Salisbury Cathedral

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Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Salisbury
Cathedral of Saint Mary
SalisburyCathedral-wyrdlight-EastExt.jpg
Salisbury Cathedral from the East
Wiltshire UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Salisbury
Location within Wiltshire
Coordinates: 51°03′53″N1°47′51″W / 51.06472°N 1.79750°W / 51.06472; -1.79750
Location Salisbury, Wiltshire
CountryEngland
Denomination Church of England
Tradition Anglo-Catholic [1]
Website salisburycathedral.org.uk
Architecture
Previous cathedrals2
Architect(s) Richard Poore; Elias of Dereham
Style Early English Gothic
Years built1220–1320
Specifications
Length442 feet (135 m)
Choir height84 feet (26 m)
Number of towers 1
Tower height225 feet (69 m) (without spire)
Number of spires 1
Spire height404 feet (123 m)
Administration
Diocese Salisbury (since 1220)
Province Canterbury
Clergy
Bishop(s) Nick Holtam
Dean Nicholas Papadopulos
Precentor vacant
Acting: Ed Probert
Canon Chancellor Ed Probert
Canon Treasurer Robert Titley
Laity
Organist(s) John Challenger, David Halls
Chapter clerk Jackie Molnar
Lay member(s) of chapter Jane Barker
Luke March
Lydia Brown
Eugenie Turton

Salisbury Cathedral, formally known as the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is an Anglican cathedral in Salisbury, England. The cathedral is regarded as one of the leading examples of Early English architecture: [2] its main body was completed in 38 years, from 1220 to 1258.

Church of England Anglican church in England, by law established

The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor. The Church of England is also the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, and to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury.

Salisbury Cathedral city in Wiltshire, England

Salisbury is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, England, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers Avon, Nadder, Ebble, Wylye and Bourne. The city is approximately 20 miles (32 km) from Southampton and 30 miles (48 km) from Bath.

Contents

Since 1549, the cathedral has had the tallest church spire in the United Kingdom, at 404 feet (123 m). [3] Visitors can take the "Tower Tour", in which the interior of the hollow spire, with its ancient wooden scaffolding, can be viewed. The cathedral has the largest cloister and the largest cathedral close in Britain at 80 acres (32 ha). [2] It contains a clock which is among the oldest working examples in the world, and one of the four surviving original copies of the 13th-century Magna Carta . [2] In 2008, the cathedral celebrated the 750th anniversary of its consecration. [4]

Spire tapering structure on top of a building

A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, often a skyscraper or a church tower, similar to a steep tented roof. Etymologically, the word is derived from the Old English word spir, meaning a sprout, shoot, or stalk of grass.

Scaffolding

Scaffolding, also called scaffold or staging, is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man made structures. Scaffolds are widely used on site to get access to heights and areas that would be otherwise hard to get to. Unsafe scaffolding has the potential to result in death or serious injury. Scaffolding is also used in adapted forms for formwork and shoring, grandstand seating, concert stages, access/viewing towers, exhibition stands, ski ramps, half pipes and art projects.

Cloister open space surrounded by covered walks or open galleries

A cloister is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth. The attachment of a cloister to a cathedral or church, commonly against a warm southern flank, usually indicates that it is part of a monastic foundation, "forming a continuous and solid architectural barrier... that effectively separates the world of the monks from that of the serfs and workmen, whose lives and works went forward outside and around the cloister."

The cathedral is the mother church of the Diocese of Salisbury and is the seat of the Bishop of Salisbury, currently Nick Holtam.

Mother church

Mother church or matrice is a term depicting the Christian Church as a mother in her functions of nourishing and protecting the believer. It may also refer to the primary church of a Christian denomination or diocese, i.e. Cathedral or a metropolitan church. The term has specific meanings within different Christian traditions.

Diocese of Salisbury Church of England diocese in the south of England

The Diocese of Salisbury is a Church of England diocese in the south of England, within the ecclesiastical Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers most of Dorset, and most of Wiltshire. The diocese is led by the Bishop of Salisbury and the diocesan synod. The bishop's seat is at Salisbury Cathedral.

The Bishop of Salisbury is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers much of the counties of Wiltshire and Dorset. The see is in the City of Salisbury where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The current bishop is Nick Holtam, the 78th Bishop of Salisbury, who was consecrated at St Paul's Cathedral on 22 July 2011 and enthroned in Salisbury Cathedral on 15 October 2011.

History

Sculpture on the west front of the cathedral of Richard Poore who oversaw the early years of its construction, beginning in 1220. He is holding a model of the cathedral Richard Poore.jpg
Sculpture on the west front of the cathedral of Richard Poore who oversaw the early years of its construction, beginning in 1220. He is holding a model of the cathedral
Plan showing the double transepts with aisles and extended east end, but not the cloisters or chapter house Salisbury cathedral plan.jpg
Plan showing the double transepts with aisles and extended east end, but not the cloisters or chapter house

As a response to deteriorating relations between the clergy and the military at Old Sarum Cathedral, the decision was taken to re-site the cathedral, with the seat of the bishopric being moved to New Sarum, or Salisbury. [5] The move occurred during the tenure of Richard Poore, a rich man who gave the land on which the new cathedral was built.

Old Sarum Cathedral Grade I listed cathedral in the United Kingdom

Old Sarum Cathedral was a Catholic and Norman cathedral at old Salisbury, now known as Old Sarum, between 1092 and 1220. Only its foundations remain, in the northwest quadrant of the circular outer bailey of the site, which is located near modern Salisbury, Wiltshire, in the United Kingdom. The cathedral was the seat of the bishops of Salisbury during the early Norman period and the original source of the Sarum Rite.

Richard Poore 13th-century Bishop of Chichester, Bishop of Durham, and Bishop of Salisbury

Richard Poore or Poor was a medieval English clergyman best known for his role in the establishment of modern Salisbury and its cathedral at their present location, away from the fortress at Old Sarum.

Construction was paid for by donations, principally from the canons and vicars of southeast England, who were asked to contribute a fixed annual sum until the building was completed. [6] A legend tells that the Bishop of Old Sarum shot an arrow in the direction he would build the cathedral; the arrow hit a deer, which died in the place where Salisbury Cathedral is now. The cathedral crossing, Old Sarum, and Stonehenge are reputed to be aligned on a ley line, although Clive L. N. Ruggles asserts that the site, on marshland, was chosen because a preferred site several miles to the west could not be obtained. [7]

Stonehenge Neolithic henge monument in Wiltshire, England

Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, two miles (3 km) west of Amesbury. It consists of a ring of standing stones, with each standing stone around 13 feet (4.0 m) high, seven feet (2.1 m) wide and weighing around 25 tons. The stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds.

Ley line

Ley lines are apparent alignments of landmarks, religious sites, and man-made structures. The pseudoscientific belief that these apparent lines are not accidental speculates that they are straight navigable paths and have spiritual significance.

The foundation stone was laid on 28 April 1220. [8] Much of the freestone for the cathedral came from the Teffont Evias Quarry. [9] As a result of the high water table on the new site, the cathedral was built on foundations only 4 feet (1.2 m) deep, and by 1258 the nave, transepts, and choir were complete. The only major sections begun later were the cloisters, added in 1240, the chapter house in 1263, the tower and spire, which at 404 feet (123 m) dominated the skyline from 1320. Because most of the cathedral was built in only 38 years, it has a single consistent architectural style, Early English Gothic. In total, 70,000 tons of stone, 3,000 tons of timber and 450 tons of lead were used in the construction of the cathedral. [10]

A freestone is a stone used in masonry for molding, tracery and other replication work required to be worked with the chisel. Freestone, so named because it can be freely cut in any direction, must be fine-grained, uniform and soft enough to be cut easily without shattering or splitting. Some sources, including numerous nineteenth century dictionaries, say that the stone has no grain, but this is incorrect. Oolitic stones are generally used, although in some countries soft sandstones are used; in some churches an indurated chalk called clunch is employed for internal lining and for carving. Some believe that freemason originally meant one who is capable of carving freestone.

Teffont Evias Quarry and Lane Cutting is a 3.6 hectare geological Site of Special Scientific Interest at Teffont Evias in Wiltshire, England, notified in 1989. It consists of two parts, Teffont Evias Quarry, and Teffont Evias Lane Cutting. Forest trees are currently growing on both sites, but there are small accessible exposures on the sides of quarry and roadway cuttings.

Water table top of a saturated aquifer, or where the water pressure head is equal to the atmospheric pressure

The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation. The zone of saturation is where the pores and fractures of the ground are saturated with water.

Although the spire is the cathedral's most impressive feature, it has proved troublesome. Together with the tower, it added 6,397 tons (6,500 tonnes) to the weight of the building. Without the addition of buttresses, bracing arches and anchor irons over the succeeding centuries, it would have suffered the fate of spires on other great ecclesiastical buildings (such as Malmesbury Abbey, 1180 to 1500; Lincoln Cathedral, 1311 to 1549; and Chichester Cathedral, 1402 to 1861) and fallen down; instead, Salisbury became the tallest church spire in the country on the collapse at Lincoln in 1549. The large supporting pillars at the corners of the spire are seen to bend inwards under the stress. The addition of reinforcing tie-beams above the crossing, designed by Christopher Wren in 1668, halted further deformation. [11] The beams were hidden by a false ceiling installed below the lantern stage of the tower.

Significant changes to the cathedral were made by the architect James Wyatt in 1790, including the replacement of the original rood screen and demolition of a bell tower which stood about 320 feet (98 m) northwest of the main building. Salisbury is one of only three English cathedrals to lack a ring of bells, the others being Norwich Cathedral and Ely Cathedral. However, its medieval clock does strike the time with bells every 15 minutes.

21st century

In February 2016, the cathedral chapter placed Sophie Ryder's sculpture The Kiss straddling a path on the grounds where it was to remain until July. After only a few days, the work had to be moved, as pedestrians kept bumping into it while texting. [12]

On 25 October 2018, there was an attempted theft of the Magna Carta from the cathedral; the alarms were triggered and a 45-year-old man was later detained on suspicion of attempted theft, criminal damage and possession of an offensive weapon. The outer layer of a double-layered glass case containing the document was broken, but the document suffered no damage. [13]

Building and architecture

West front

The west front is of the screen-type, clearly deriving from that at Wells. It is composed of a stair turret at each extremity, with two niched buttresses nearer the centre line supporting the large central triple window. The stair turrets are topped with spirelets, and the central section is topped by a gable which contains four lancet windows topped by two round quatrefoil windows surmounted by a mandorla containing Christ in Majesty. At ground level there is a principal door flanked by two smaller doors. The whole is highly decorated with quatrefoil motifs, columns, trefoil motifs and bands of diapering.

The west front was almost certainly constructed at the same time as the cathedral. [14] This is apparent from the way in which the windows coincide with the interior spaces. The entire facade is about 108 feet (33 m) high and wide. It has been said that the front was built on a scale smaller than was initially planned.[ by whom? ] It lacks full-scale towers and/or spires as can be seen, for example at Wells, Lincoln, Lichfield, etc. [15] The facade was disparaged by Alec Clifton-Taylor, who considered it the least successful of the English screen facades and a travesty of its prototype (Wells). He found the composition to be uncoordinated, and the Victorian statuary "poor and insipid". [16]

The front accommodates over 130 shallow niches of varying sizes, 73 of which contain a statue. The line of niches extends round the turrets to the north, south and east faces. There are five levels of niches (not including the mandorla) which show, from the top, angels and archangels, Old Testament patriarchs, apostles and evangelists, martyrs, doctors and philosophers and, on the lower level, royalty, priests and worthy people connected with the cathedral. The majority of the statues were placed during the middle of the 19th century, however seven are from the 14th century and several have been installed within the last decade.

The nave Salisbury Cathedral Nave, Wiltshire, UK - Diliff.jpg
The nave

Salisbury Cathedral is unusual for its tall and narrow nave, and has visual accentuation due to the use of light grey Chilmark stone for the walls and dark polished Purbeck marble for the columns. It has three levels: a tall pointed arcade, an open gallery and a small clerestory. [17] Lined up between the pillars are notable tombs such as that of William Longespée, half brother of King John and the illegitimate son of Henry II, who was the first person to be buried in the cathedral. [18]

Chapter house and Magna Carta

The chapter house is notable for its octagonal shape, slender central pillar and decorative medieval frieze. It was redecorated in 1855-9 by William Burges. The frieze circles the interior above the stalls and depicts scenes and stories from the books of Genesis and Exodus, including Adam and Eve, Noah, the Tower of Babel, and Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

The chapter house also displays the best-preserved of the four surviving original copies of Magna Carta . This copy came to Salisbury because Elias of Dereham, who was present at Runnymede in 1215, was given the task of distributing some of the original copies. Elias later became a canon of Salisbury and supervised the construction of the cathedral.

Clock

The medieval clock Salisbury Cathedral, medieval clock.JPG
The medieval clock

The Salisbury cathedral clock, which dates from about AD 1386, is supposedly the oldest working modern clock in the world. [19] The clock has no face; all clocks of that date rang out the hours on a bell. It was originally located in a bell tower that was demolished in 1792. Following this demolition, the clock was moved to the Cathedral Tower, where it was in operation until 1884. The clock was then placed in storage and forgotten until it was discovered in an attic of the cathedral in 1928. It was repaired and restored to working order in 1956. In 2007, remedial work and repairs were carried out. [20]

Depictions in art, literature and television

Salisbury Cathedral by John Constable, ca. 1825. Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop Grounds c.1825.jpg
Salisbury Cathedral by John Constable, ca. 1825.

The cathedral is the subject of famous paintings by John Constable. As a gesture of appreciation for John Fisher, Bishop of Salisbury, who commissioned this painting, Constable included the bishop and his wife in the canvas (bottom left). The view depicted in the paintings has changed very little in almost two centuries.

The cathedral is apparently the inspiration for William Golding's novel The Spire , in which the fictional Dean Jocelin makes the building of a cathedral spire his life's work. The construction of the cathedral is an important plot point in Edward Rutherfurd's historical novel Sarum , which explores the historical settlement of the Salisbury area. The cathedral has been mentioned [21] by the author Ken Follett as one of two models for the fictional Kingsbridge Cathedral in his historical novel The Pillars of the Earth . It was also used for some external shots in the 2010 miniseries based on Follett's book and was shown as it is today in the final scene. The cathedral was the setting for the 2005 BBC television drama Mr. Harvey Lights a Candle , written by Rhidian Brook and directed by Susanna White. Kevin McCloud climbed the cathedral in his programme called Don't Look Down! in which he climbed high structures to conquer his fear of heights. The cathedral was the subject of a Channel 4 Time Team programme which was first broadcast on 8 February 2009.

Dean and chapter

As of 8 February 2019: [22]

Burials

The North transept Catedral de Salisbury, Salisbury, Inglaterra, 2014-08-12, DD 35-37 HDR.JPG
The North transept

Prominent among later burials in the cathedral is Sir Edward Heath (1916–2005), who served as Prime Minister from 1970 to 1974 and as a member of parliament from 1950 to 2001, and lived at Arundells in the Cathedral Close for the last twenty years of his life. [27] Other notable burials include:

Music

The Choir Salisbury Cathedral Choir, Wiltshire, UK - Diliff.jpg
The Choir
The Trinity Chapel (Lady Chapel). The artwork below the stained glass window is the temporary exhibition of Nicholas Pope installation called "The Apostles Speaking in Tongues Lit By Their Own Lamps", shown at Salisbury Cathedral from 8 June until 4 August 2014 Salisbury Cathedral Lady Chapel 2, Wiltshire, UK - Diliff.jpg
The Trinity Chapel (Lady Chapel). The artwork below the stained glass window is the temporary exhibition of Nicholas Pope installation called "The Apostles Speaking in Tongues Lit By Their Own Lamps", shown at Salisbury Cathedral from 8 June until 4 August 2014

Organ

The cathedral's current organ was built in 1877 by Henry Willis & Sons. [28] Walter Alcock, who was organist of the cathedral from 1916, oversaw a strictly faithful restoration of the famous Father Willis organ, completed in 1934, [29] even going to such lengths as to refuse to allow parts of the instrument to leave the cathedral in case any unauthorised tonal alterations were made without his knowledge, [30] while allowing some discreet additions in the original style of the organ (as well as modernisation of the organ's actions) by Henry Willis III, the grandson of Father Willis. [31]

An earlier organ by Samuel Green was presented by George III in 1792 [32] and was installed on top of the stone screen, which, unusually, did not divide the choir from the nave, but rather came from an unknown location in the cathedral. [33] The organ was later taken out and moved to St Thomas's Church. [34]

Organists

It is recorded that in 1463 John Kegewyn was organist of Salisbury Cathedral. Among the notable organists of more recent times have been a number of composers and well-known performers including Bertram Luard-Selby, Charles Frederick South, Walter Alcock, David Valentine Willcocks, Douglas Albert Guest, Christopher Dearnley, Richard Godfrey Seal and the BBC presenter Simon Lole.

Choir

Salisbury Cathedral Choir holds annual auditions for boys and girls aged 7–9 years old for scholarships to Salisbury Cathedral School, which housed in the former Bishop's Palace. The boys' choir and the girls' choir (each 16 strong) sing alternate daily Evensong and Sunday Matins and Eucharist services throughout the school year. There are also many additional services during the Christian year particularly during Advent, Christmas, Holy Week, and Easter. The Advent From Darkness to Light services are the best known. Choristers come from across the country and some board. Six lay vicars (adult men) comprise the rest of the choir, singing tenor, alto and bass parts. In 1993, the cathedral was the venue for the first broadcast of Choral Evensong (the long-running BBC Radio 3 programme) to be sung by a girls' cathedral choir. [35]

Cathedral constables

The cathedral previously employed five cathedral constables (known as "Close Constables"), whose duties mainly concerned the maintenance of law and order in the cathedral close. They were made redundant in 2010 as part of cost-cutting measures and replaced with "traffic managers". [36]

The constables were first appointed when the cathedral became a liberty in 1611 and survived until the introduction of municipal police forces in 1835 with the Municipal Corporations Act. [37] In 1800 they were given the power, along with the city constables, to execute any justices' or court orders requiring the conveyance of prisoners to or from the county jail (at Fisherton Anger, then outside the city of Salisbury) as if it were the city jail (and, in so doing, they were made immune from any legal action for acting outside their respective jurisdictions). [38] The right of the cathedral, as a liberty, to maintain a separate police force was conclusively terminated by the Local Government Act 1888. [39] [40]

Peregrine falcons

Between 1864 and 1953, there were records of peregrine falcons being present at the Cathedral. More arrived in 2013, and have been hatching every year since, with their nests on the cathedral's tower. [41]

The interior of the spire, showing the original supporting framework. Salisbury Cathedral Spire Interior.jpg
The interior of the spire, showing the original supporting framework.

See also

References and sources

References
  1. Blagdon-Gamlen, P. E. (1973). The Church Travellers Directory. London: Church Literature Association. p. 69.
  2. 1 2 3 "Visitor Information, Salisbury Cathedral" . Retrieved 17 January 2008.
  3. "Adding the Spire". Salisbury Cathedral Website. 13 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  4. "Salisbury Cathedral's 750th Anniversary Open Day An Overwhelming Success". Salisbury Cathedral. 28 April 2008. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  5. Evans, p. 10-11
  6. Evans, p. 13
  7. Ruggles, Ancient Astronomy: An Encyclopedia of Cosmologies and Myth, 2005:225 "A notorious example...a ley line joining Stonehenge (third millennium B.C.E.), Old Sarum (first millennium B.C.E.), and Salisbury cathedral (C.E. 1220)."
  8. Evans, p. 15
  9. Sylvanus Urban, wd., The Gentleman's Magazine, and Historical Chronicle (1830), p. 105 online at books.google.com
  10. "The Cathedrals of Britain". BBC History. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  11. Ross, David. "Salisbury, Wiltshire". Britain Express. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  12. Burke, Dave (20 February 2016). "This 20ft statue had to be moved because people walked into it while texting". Metro . Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  13. "Man arrested for Magna Carta theft attempt at Salisbury Cathedral". BBC News. 26 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  14. Tatton-Brown, Tim; Crook, John (25 June 2009). "Salisbury Cathedral: The Making of a Medieval Masterpiece" . Scala Publishers Ltd. p. 70. ISBN   978-1-85759-550-5.
  15. Rodwell, Warwick; Bentley, James (1984). Our Christian Heritage. George Philip. p. 109. ISBN   978-0540010783.
  16. Clifton-Taylor, Alec (1970). The Cathedrals of England . Thames & Hudson. p. 105.
  17. "Salisbury Cathedral". Sacred Destinations. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  18. "Salisbury Cathedral". Britain Express. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  19. "Oldest Working Clock, Frequently Asked Questions, Salisbury Cathedral" . Retrieved 8 April 2009.
  20. "Clock repaired, Salisbury Cathedral" . Retrieved 17 January 2008.
  21. Follett, Ken. "Is Kingsbridge Real?". www.ken-follett.com. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
  22. "Cathedral Chapter". Salisbury Cathedral. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  23. "Installation of Canon Nicholas Papadopulos as Dean". Salisbury Cathedral. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  24. "Salisbury Cathedral – New Chancellor". Salisburycathedral.org.uk. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  25. "New Canon Treasurer appointed". Salisbury Cathedral. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  26. "Arundells, Cathedral Close, Salisbury, Wiltshire". www.arundells.org. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
  27. "Wiltshire, Salisbury Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary". National Pipe Organ Register . Retrieved 10 April 2011.
  28. Webb, Stanley & Hale, Paul. "Alcock, Sir Walter", Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, accessed 1 March 2012 (subscription required)
  29. Alcock, W. G. "Salisbury Cathedral Organ", The Musical Times , Vol. 75, No. 1098 (August 1934), pp. 730–732 (subscription required)
  30. National Pipe Organ Register N10312
  31. "Wiltshire Salisbury, Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary [N10306]". The National Pipe Organ Register. The British Institute of Organ Studies. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  32. Armfield, A.H. (1890). Cathedrals, abbeys, and churches of England and Wales. London: Cassell & Company. p. 130.
  33. Cathedrals; 2nd ed. London: Great Western Railway, 1925; p. 33.
  34. "Timeline of the History of Choral Evensong". BBC Radio 3. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  35. Hough, Andrew (6 August 2010). "Anger after Salisbury Cathedral Constables 'scrapped to save money'". The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  36. "Salisbury Cathedral Close Constables". Cathedral Constables' Association. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  37. "Statute Law Revision: Gaols: Repeal Proposals" (PDF). Law Commission. April 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  38. section 48(3), Local Government Act 1888
  39. section 119(4), Local Government Act 1888
  40. "Peregrine Falcons | Salisbury Cathedral". www.salisburycathedral.org.uk. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
Sources

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The Cathedral of Saint Mary of Burgos is a Catholic church dedicated to the Virgin Mary located in the Spanish city of Burgos. Its official name is Santa Iglesia Catedral Basílica Metropolitana de Santa María de Burgos. Its construction began in 1221, following French Gothic patterns. It went through major changes in the 15th and 16th centuries: the spires of the main facade, the Chapel of the Constable and dome of the transept, elements of the advanced Gothic which give the temple its unmistakable profile. The last works of importance were constructed in the 18th century, in which the Gothic portals of the main facade were also modified. The style of the cathedral is the Gothic, although it has several decorative Renaissance and Baroque elements as well. The construction and renovations were made with limestone extracted from the quarrys of the nearby town of Hontoria de la Cantera.

St Edmundsbury Cathedral Church in Suffolk, United Kingdom

St Edmundsbury Cathedral is the cathedral for the Church of England's Diocese of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich. It is the seat of the Bishop of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich and is in Bury St Edmunds. Originating in the 11th century, it was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries as a parish church and became a cathedral in 1914; it has been considerably enlarged in recent decades.

Limburg Cathedral Church in Limburg, Germany

The Catholic Cathedral of Limburg, also known as Georgsdom in German after its dedication to Saint George, is located above the old town of Limburg in Hesse, Germany. It is the cathedral of the Catholic Diocese of Limburg. Its high location on a rock above the river Lahn provides its visibility from far away. It is the result of an Early Gothic modernization of an originally Early Romanesque building and therefore shows a Romanesque-Gothic transitional style.

Cathedral of Trier Church in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

The High Cathedral of Saint Peter in Trier, or Cathedral of Trier, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is the oldest church in Germany and the largest religious structure in Trier, notable for its long life span and grand design. The central part of the nave was built of Roman brick in the early fourth century, resulting in a cathedral that was added onto gradually in different eras. The imposing Romanesque westwork, with four towers and an additional apse, has been copied repeatedly. The Trier Cathedral Treasury contains an important collection of Christian art. In 1986 the church was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as part of the Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier.

Verdun Cathedral cathedral located in Meuse, in France

Verdun Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church located in the town of Verdun, Lorraine, France. The cathedral is the seat of the Bishops of Verdun. It was declared a monument historique on 30 October 1906 and the cloister on 13 July 1907.

Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England Architectural style of cathedrals in England during the middle ages, 1040 to 1540

The medieval cathedrals of England, which date from between approximately 1040 and 1540, are a group of twenty-six buildings that constitute a major aspect of the country’s artistic heritage and are among the most significant material symbols of Christianity. Though diversified in style, they are united by a common function. As cathedrals, each of these buildings serves as central church for an administrative region and houses the throne of a bishop. Each cathedral also serves as a regional centre and a focus of regional pride and affection.

The Bailiff of Sarum or Bailiff of New Sarum was an official appointed by the Bishop of Salisbury in the 14th and 15th centuries.