th century and became a cathedral in 1877. Although legally a cathedral church, it differs in certain particulars from most other cathedrals in England, being also used as a parish church, of which the dean is rector with the same powers, responsibilities and duties as that of any other parish. At 85 metres long, it has the longest nave of any cathedral in England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Worcester Cathedral</span> Cathedral in Worcester, Worcestershire, England

Worcester Cathedral is an Anglican cathedral in Worcester, in Worcestershire, England, situated on a bank overlooking the River Severn. It is the seat of the Bishop of Worcester. Its official name is the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Mary the Virgin, of Worcester. The present cathedral church was built between 1084 and 1504, and represents every style of English architecture from Norman to Perpendicular Gothic. It is famous for its Norman crypt and unique chapter house, its unusual Transitional Gothic bays, its fine woodwork, and its "exquisite" central tower, which is of particularly fine proportions. The cathedral contains the tombs of King John and Prince Arthur.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sherborne Abbey</span> Church in United Kingdom

Sherborne Abbey, otherwise the Abbey Church of St. Mary the Virgin, is a Church of England church in Sherborne in the English county of Dorset. It has been a Saxon cathedral (705–1075), a Benedictine abbey church (998–1539), and since 1539, a parish church.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Waltham Abbey Church</span> Church in England

The Abbey Church of Waltham Holy Cross and St Lawrence, also known as Waltham Abbey, is the parish church of the town of Waltham Abbey, Essex, England. It has been a place of worship since the 7th century. The present building dates mainly from the early 12th century and is an example of Norman architecture. To the east of the existing church are traces of an enormous eastward enlargement of the building, begun following the re-foundation of the abbey in 1177. In the Late Middle Ages, Waltham was one of the largest church buildings in England and a major site of pilgrimage; in 1540 it was the last religious community to be closed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries. It is still an active parish church for the town.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gloucester Cathedral</span> Church in Gloucester, England

Gloucester Cathedral, formally the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, in Gloucester, England, stands in the north of the city near the River Severn. It originated in 678 or 679 with the foundation of an abbey dedicated to Saint Peter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ramsey Abbey</span> English Benedictine abbey, now ruins

Ramsey Abbey was a Benedictine abbey in Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, England. It was founded about AD 969 and dissolved in 1539.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ripon Cathedral</span> Cathedral in Ripon, North Yorkshire, England

The Cathedral Church of St Peter and St Wilfrid, commonly known as Ripon Cathedral, and until 1836 known as Ripon Minster, is a cathedral in Ripon, North Yorkshire, England. Founded as a monastery by monks of the Irish tradition in the 660s, it was refounded as a Benedictine monastery by St Wilfrid in 672. The church became collegiate in the tenth century, and acted as a mother church within the large Diocese of York for the remainder of the Middle Ages. The present church is the fourth, and was built between the 13th and 16th centuries. In 1836 the church became the cathedral for the Diocese of Ripon. In 2014 the Diocese was incorporated into the new Diocese of Leeds, and the church became one of three co-equal cathedrals of the Bishop of Leeds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bristol Cathedral</span> Church in Bristol, England

Bristol Cathedral, the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, is the Church of England cathedral in the city of Bristol, England. Founded in 1140 and consecrated in 1148, it was originally St Augustine's Abbey but after the Dissolution of the Monasteries it became in 1542 the seat of the newly created Bishop of Bristol and the cathedral of the new Diocese of Bristol. It is a Grade I listed building.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ely Cathedral</span> Anglican cathedral in Ely, Cambridgeshire, England

Ely Cathedral, formally the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, is an Anglican cathedral in the city of Ely, Cambridgeshire, England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carlisle Cathedral</span> Church in Cumbria, England

Carlisle Cathedral is a grade-I listed Anglican cathedral in the city of Carlisle, Cumbria, England. It was founded as an Augustinian priory and became a cathedral in 1133. It is also home of the Bishop of Carlisle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Castor, Cambridgeshire</span> Human settlement in England

Castor is a village and civil parish in the City of Peterborough unitary authority, about 4 miles (6.4 km) west of the city centre. The parish is part of the former Soke of Peterborough, which was considered part of Northamptonshire until 1888 and then Huntingdon and Peterborough from 1965 to 1974, when it became part of Cambridgeshire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oswald of Worcester</span> Archbishop of York (died 992)

Oswald of Worcester was Archbishop of York from 972 to his death in 992. He was of Danish ancestry, but brought up by his uncle, Oda, who sent him to France to the abbey of Fleury to become a monk. After a number of years at Fleury, Oswald returned to England at the request of his uncle, who died before Oswald returned. With his uncle's death, Oswald needed a patron and turned to another kinsman, Oskytel, who had recently become Archbishop of York. His activity for Oskytel attracted the notice of Archbishop Dunstan who had Oswald consecrated as Bishop of Worcester in 961. In 972, Oswald was promoted to the see of York, although he continued to hold Worcester also.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medeshamstede</span> Anglo-Saxon name of Peterborough, England

Medeshamstede was the name of Peterborough in the Anglo-Saxon period. It was the site of a monastery founded around the middle of the 7th century, which was an important feature in the kingdom of Mercia from the outset. Little is known of its founder and first abbot, Sexwulf, though he was himself an important figure, and later became bishop of Mercia. Medeshamstede soon acquired a string of daughter churches, and was a centre for an Anglo-Saxon sculptural style.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Holy Trinity Church, Westbury on Trym</span> Church in Bristol, England

Holy Trinity Church is a Church of England parish church in Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol, England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">English Gothic architecture</span> Architectural style in Britain

English Gothic is an architectural style that flourished from the late 12th until the mid-17th century. The style was most prominently used in the construction of cathedrals and churches. Gothic architecture's defining features are pointed arches, rib vaults, buttresses, and extensive use of stained glass. Combined, these features allowed the creation of buildings of unprecedented height and grandeur, filled with light from large stained glass windows. Important examples include Westminster Abbey, Canterbury Cathedral and Salisbury Cathedral. The Gothic style endured in England much longer than in Continental Europe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England</span> Architectural style of cathedrals in England during the middle ages, 1040 to 1540

The medieval cathedrals of England, which date from between approximately 1040 and 1540, are a group of twenty-six buildings that constitute a major aspect of the country's artistic heritage and are among the most significant material symbols of Christianity. Though diverse in style, they are united by a common function. As cathedrals, each of these buildings serves as central church for an administrative region and houses the throne of a bishop. Each cathedral also serves as a regional centre and a focus of regional pride and affection.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">St. Burchard's Abbey, Würzburg</span>

St. Burchard's Abbey was a Benedictine monastery in Würzburg, Germany, initially known as St. Andrew's Abbey. It was the first abbey established in Würzburg, founded ca. 750. In 1464, it was transformed into a Stift.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gothic cathedrals and churches</span> Overview of building classification

Gothic cathedrals and churches are religious buildings created in Europe between the mid-12th century and the beginning of the 16th century. The cathedrals are notable particularly for their great height and their extensive use of stained glass to fill the interiors with light. They were the tallest and largest buildings of their time and the most prominent examples of Gothic architecture. The appearance of the Gothic cathedral was not only a revolution in architecture; it also introduced new forms in decoration, sculpture, and art.


  1. "Peterborough". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2009. Archived from the original on 30 January 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2009.
  2. 1 2 3 Sweeting, W.D (5 October 2004) [1898]. "Chapter 1. History of the Cathedral Church of St Peter". In Bell, E (ed.). The Cathedral Church of Peterborough: A Description of its Fabric and a Brief History of the Episcopal See. Bell's Cathedrals (Project Gutenberg transcription of the 1926 reprint of the 2nd ed.). London: G. Bell and Sons. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
  3. Archived 8 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine The Hedda Stone and Peterborough Cathedral at the Cambridge Military History Website
  4. Biddick, Kathleen (1989). "1 – Consumption and Pastoral Resources on the Early Medieval Estate". The Other Economy: Pastoral Husbandry on a Medieval Estate. University of California Press. p. 13. ISBN   0-520-06388-0 . Retrieved 25 April 2007. He restored Peterborough Abbey to its former royal splendor and dedicated "a basilica there furbished with suitable structures of halls, and enriched with surrounding lands."
  5. The most recent survey of the Anglo-Saxon history of Peterborough Abbey is in Kelly, S.E. (ed.), Charters of Peterborough Abbey, Anglo-Saxon Charters 14, OUP, 2009.
  6. Anglo-Saxon graves found at Peterborough Cathedral. Retrieved on 15 May 2008. Archived 1 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  7. "Peterborough Cathedral". Eastern Cathedrals. Archived from the original on 11 May 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  8. The others are at Zillis, Switzerland, Hildesheim in Germany and Dädesjö, Sweden. The longest of these is less than half the length of Peterborough's ceiling.
  9. Beeke, Clive (2006). "Abbots of Ramsey". Ramsey Abbey website. Clive Beeke. Archived from the original on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2007. Edward [the Confessor] also became a party to an agreement between the Abbot of Ramsey and Abbot of Burgh (Peterborough) in regard to the exchange of lands; to bounds and limits of King's-delf; also the right to Ramsey Abbey to dig stone both 'squared and broken' at the quarries of Barnack. For this privilege the Abbey had to give the Monks of Peterborough 'four thousand eels yearly in Lent'
  10. Brooke, Rosalind; Brooke, Christopher (1984). "Chapter 2". Popular Religion in the Middle Ages; Western Europe 1000–1300. Thames and Hudson. pp.  19–21. ISBN   0-500-25087-1.
  11. "CATHEDRAL FIRE: Candle theory on cathedral arson". Peterborough Evening Telegraph. Johnston Press Digital Publishing. 27 November 2006. Archived from the original (Newspaper) on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2007.
  12. "FIRE: 'I watched the beautiful building go up in smoke'". Peterborough Evening Telegraph. Johnston Press Digital Publishing. 23 November 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2007.
  13. "FIRE: Devestating blow to appeal work (sic)". Peterborough Evening Telegraph. Johnston Press Digital Publishing. 23 November 2006. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2007.
  14. For a comprehensive study on the fire see Peterborough Cathedral 2001-2006: from Devastation to Restoration, Michael Bunker and Paul Binski, Paul Holberton Publishing, London 2006. ISBN   978-1-903470-55-8.
  15. Adopt a Stone a gift to last a lifetime. Peterborough Cathedral 2013 (accessioned 20131229) Archived 3 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  16. Alan Durst, Mention of work on West Front.
  17. Strange, Dominic. "The Misericords and history of Peterborough Cathedral". Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  18. Peterborough Cathedral – Clergy, Chapter & Staff Archived 22 December 2021 at the Wayback Machine (Accessed 1 January 2022)
  19. "Page not found – Peterborough Cathedral". Archived from the original on 9 March 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2019.{{cite web}}: Cite uses generic title (help)
  20. "Vice Dean appointed to Peterborough Cathedral – Peterborough Cathedral".
  21. "Canon Tim to take up full-time Cathedral role – Peterborough Cathedral".
  22. "Rowan Williams to be new Canon Precentor and Bishop's Adviser for Liturgy and Worship – Peterborough Cathedral". Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  23. "Clergy, Chapter & Staff – Peterborough Cathedral".
  24. "Site unseen: Peterborough Cathedral". The Independent. 27 June 1995. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  25. "Shakespeare, Hamlet, Peterborough Cathedral and Old Scarlett". 13 July 2017. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  26. 1 2 Nicholas Brooks, Catherine Cubitt, St. Oswald of Worcester (Continuum, 1 January 1996) page 255

Further reading