COVID-19 pandemic in England

Last updated

COVID-19 pandemic in England
COVID 19 in England collage 1.jpg
Disease COVID-19
Virus strain SARS-CoV-2
Location England
Index case York, North Yorkshire
Arrival date31 January 2020
(1 year, 10 months and 3 days ago)
Confirmed cases5,090,505 [1] (up to 30 July 2021)
Hospitalised cases
  • 5,111 [1] (active, as of 30 July 2021)
  • 422,511 [1] (total, up to 28 July 2021)
Ventilator cases785 [1] (active, as of 30 July 2021)
Recoveredno data [2]
Deaths
  • 113,862 [1] (deaths within 28 days of positive test, up to 30 July 2021)
  • 127,895 [1] (deaths within 60 days of positive test, up to 28 March 2021)
  • 128,507 [1] (deaths with COVID-19 on the death certificate by date of death, up to 12 March 2021)
Fatality rate
  • 202.3 [1] (death rate per 100,000 population who died within 28 days of the first positive test)
  • 233 [1] (death rate per 100,000 population whose death certificate mentioned COVID-19)
Vaccinations
  • 70,977,552 (total doses) [3]
  • 39,261,785 (88.3% – first doses) [3]
  • 31,715,767 (71.3% – second doses/fully vaccinated) [3]
Government website
UK Government

The COVID-19 pandemic was first confirmed to have spread to England with two cases among Chinese nationals staying in a hotel in York on 31 January 2020. The two main public bodies responsible for health in England are NHS England and Public Health England. NHS England oversees the budget, planning, delivery and day-to-day operation of the commissioning side of the NHS in England while PHE's mission is "to protect and improve the nation’s health and to address inequalities". As of 14 September 2021, there have been 6,237,505 total cases and 117,955 deaths in England. [1] In January 2021 it was estimated around 22% of people in England have had COVID-19. [4]

Contents

Healthcare in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland is administered by the devolved governments, but there is no devolved government for England and so healthcare is the direct responsibility of the UK Government. As a result of each country having different policies and priorities, a variety of differences now exist between these systems. [5] [6]

Timeline

COVID-19 cases in England  ()
     Deaths        Confirmed cases
2020202020212021
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMayJunJunJulJulAugAugSepSepOctOctNovNovDecDec
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMayJunJunJulJulAugAugSepSepOctOct
Last 15 daysLast 15 days
Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-01-312(n.a.)0(n.a.)
2(=)0(n.a.)
2020-02-063(+1)0(n.a.)
3(=)0(n.a.)
2020-02-094(+1)0(n.a.)
2020-02-108(+4)0(n.a.)
8(=)0(n.a.)
2020-02-139(+1)0(n.a.)
9(=)0(n.a.)
2020-02-2413(+4)0(n.a.)
13(=)0(n.a.)
2020-02-2818(+5)0(n.a.)
2020-02-2921(+3)0(n.a.)
2020-03-0133(+12)0(n.a.)
2020-03-0237(+4)0(n.a.)
2020-03-0348(+11)0(n.a.)
2020-03-0480(+32)0(n.a.)
2020-03-05105(+25)0(n.a.)
2020-03-06
144(+39)1(n.a.)
2020-03-07
183(+39)2(+1)
2020-03-08
241(+58)2(=)
2020-03-09
282(+41)3(+1)
2020-03-10
324(+42)7(+4)
2020-03-11
387(+63)7(=)
2020-03-12
486(+99)9(+2)
2020-03-13
645(+159)10(+1)
2020-03-14
846(+201)28(+18)
2020-03-15
1,099(+253)42(+14)
2020-03-16
1,196(+97)64(+22)
2020-03-17
1,557(+361)79(+15)
2020-03-18
2,182(+625)112(+33)
2020-03-19
2,756(+574)154(+42)
2020-03-20
3,384(+628)186(+32)
2020-03-21
4,257(+873)240(+54)
2020-03-22
4,792(+535)264(+24)
2020-03-23
5,585(+793)331(+67)
2020-03-24
6,843(+1,258)474(+143)
2020-03-25
7,973(+1,130)652(+178)
2020-03-26
9,782(+1,809)821(+169)
2020-03-27
12,288(+2,506)1,092(+271)
2020-03-28
14,427(+2,139)1,371(+279)
2020-03-29
16,487(+2,060)1,566(+195)
2020-03-30
18,594(+2,107)1,919(+353)
2020-03-31
21,008(+2,414)2,287(+368)
2020-04-01
24,638(+3,630)2,900(+613)
2020-04-02
28,221(+3,583)3,503(+603)
2020-04-03
31,797(+3,576)4,157(+654)
2020-04-04
34,707(+2,910)4,846(+689)
2020-04-05
39,814(+5,107)5,424(+578)
2020-04-06
42,990(+3,176)5,955(+531)
2020-04-07
45,968(+2,978)6,964(+1,009)
2020-04-08
50,796(+4,828)7,886(+922)
2020-04-09
54,554(+3,758)8,876(+990)
2020-04-10
58,817(+4,263)9,911(+1,035)
2020-04-11
62,658(+3,841)10,656(+745)
2020-04-12
66,330(+3,672)11,260(+604)
2020-04-13
69,329(+2,999)11,954(+694)
2020-04-14
73,183(+3,854)12,961(+1,007)
2020-04-15
76,371(+3,188)13,691(+730)
2020-04-16
79,489(+3,118)14,597(+906)
2020-04-17
83,474(+3,985)15,423(+826)
2020-04-18
87,022(+3,548)16,427(+1,004)
2020-04-19
90,629(+3,607)16,807(+380)
2020-04-20
93,030(+2,401)17,343(+536)
2020-04-21
96,117(+3,087)18,459(+1,116)
2020-04-22
99,137(+3,020)19,184(+725)
2020-04-23
102,221(+3,084)19,778(+594)
2020-04-24
105,225(+3,004)20,599(+821)
2020-04-25
108,051(+2,826)21,328(+729)
2020-04-26
110,203(+2,152)21,655(+327)
2020-04-27
112,467(+2,264)21,944(+289)
2020-04-28
114,456(+1,989)22,806(+862)
2020-04-29
115,859(+1,403)23,410(+604)
2020-04-30
118,343(+2,484)23,953(+543)
2020-05-01
121,006(+2,663)24,576(+623)
2020-05-02
123,234(+2,228)25,061(+485)
2020-05-03
125,253(+2,019)25,283(+222)
2020-05-04
126,738(+1,485)25,530(+247)
2020-05-05
128,580(+1,842)26,169(+639)
2020-05-06
130,191(+1,611)26,698(+529)
2020-05-07
132,324(+2,133)27,075(+377)
2020-05-08
134,018(+1,694)27,573(+498)
2020-05-09
135,367(+1,349)27,799(+226)
2020-05-10
136,374(+1,007)27,989(+190)
2020-05-11
137,265(+891)28,163(+174)
2020-05-12
138,332(+1,067)28,702(+539)
2020-05-13
139,478(+1,146)29,064(+362)
2020-05-14
140,667(+1,189)29,367(+303)
2020-05-15
141,779(+1,112)29,647(+280)
2020-05-16
142,915(+1,136)29,995(+348)
2020-05-17
143,703(+788)30,038(+43)
2020-05-18
144,519(+816)30,172(+134)
2020-05-19
145,376(+857)30,619(+447)
2020-05-20
145,808(+432)30,878(+259)
2020-05-21
146,662(+854)31,098(+220)
2020-05-22
147,745(+1,083)31,355(+257)
2020-05-23
148,724(+979)31,552(+197)
2020-05-24
149,308(+584)31,914(+362)
2020-05-25
149,802(+494)32,000(+86)
2020-05-26
150,294(+492)32,105(+105)
2020-05-27
150,903(+609)32,501(+396)
2020-05-28
151,422(+519)32,816(+315)
2020-05-29
151,982(+560)33,062(+246)
2020-05-30
151,85633,179(+117)
2020-05-31
152,176(+320)33,218(+39)
2020-06-01
152,470(+294)33,297(+79)
2020-06-02
152,914(+444)33,525(+228)
2020-06-03
153,376(+462)33,743(+218)
2020-06-04
153,807(+431)33,855(+112)
2020-06-05
154,258(+451)34,094(+239)
2020-06-06
154,680(+422)34,220(+126)
2020-06-07
154,908(+228)34,269(+49)
2020-06-08
155,000(+92)34,313(+44)
2020-06-09
155,651(+651)34,492(+179)
2020-06-10
155,714(+63)34,635(+143)
2020-06-11
156,018(+304)34,699(+64)
2020-06-12
156,410(+392)34,816(+117)
2020-06-13
156,782(+372)34,910(+94)
2020-06-14
157,074(+292)34,933(+23)
2020-06-15
157,293(+219)34,958(+25)
2020-06-16
157,545(+252)35,064(+106)
2020-06-17
157,797(+252)35,154(+90)
2020-06-18
158,078(+281)35,214(+60)
2020-06-19
158,401(+323)35,287(+73)
2020-06-20
158,725(+324)35,354(+67)
2020-06-21
158,940(+215)35,384(+30)
2020-06-22
159,118(+178)35,397(+13)
2020-06-23
159,328(+210)35,481(+84)
2020-06-24
159,435(+107)35,555(+74)
2020-06-25
159,696(+261)35,646(+91)
2020-06-26
159,958(+262)35,722(+76)
2020-06-27
160,150(+192)35,756(+34)
2020-06-28
160,292(+142)35,784(+28)
2020-06-29
160,391(+99)35,801(+17)
2020-06-30
160,587(+196)35,848(+47)
2020-07-01
160,764(+177)35,938(+90)
2020-07-02
243,910(+523 [lower-roman 1] )35,969(+31)
2020-07-03
244,412(+502)36,014(+45)
2020-07-04
244,991(+579)36,041(+27)
2020-07-05
245,483(+492)36,059(+18)
2020-07-06
245,814(+331)36,070(+11)
2020-07-07
246,386(+572)36,120(+50)
2020-07-08
246,992(+606)36,172(+52)
2020-07-09
247,609(+617)36,201(+29)
2020-07-10
248,089(+480)36,235(+34)
2020-07-11
248,895(+806)36,251(+16)
2020-07-12
249,510(+615)36,260(+9)
2020-07-13
250,007(+497)36,268(+8)
2020-07-14
250,379(+372)36,310(+42)
2020-07-15
250,885(+506)36,334(+24)
2020-07-16
251,482(+597)36,357(+23)
2020-07-17
252,117(+635)36,382(+25)
2020-07-18
252,913(+796)36,391(+9)
2020-07-19
253,585(+672)36,401(+10)
2020-07-20
254,120(+535)36,411(+10)
2020-07-21
254,519(+399)36,436(+25)
2020-07-22
255,038(+519)36,452(+16)
2020-07-23
255,740(+702)36,461(+9)
2020-07-24
256,428(+688)36,493(+32)
2020-07-25
257,138(+710)36,508(+15)
2020-07-26
257,859(+721)36,515(+7)
2020-07-27
258,475(+616)36,518(+3)
2020-07-28
259,022(+547)36,539(+21)
2020-07-29
259,722(+700)36,568(+29)
2020-07-30
260,534(+812)36,568(=)
2020-07-31
261,348(+814)36,582(+14)
2020-08-01
262,070(+722)36,593(+11)
2020-08-02
262,746(+676)36,595(+2)
2020-08-03
263,602(+856)36,596(+1)
2020-08-04
264,219(+617)36,613(+17)
2020-08-05
265,023(+804)36,625(+12)
2020-08-06
265,849(+826)36,640(+15)
2020-08-07
266,645(+796)36,645(+5)
2020-08-08
267,324(+679)36,647(+2)
2020-08-09
268,312(+988)36,652(+5)
2020-08-10
269,011(+699)36,669(+17)
2020-08-11
270,046(+1,035)36,680(+11)
2020-08-12
270,971(+925)36,695(+15)
2020-08-13
272,030(+1,059)36,713(+18)
2020-08-14
273,314(+1,284)36,723(+10)
2020-08-15
274,248(+934)36,725(+2)
2020-08-16
275,200(+952)36,728(+3)
2020-08-17
275,834(+634)36,731(+3)
2020-08-18
276,809(+975)36,742(+11)
2020-08-19
277,516(+707)36,757(+15)
2020-08-20
278,551(+1,035)36,763(+6)
2020-08-21
279,459(+908)36,765(+2)
2020-08-22
280,519(+1,060)36,782(+17)
2020-08-23
281,457(+938)36,786(+4)
2020-08-24
282,215(+758)36,789(+3)
2020-08-25
283,280(+1,065)36,805(+16)
2020-08-26
284,155(+875)36,818(+13)
2020-08-27
285,505(+1,350)36,828(+10)
2020-08-28
286,611(+1,106)36,837(+9)
2020-08-29
287,502(+891)36,849(+12)
2020-08-30
288,989(+1,487)36,850(+1)
2020-08-31
290,138(+1,149)36,852(+2)
2020-09-01
291,179(+1,041)36,854(+2)
2020-09-02
292,418(+1,239)36,861(+7)
2020-09-03
293,925(+1,507)36,872(+11)
2020-09-04
295,594(+1,669)36,881(+9)
2020-09-05
297,071(+1,477)36,892(+11)
2020-09-06
299,647(+2,576)36,894(+2)
2020-09-07
302,175(+2,528)36,896(+2)
2020-09-08
304,269(+2,094)36,923(+27)
2020-09-09
306,555(+2,286)36,931(+8)
2020-09-10
309,133(+2,578)36,944(+13)
2020-09-11
312,276(+3,143)36,950(+6)
2020-09-12
315,284(+3,008)36,959(+9)
2020-09-13
318,121(+2,837)36,964(+5)
2020-09-14
320,380(+2,259)36,971(+7)
2020-09-15
323,029(+2,649)36,996(+25)
2020-09-16
326,425(+3,396)37,013(+17)
2020-09-17
329,213(+2,788)37,031(+18)
2020-09-18
332,984(+3,771)37,054(+23)
2020-09-19
336,622(+3,638)37,076(+22)
2020-09-20
339,901(+3,279)37,094(+18)
2020-09-21
343,655(+3,754)37,103(+9)
2020-09-22
347,842(+4,187)37,139(+36)
2020-09-23
352,925(+5,083)37,172(+33)
2020-09-24
358,557(+5,632)37,209(+37)
2020-09-25
364,280(+5,723)37,240(+31)
2020-09-26
368,919(+4,639)37,270(+30)
2020-09-27
373,719(+4,800)37,286(+16)
2020-09-28
377,035(+3,316)37,299(+13)
2020-09-29
382,686(+5,651)37,367(+68)
2020-09-30
388,342(+5,656)37,429(+62)
2020-10-01
393,931(+5,589)37,477(+48)
2020-10-02
398,728(+4,797)37,535(+58)
2020-10-03
409,534(+10,806 [lower-roman 2] )37,574(+39)
2020-10-04
430,843(+21,309 [lower-roman 2] )37,606(+32)
2020-10-05
441,528(+10,685)37,625(+19)
2020-10-06
454,176(+12,648)37,688(+63)
2020-10-07
465,704(+11,528)37,753(+65)
2020-10-08
480,656(+14,952)37,823(+70)
2020-10-09
491,428(+10,772)37,902(+79)
2020-10-10
504,056(+12,628)37,956(+54)
2020-10-11
514,439(+10,383)38,018(+62)
2020-10-12
526,086(+11,647)38,061(+43)
2020-10-13
540,396(+14,310)38,185(+124)
2020-10-14
556,528(+16,132)38,293(+108)
2020-10-15
572,667(+16,139)38,404(+111)
2020-10-16
584,843(+12,176)38,524(+120)
2020-10-17
598,142(+13,299)38,652(+128)
2020-10-18
612,846(+14,704)38,711(+59)
2020-10-19
629,211(+16,365)38,783(+72)
2020-10-20
647,025(+17,814)38,996(+213)
2020-10-21
669,973(+22,948)39,140(+144)
2020-10-22
687,327(+17,354)39,300(+160)
2020-10-23
704,443(+17,116)39,488(+188)
2020-10-24
723,775(+19,332)39,629(+141)
2020-10-25
740,262(+16,487)39,766(+137)
2020-10-26
758,145(+17,883)39,856(+90)
2020-10-27
777,774(+19,629)40,178(+322)
2020-10-28
799,019(+21,245)40,414(+236)
2020-10-29
818,759(+19,740)40,628(+214)
2020-10-30
839,580(+20,821)40,854(+226)
2020-10-31
858,444(+18,864)41,132(+278)
2020-11-01
879,046(+20,602)41,264(+132)
2020-11-02
894,906(+15,860)41,389(+125)
2020-11-03
912,236(+17,330)41,748(+359)
2020-11-04
934,099(+21,863)42,136(+388)
2020-11-05
955,236(+21,137)42,433(+297)
2020-11-06
975,504(+20,268)42,736(+303)
2020-11-07
997,379(+21,875)43,064(+328)
2020-11-08
1,015,672(+18,293)43,191(+127)
2020-11-09
1,034,708(+19,036)43,366(+175)
2020-11-10
1,053,330(+18,622)43,826(+460)
2020-11-11
1,073,300(+19,970)44,304(+478)
2020-11-12
1,104,143(+30,843)44,773(+469)
2020-11-13
1,128,683(+24,540)45,053(+280)
2020-11-14
1,152,981(+24,298)45,449(+396)
2020-11-15
1,174,979(+21,998)45,592(+143)
2020-11-16
1,194,402(+19,423)45,783(+191)
2020-11-17
1,211,951(+17,549)46,301(+518)
2020-11-18
1,229,140(+17,189)46,724(+423)
2020-11-19
1,249,431(+20,291)47,140(+416)
2020-11-20
1,267,276(+17,845)47,576(+436)
2020-11-21
1,284,891(+17,615)47,842(+266)
2020-11-22
1,301,559(+16,668)48,212(+370)
2020-11-23
1,314,888(+13,329)48,406(+194)
2020-11-24
1,324,742(+9,854)48,941(+535)
2020-11-25
1,340,635(+15,893)49,545(+604)
2020-11-26
1,355,272(+14,637)49,956(+411)
2020-11-27
1,367,546(+12,274)50,407(+451)
2020-11-28
1,380,869(+13,323)50,804(+397)
2020-11-29
1,390,923(+10,054)50,998(+194)
2020-11-30
1,401,792(+10,869)51,187(+189)
2020-12-01
1,413,410(+11,618)51,718(+531)
2020-12-02
1,426,733(+13,323)52,273(+555)
2020-12-03
1,438,725(+11,992)52,601(+328)
2020-12-04
1,452,137(+13,412)53,025(+424)
2020-12-05
1,464,803(+12,666)53,369(+344)
2020-12-06
1,479,097(+14,294)53,570(+201)
2020-12-07
1,490,720(+11,623)53,747(+177)
2020-12-08
1,501,179(+10,459)54,285(+538)
2020-12-09
1,514,139(+12,960)54,736(+451)
2020-12-10
1,531,761(+17,622)55,155(+419)
2020-12-11
1,549,660(+17,899)55,508(+353)
2020-12-12
1,567,128(+17,468)55,948(+440)
2020-12-13
1,584,292(+17,164)56,086(+138)
2020-12-14
1,602,174(+17,882)56,280(+194)
2020-12-15
1,618,678(+16,504)56,747(+467)
2020-12-16
1,642,110(+23,432)57,284(+537)
2020-12-17
1,664,511(+22,401)57,722(+438)
2020-12-18
1,688,963(+24,452)58,125(+403)
2020-12-19
1,711,738(+22,775)58,566(+441)
2020-12-20
1,743,893(+32,155)58,807(+241)
2020-12-21
1,772,635(+28,742)59,005(+198)
2020-12-22
1,804,923(+32,288)59,613(+608)
2020-12-23
1,839,170(+34,247)60,238(+625)
2020-12-24
1,874,731(+35,561)60,706(+468)
2020-12-25
1,906,291(+31,560)61,276(+570)
2020-12-26
1,937,598(+31,307)61,451(+175)
2020-12-27
1,963,217(+25,619)61,697(+246)
2020-12-28
1,999,728(+36,511)62,019(+322)
2020-12-29
2,046,892(+47,164)62,379(+360)
2020-12-30
2,090,446(+43,554)63,298(+919)
2020-12-31
2,139,956(+49,510)64,118(+820)
2021-01-01
2,190,702(+50,746)64,731(+613)
2021-01-02
2,239,950(+49,248)65,080(+349)
2021-01-03
2,286,803(+46,853)65,472(+392)
2021-01-04
2,339,983(+53,180)65,842(+370)
2021-01-05
2,394,923(+54,940)66,626(+784)
2021-01-06
2,450,983(+56,060)67,510(+884)
2021-01-07
2,497,824(+46,841)68,514(+1,004)
2021-01-08
2,559,581(+61,757)69,670(+1,156)
2021-01-09
2,613,838(+54,257)70,541(+871)
2021-01-10
2,664,129(+50,291)71,039(+498)
2021-01-11
2,705,964(+41,835)71,534(+495)
2021-01-12
2,747,085(+41,121)72,685(+1,151)
2021-01-13
2,789,983(+42,898)74,085(+1,400)
2021-01-14
2,834,341(+44,358)75,199(+1,114)
2021-01-15
2,885,082(+50,741)76,338(+1,139)
2021-01-16
2,922,841(+37,759)77,478(+1,140)
2021-01-17
2,958,104(+35,263)78,076(+598)
2021-01-18
2,992,238(+34,134)78,636(+560)
2021-01-19
3,022,609(+30,371)80,143(+1,507)
2021-01-20
3,057,670(+35,061)81,805(+1,662)
2021-01-21
3,092,041(+34,371)82,939(+1,134)
2021-01-22
3,129,156(+37,115)84,190(+1,251)
2021-01-23
3,159,652(+30,496)85,423(+1,233)
2021-01-24
3,187,232(+27,580)85,974(+551)
2021-01-25
3,207,381(+20,149)86,552(+578)
2021-01-26
3,225,301(+17,920)88,042(+1,490)
2021-01-27
3,248,215(+22,914)89,610(+1,568)
2021-01-28
3,274,397(+26,182)90,698(+1,088)
2021-01-29
3,301,106(+26,709)91,822(+1,124)
2021-01-30
3,322,195(+21,089)92,920(+1,098)
2021-01-31
3,341,249(+19,054)93,448(+528)
2021-02-01
3,358,064(+16,815)93,816(+368)
2021-02-02
3,373,085(+15,021)95,172(+1,356)
2021-02-03
3,390,350(+17,265)96,345(+1,173)
2021-02-04
3,408,879(+18,529)97,162(+817)
2021-02-05
3,426,193(+17,314)98,054(+892)
2021-02-06
3,442,495(+16,302)98,778(+724)
2021-02-07
3,456,961(+14,466)99,107(+329)
2021-02-08
3,469,231(+12,270)99,411(+304)
2021-02-09
3,480,147(+10,916)100,385(+974)
2021-02-10
3,491,698(+11,551)101,311(+926)
2021-02-11
3,503,699(+12,001)101,905(+594)
2021-02-12
3,516,998(+13,299)102,562(+657)
2021-02-13
3,528,695(+11,697)103,106(+544)
2021-02-14
3,538,194(+9,499)103,334(+228)
2021-02-15
3,546,803(+8,609)103,544(+210)
2021-02-16
3,556,039(+9,236)104,277(+733)
2021-02-17
3,566,965(+10,926)104,915(+638)
2021-02-18
3,577,705(+10,740)105,292(+377)
2021-02-19
3,588,001(+10,296)105,773(+481)
2021-02-20
3,596,965(+8,964)106,170(+397)
2021-02-21
3,605,373(+8,408)106,360(+190)
2021-02-22
3,614,793(+9,420)106,525(+165)
2021-02-23
3,622,085(+7,292)107,008(+483)
2021-02-24
3,630,729(+8,644)107,338(+330)
2021-02-25
3,639,352(+8,623)107,654(+316)
2021-02-26
3,646,745(+7,393)107,954(+300)
2021-02-27
3,653,272(+6,527)108,208(+254)
2021-02-28
3,658,352(+5,080)108,323(+115)
2021-03-01
3,663,090(+4,738)108,422(+99)
2021-03-02
3,668,620(+5,530)108,729(+307)
2021-03-03
3,674,028(+5,408)108,993(+264)
2021-03-04
3,679,671(+5,643)109,195(+202)
2021-03-05
3,684,724(+5,053)109,406(+211)
2021-03-06
3,689,842(+5,118)109,541(+135)
2021-03-07
3,694,339(+4,497)109,602(+61)
2021-03-08
3,698,242(+3,903)109,664(+62)
2021-03-09
3,703,136(+4,894)109,871(+207)
2021-03-10
3,707,999(+4,863)110,027(+156)
2021-03-11
3,713,743(+5,744)110,165(+138)
2021-03-12
3,719,272(+5,529)110,310(+145)
2021-03-13
3,723,811(+4,539)110,416(+106 [lower-roman 3] )
2021-03-14
3,727,585(+3,774)110,456(+40)
2021-03-15
3,731,849(+4,264)110,517(+61)
2021-03-16
3,736,240(+4,391)110,618(+101)
2021-03-17
3,741,067(+4,827)110,739(+121)
2021-03-18
3,746,280(+5,213)110,822(+83)
2021-03-19
3,750,089(+3,809)110,903(+81)
2021-03-20
3,754,821(+4,732)110,985(+82)
2021-03-21
3,759,280(+4,459)111,011(+26)
2021-03-22
3,764,026(+4,746)111,027(+16)
2021-03-23
3,768,609(+4,583)111,130(+103)
2021-03-24
3,773,224(+4,615)111,222(+92)
2021-03-25
3,778,510(+5,286)111,271(+49)
2021-03-26
3,783,783(+5,273)111,332(+61)
2021-03-27
3,786,746(+3,813 [lower-roman 4] )111,375(+43)
2021-03-28
3,789,899(+3,153)111,392(+17)
2021-03-29
3,794,011(+4,112)111,414(+22)
2021-03-30
3,797,395(+3,384)111,453(+39)
2021-03-31
3,800,722(+3,327)111,489(+36)
2021-04-01
3,804,506(+3,784)111,530(+41)
2021-04-02
3,807,387(+2,881)111,577(+47)
2021-04-03
3,810,234(+2,847)111,585(+8)
2021-04-04
3,812,188(+1,954)111,595(+10)
2021-04-05
3,814,424(+2,236)111,611(+16)
2021-04-06
3,816,361(+1,937)111,626(+15)
2021-04-07
3,818,665(+2,304)111,666(+40)
2021-04-08
3,821,151(+2,486)111,710(+44)
2021-04-09
3,815,779(-5,372 [lower-roman 5] )111,761(+51)
2021-04-10
3,817,811(+2,032)111,794(+33)
2021-04-11
3,819,149(+1,338)111,797(+3)
2021-04-12
3,822,371(+3,222)111,810(+13)
2021-04-13
3,824,441(+2,070)111,828(+18)
2021-04-14
3,826,495(+2,054)111,862(+34)
2021-04-15
3,828,666(+2,171)111,887(+25)
2021-04-16
3,830,891(+2,225)111,917(+30)
2021-04-17
3,832,788(+1,897)111,948(+31)
2021-04-18
3,834,283(+1,495)111,955(+7)
2021-04-19
3,836,833(+2,550)111,957(+2)
2021-04-20
3,839,002(+2,169)111,985(+28)
2021-04-21
3,840,945(+1,943)112,005(+20)
2021-04-22
3,843,260(+2,315)112,016(+11)
2021-04-23
3,845,537(+2,277)112,054(+38)
2021-04-24
3,847,341(+1,804)112,081(+27)
2021-04-25
3,848,742(+1,401)112,088(+7)
2021-04-26
3,850,494(+1,752)112,091(+3)
2021-04-27
3,852,904(+2,410)112,107(+16)
2021-04-28
3,854,733(+1,829)112,134(+27)
2021-04-29
3,856,836(+2,103)112,149(+15)
2021-04-30
3,858,882(+2,046)112,163(+14)
2021-05-01
3,860,524(+1,642)112,169(+6)
2021-05-02
3,861,901(+1,377)112,182(+13)
2021-05-03
3,863,354(+1,453)112,183(+1)
2021-05-04
3,865,013(+1,659)112,186(+3)
2021-05-05
3,866,919(+1,906)112,213(+27)
2021-05-06
3,869,113(+2,194)112,225(+12)
2021-05-07
3,871,255(+2,142)112,238(+13)
2021-05-08
3,872,997(+1,742)112,243(+5)
2021-05-09
3,874,415(+1,418)112,245(+2)
2021-05-10
3,876,424(+2,009)112,245(=)
2021-05-11
3,878,541(+2,117)112,263(+18)
2021-05-12
3,880,345(+1,804)112,274(+11)
2021-05-13
3,882,574(+2,229)112,282(+8)
2021-05-14
3,884,402(+1,828)112,297(+15)
2021-05-15
3,886,016(+1,614)112,304(+7)
2021-05-16
3,887,487(+1,471)112,307(+3)
2021-05-17
3,889,132(+1,645)112,310(+3)
2021-05-18
3,886,364(-2,768 [lower-roman 6] )112,315(+5)
2021-05-19
3,887,954(+2,151 [lower-roman 7] )112,318(+3)
2021-05-20
3,890,081(+2,307 [lower-roman 8] )112,324(+6)
2021-05-21
3,892,258(+2,303 [lower-roman 9] )112,330(+6)
2021-05-22
3,894,329(+2,071)112,336(+6)
2021-05-23
3,895,920(+1,591)112,339(+3)
2021-05-24
3,897,815(+1,895)112,342(+3)
2021-05-25
3,899,813(+1,998)112,355(+13)
2021-05-26
3,902,160(+2,347)112,363(+8)
2021-05-27
3,904,934(+2,774)112,371(+8)
2021-05-28
3,908,214(+3,280)112,379(+8)
2021-05-29
3,910,803(+2,589)112,385(+6)
2021-05-30
3,913,295(+2,492)112,391(+6)
2021-05-31
3,916,049(+2,754)112,391(=)
2021-06-01
3,918,522(+2,473)112,391(=)
2021-06-02
3,921,939(+3,417)112,402(+11)
2021-06-03
3,926,154(+4,215)112,415(+13)
2021-06-04
3,931,158(+5,004)112,424(+9)
2021-06-05
3,935,854(+4,696)112,436(+12)
2021-06-06
3,940,141(+4,287)112,440(+4)
2021-06-07
3,944,955(+4,814)112,440(=)
2021-06-08
3,950,123(+5,168)112,443(+3)
2021-06-09
3,956,096(+5,973)112,458(+15)
2021-06-10
3,962,371(+6,275)112,463(+5)
2021-06-11
3,968,986(+6,615)112,479(+16)
2021-06-12
3,975,399(+6,413)112,489(+10)
2021-06-13
3,981,497(+6,098)112,496(+7)
2021-06-14
3,988,008(+6,511)112,499(+3)
2021-06-15
3,994,408(+6,400)112,507(+8)
2021-06-16
4,001,803(+7,395)112,515(+8)
2021-06-17
4,010,977(+9,174)112,530(+15)
2021-06-18
4,019,956(+8,979)112,539(+9)
2021-06-19
4,028,664(+8,708)112,551(+12)
2021-06-20
4,036,230(+7,566)112,557(+6)
2021-06-21
4,044,830(+8,600)112,562(+5)
2021-06-22
4,053,782(+8,952)112,585(+23)
2021-06-23
4,066,294(+12,512)112,598(+13)
2021-06-24
4,079,362(+13,068)112,614(+16)
2021-06-25
4,092,346(+12,984)112,629(+15)
2021-06-26
4,107,155(+14,809)112,649(+20)
2021-06-27
4,118,462(+11,307)112,658(+9)
2021-06-28
4,136,940(+18,478)112,661(+3)
2021-06-29
4,153,487(+16,547)112,683(+22)
2021-06-30
4,174,318(+20,831)112,694(+11)
2021-07-01
4,196,833(+22,515)112,710(+16)
2021-07-02
4,218,807(+21,974)112,732(+22)
2021-07-03
4,239,686(+20,879)112,747(+15)
2021-07-04
4,259,710(+20,024)112,762(+15)
2021-07-05
4,282,762(+23,052)112,769(+7)
2021-07-06
4,307,618(+24,856)112,799(+30)
2021-07-07
4,334,634(+27,016)112,827(+28)
2021-07-08
4,362,481(+27,847)112,858(+31)
2021-07-09
4,393,205(+30,724)112,880(+22)
2021-07-10
4,422,370(+29,165)112,906(+26)
2021-07-11
4,450,372(+28,002)112,931(+25)
2021-07-12
4,480,518(+30,146)112,937(+6)
2021-07-13
4,512,957(+32,439)112,982(+45)
2021-07-14
4,550,298(+37,341)113,018(+36)
2021-07-15
4,594,159(+43,861)113,062(+44)
2021-07-16
4,640,922(+46,763)113,104(+42)
2021-07-17
4,691,172(+50,250)113,139(+35)
2021-07-18
4,735,387(+44,215)113,160(+21)
2021-07-19
4,769,632(+34,245)113,175(+15)
2021-07-20
4,812,460(+42,828)113,257(+82)
2021-07-21
4,851,264(+38,804)113,320(+63)
2021-07-22
4,886,612(+35,348)113,378(+58)
2021-07-23
4,918,669(+32,057)113,434(+56)
2021-07-24
4,947,127(+28,458)113,508(+74)
2021-07-25
4,972,040(+24,913)113,534(+26)
2021-07-26
4,993,657(+21,617)113,546(+12)
2021-07-27
5,013,664(+20,007)113,667(+121)
2021-07-28
5,037,630(+23,966)113,740(+73)
2021-07-29
5,064,671(+27,041)113,807(+67)
2021-07-30
5,090,505(+25,834)113,862(+55)
2021-07-31
5,114,064(+23,559)113,916(+54)
2021-08-01
5,135,378(+21,314)113,968(+52)
2021-08-02
5,154,292(+18,914)113,985(+17)
2021-08-03
5,173,082(+18,790)114,108(+123)
2021-08-04
5,199,102(+26,020)114,209(+101)
2021-08-05
5,225,224(+26,122)114,278(+69)
2021-08-06
5,253,181(+27,957)114,359(+81)
2021-08-07
5,278,675(+25,494)114,447(+88)
2021-08-08
5,302,555(+23,880)114,482(+35)
2021-08-09
5,324,191(+21,636)114,508(+26)
2021-08-10
5,344,609(+20,418)114,640(+132)
2021-08-11
5,370,904(+26,295)114,731(+91)
2021-08-12
5,398,629(+27,725)114,812(+81)
2021-08-13
5,426,971(+28,342)114,898(+86)
2021-08-14
5,453,294(+26,323)114,981(+83)
2021-08-15
5,475,833(+22,539)115,035(+54)
2021-08-16
5,498,742(+22,909)115,055(+20)
2021-08-17
5,521,231(+22,489)115,209(+154)
2021-08-18
5,549,621(+28,390)115,295(+86)
2021-08-19
5,579,087(+29,466)115,390(+95)
2021-08-20
5,608,339(+29,252)115,482(+92)
2021-08-21
5,635,046(+26,707)115,579(+97)
2021-08-22
5,660,725(+25,679)115,612(+33)
2021-08-23
5,684,645(+23,920)115,641(+29)
2021-08-24
5,707,906(+23,261)115,793(+152)
2021-08-25
5,734,967(+27,061)115,928(+135)
2021-08-26
5,764,066(+29,099)116,049(+121)
2021-08-27
5,791,272(+27,206)116,135(+86)
2021-08-28
5,816,071(+24,799)116,254(+119)
2021-08-29
5,838,323(+22,252)116,303(+49)
2021-08-30
5,859,405(+21,082)116,345(+42)
2021-08-31
5,880,134(+20,729)116,381(+36)
2021-09-01
5,904,664(+24,530)116,565(+184)
2021-09-02
5,933,034(+28,370)116,709(+144)
2021-09-03
5,964,760(+31,726)116,805(+96)
2021-09-04
5,993,444(+28,684)116,907(+102)
2021-09-05
6,019,976(+26,532)116,965(+58)
2021-09-06
6,046,799(+26,823)116,993(+28)
2021-09-07
6,074,040(+27,241)117,176(+183)
2021-09-08
6,102,850(+28,810)117,334(+158)
2021-09-09
6,129,372(+26,522)117,472(+138)
2021-09-10
6,155,149(+25,777)117,586(+114)
2021-09-11
6,178,293(+23,144)117,729(+143)
2021-09-12
6,197,654(+19,361)117,771(+42)
2021-09-13
6,218,198(+20,544)117,803(+32)
2021-09-14
6,237,505(+19,307)117,955(+152)
2021-09-15
6,258,872(+21,367)118,106(+151)
2021-09-16
6,281,236(+22,364)118,229(+123)
2021-09-17
6,303,792(+22,556)118,359(+130)
2021-09-18
6,326,046(+22,254)118,490(+131)
2021-09-19
6,347,616(+21,570)118,524(+34)
2021-09-20
6,374,123(+26,507)118,551(+27)
2021-09-21
6,398,633(+24,510)118,725(+174)
2021-09-22
6,425,056(+26,423)118,846(+121)
2021-09-23
6,453,164(+28,108)118,977(+131)
2021-09-24
6,481,363(+28,199)119,097(+120)
2021-09-25
6,507,849(+26,486)119,201(+104)
2021-09-26
6,532,847(+24,998)119,238(+37)
2021-09-27
6,561,706(+28,859)119,261(+23)
2021-09-28
6,590,514(+28,808)119,402(+141)
2021-09-29
6,617,892(+27,378)119,513(+111)
2021-09-30
6,646,963(+29,071)119,600(+87)
2021-10-01
6,674,820(+27,857)119,680(+80)
2021-10-02
6,700,702(+25,882)119,783(+103)
2021-10-03
6,725,105(+24,403)119,813(+30)
2021-10-04
6,752,536(+27,431)119,826(+13)
2021-10-05
6,780,567(+28,031)119,966(+140)
2021-10-06
6,812,848(+32,281)120,065(+99)
2021-10-07
6,845,186(+32,338)120,136(+71)
2021-10-08
6,876,192(+31,006)120,245(+109)
2021-10-09
6,906,211(+30,019)120,356(+111)
2021-10-10
6,936,327(+30,116)120,390(+34)
2021-10-11
6,967,915(+31,588)120,405(+15)
2021-10-12
7,000,356(+32,441)120,552(+147)
2021-10-13
7,035,489(+35,133)120,653(+101)
2021-10-14
7,073,467(+37,978)120,763(+110)
2021-10-15
7,110,513(+37,046)120,857(+94)
2021-10-16
7,149,533(+39,020)120,980(+123)
2021-10-17
7,187,635(+38,102)121,021(+41)
2021-10-18
7,226,658(+39,023)121,043(+22)
2021-10-19
7,262,958(+36,300)121,232(+189)
2021-10-20
7,303,864(+40,906)121,366(+134)
Sources:
  • Cases - COVID-19 cases in England by date reported.
  • Deaths - COVID-19 deaths in England of people who have died within 28 days of a positive test by date reported.

Notes:

  1. Initially only pillar 1 tests (NHS and, in England, PHE labs) were included but commercial tests have been included, resulting in a step increase in the number of cases. The actual number of cases this day was 523, with the cumulative total increasing by 83,146.
  2. 1 2 Statement from Public Health England: "Due to a technical issue, which has now been resolved, there has been a delay in publishing a number of COVID-19 cases to the dashboard in England. This means the total reported over the coming days will include some additional cases from the period between 24 September and 1 October, increasing the number of cases reported."
  3. Daily counts of deaths in England rely on multiple data sources. On 13 March 2021 there was a delay in receiving this information from one of these sources. This might have a small impact on the total number of deaths reported on that date. This delay will be reflected on the numbers published on 14 March 2021.
  4. On 27 March 2021, 850 historic cases were removed from the dashboard. Due to a laboratory processing error these tests were reported as positive when they should have been recorded as void. The cumulative total number of people tested positive was revised down on 27 March 2021. On this day there were 3,813 new cases, with the cumulative total increasing by 2,963.
  5. The way cases are reported has changed. Cases that have been identified through a positive rapid lateral flow test will be removed for people who took Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests within 3 days that were all negative. Cases of this type that were previously reported were removed from the cumulative total. Newly reported numbers of cases for the UK and England were unaffected by the removal of these. Historic published date totals have not been changed. On this day there were 2,638 new cases, with the cumulative total decreasing by 5,372.
  6. The introduction of a new system disrupted the removal of cases where a positive rapid lateral flow test (LFD) was followed by all negative laboratory (PCR) tests taken within 3 days. Therefore 4,776 additional cases have been removed today. Regions and local authorities do not show the actual number of new cases reported. UK and England numbers of newly reported cases have been adjusted and correctly reflect new cases reported.
  7. The introduction of a new system disrupted the removal of cases where a positive rapid lateral flow test was followed by all negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests taken within 3 days, as reported on 18 May 2021. Therefore a further 561 cases have now been removed. Newly-reported cases for the UK and England were unaffected. Historical published date totals have not been changed.
  8. The introduction of a new system disrupted the removal of cases where a positive rapid lateral flow test (LFD) was followed by all negative laboratory (PCR) tests taken within 3 days, as reported earlier this week. Therefore a further 180 cases have been removed today. Regions and local authorities do not show the actual number of new cases reported. UK and England numbers of newly reported cases have been adjusted and correctly reflect new cases reported. This issue will be ongoing over the next few days.
  9. The way cases are reported in England has changed. Reported cases are sometimes removed if subsequent tests are negative. This happens when cases identified through a positive rapid lateral flow test are followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests within 3 days that are all negative. These cases are now being removed daily. Because of this, the number of newly-reported cases may not be the same as the difference between the total number of reported cases from one day to the next.

September 2019 – January 2020 : Suspected cases

In May 2020, the BBC reported that several members of a choir in Yorkshire had suffered COVID-19-like symptoms shortly after the partner of one of the choir members returned from a business trip to Wuhan, China, on 17 or 18 December. [7]

Earlier, in March 2020, it was reported that a 50-year-old man from East Sussex fell ill, also with COVID-19 symptoms, on 20 January after he returned from Ischgl in Austria, the resort was under investigation because it allegedly failed to report possible cases. Three members of his family, two friends from Denmark and one from Minnesota, US had same symptoms. [8] [9]

In June 2020 BBC reported it was found COVID-19 in UK had at least 1356 origins, mostly from Italy (late February), Spain (early-to-mid-March), and France (mid-to-late-March). [10] In the same month, it was reported that 53-year-old woman fell ill on 6 January, two days after returning from Obergurgl resort in Austria. [11]

In August 2020 the Kent coroner reportedly certified that the death of Peter Attwood (aged 84) on 30 January had been related to COVID-19 ('COVID-19 infection and bronchopneumonia', according to an email on 3 September, after COVID-19 was detected in his lung tissue), making him the first confirmed England and UK victim of the disease. He first showed symptoms on 15 December 2019. [12] Attwood had not travelled abroad. [13]

In November 2020 it was reported that a 66-year-old had experienced symptoms of COVID-19 shortly after returning from holiday in Italy in September 2019, and his 44-year-old daughter had experienced similar symptoms. Scientists had previously speculated about COVID-19 in Italy as early as September 2019. [14]

January 2020

On 31 January, two members of a family of Chinese nationals staying in a hotel in York, one of whom studied at the University of York, became the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the UK. Upon confirmation, they were transferred from Hull University Teaching Hospital to a specialist isolation facility, a designated High Consequence Infectious Diseases Unit in Newcastle upon Tyne's Royal Victoria Infirmary. [15] [16]

On the same day, an evacuation flight from Wuhan landed at RAF Brize Norton and the passengers, none of whom were showing symptoms, were taken to quarantine, in a staff residential block at Arrowe Park Hospital on the Wirral. [17] There had previously been contention over whether the government should assist the repatriation of UK passport holders from the most affected areas in China, or restrict travel from affected regions altogether. [18] [19] Some British nationals in Wuhan had been informed that they could be evacuated but any spouses or children with mainland Chinese passports could not. [20] This was later overturned, but the delay meant that some people missed the flight. [17] [21]

February 2020

On 6 February, a third confirmed case, a man who had recently travelled to Singapore prior to visiting a ski resort in the Haute-Savoie, France, was reported in Brighton. He had been the source of infection to six of his relatives during a stay in France, before returning to the UK on 28 January. [22] [23] Following confirmation of his result, the UK's CMOs expanded the number of countries where a history of previous travel associated with flu-like symptoms – such as fever, cough and difficulty breathing – in the previous 14 days would require self-isolation and calling NHS 111. These countries included China, Hong Kong, Japan, Macau, Malaysia, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. [24]

On 10 February, the total number of cases in the UK reached eight as four further cases were confirmed in people linked to the affected man from Brighton. [25] [26] Globally, the virus had spread to 28 countries. [27] On the morning of 10 February, the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, Matt Hancock, announced the Health Protection (Coronavirus) Regulations 2020, to give public health professionals "strengthened powers" to keep affected people and those believed to be a possible risk of having the virus, in isolation. [27] That day, the Arrowe Park Hospital, Merseyside, and the Kents Hill Park hotel and conference centre, Milton Keynes became designated isolation units. [28] [27] The following day, two of the eight confirmed cases in the UK were reported by BBC News to be general practitioners. [25] A ninth case was confirmed in London on 11 February. [29]

March 2020

Lockdown in Manchester
The effects of panic buying in a Morrisons supermarket in Wetherby, West Yorkshire Depleted lavatory rolls during the 2020 Coronavirus outbreak, Morrisons, Wetherby (20th March 2020).jpg
The effects of panic buying in a Morrisons supermarket in Wetherby, West Yorkshire
Grounded aircraft at Leeds Bradford Airport in April 2020 Leeds Bradford Airport April 2020.jpg
Grounded aircraft at Leeds Bradford Airport in April 2020

On 1 March, further cases were reported in Greater Manchester, some of them believed to be contacts of the case in Surrey who had no history of travel abroad. [30] [31]

On 2 March, four further people in England tested positive. All had recently travelled from Italy; they were from Hertfordshire, Devon and Kent. [28] The total number of UK cases was reported as having reached 40, though this was revised to 39 after additional testing. [32] The following day, when the number of confirmed cases in the UK stood at 51, the UK government unveiled their Coronavirus Action Plan, which outlined what the UK had done already and what it planned to do next. [28]

On 2 March, the first coronavirus death occurred in a care home, but at that time care home data were not yet published. [33]

On 3 March, the first three hospital deaths were reported in Nottingham, Essex, and Buckinghamshire. [33]

On 15 March, the COVID-19 Hospitalisation in England Surveillance System (CHESS) was initiated across all NHS Trusts.

On 17 March, NHS England announced that all non-urgent operations would be postponed from 15 April to free up 30,000 beds. [34] Additionally, many patients were discharged into care homes, initially this thought to have caused significant infections, and as a result deaths in care homes, however it is now believed that community infections were responsible for the infections. [35] Also on 17 March, Chancellor Rishi Sunak announced that £330bn would be made available in loan guarantees for businesses affected by the pandemic. [36]

By 18 March, over 1,000 patients were in hospital with COVID-19. This number rapidly grew and by 31 March exceeded 11,000. [37] Admissions to hospital grew from less than 700 a day on 20 March to more than 2,400 a day by 31 March. [37]

By 20 March, genome sequencing had identified ten viral lineages of COVID-19 in England (A, B, B1, B10, B10.2, B11, B12.1, B5, B8, B9). The research, which was at an early stage, concluded that the data were consistent with a large number of independent introductions into the UK, from places around the world, particularly Italy and other European countries. It was very likely that the true number of independent introductions was substantially higher. [38]

By 31 March, England was the worst affected country in the United Kingdom with over 21,000 confirmed infections; [39] In March there were around 4,500 deaths in hospital [37] but more than 6,700 patients who had recovered were discharged.

ONS data for England and Wales suggests that by 31 March, England had seen over 200 COVID-19 deaths in care homes and more than 200 deaths at home. [40]

April 2020

A closed public house offering a takeaway service Abbey Inn April 2020.jpg
A closed public house offering a takeaway service

On 2 April the maximum number of hospital admissions in a day during the first wave was reached (around 3,000 patients); [37] the number of daily hospital deaths was now more than 600. [41]

On 12 April the number of patients in hospital, for the first wave, peaked at 18,974 and the number of daily admissions due to COVID-19 had reduced to less than 1,900; more than 700 hospital deaths were recorded. [37]

Up to 24 April, ONS death registrations for England and Wales showed 19,643 had occurred in hospital, 5,890 in care homes, 1,306 in private homes and 301 in hospices. [40] Of these deaths, 1,149 occurred in Wales.

On 29 April the method of reporting deaths in England was changed. [42] Data from three sources are now cross checked against the list of people who have had a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by a Public Health England or NHS laboratory. The three sources are: [42]

  1. data supplied to NHS England by the Hospital Trusts,
  2. data from Public Health England Health Protection teams (mainly deaths not in hospitals),
  3. Information obtained by linking the Second Generation Surveillance System (SGSS) to the NHS Demographic Batch Service.

After checking, the records are merged into one database and duplicates removed so there is no double counting.

The new method of counting deaths results in higher numbers than the previous method. On 29 April the total of deaths reported by NHS England was 21,400. [41] The new method identified 23,550 deaths of people who had a positive test result confirmed by a PHE or NHS laboratory.[ citation needed ]

The number of patients with COVID-19 in hospital steadily reduced until on 30 April it was around 12,900; [37] at least 54,100 patients were admitted to hospital in April with COVID-19. [37] The total number of deaths in hospital during April from COVID-19 exceeded 17,500; [41] this data suggest that there were around 36,000 patient who had the disease were discharged in April.

May 2020

By 3 May, daily admissions to hospital had further reduced to around 1000, while discharges continued to exceed admissions and thus the number of people in hospital was now around 10,500. [37]

An app for the adult social care workforce in England was launched on 6 May to support workers during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Care Workforce app was developed by NHSX and the NHS Business Services Authority. [43] The GMB union told members not to use the app, saying that managers could identify staff who had complained about pay, testing and personal protective equipment through a chat feature. [44]

On 12 May the number of people in hospital fell below 10,000 and the total number of deaths in hospital since 1 March had grown to at least 24,500. [41]

On 11 May the COVID Alert Levels were published by the Government [45] and many restrictions in England were eased; people who were unable to work from home were encouraged to return to work, but where possible avoid public transport. [46]

By 21 May the number of hospital patients was below 8,000 and daily admissions were around 700. [37]

On 21 May the lockdown rules were amended in England to allow people to meet one other person from another household, outdoors, but to remain 2 m (6 ft) apart. Outdoor sports such as golf or tennis were allowed with members of your household or with one other person from another household, while maintaining social distancing. Households were allowed to drive any distance in England to destinations such as parks and beaches but not to Wales or Scotland. [47]

On 27 May, Matt Hancock announced NHS Test and Trace would begin operations the following day. [48]

The number of patients in hospital with COVID-19 continued to reduce and on 31 May was around 5,900. [37] During the month at least 22,400 patients were admitted to hospital with COVID-19, [37] the number of hospital deaths was around 5,200 [41] and around 23,900 patients were discharged. [37]

June 2020

Leicester: the first 'local lockdown' Leicester coronavirus alert warning, Granby street.jpg
Leicester: the first 'local lockdown'

A study published on 8 June which included genome sequencing data [49] concluded that in mid to late February travel from Italy resulted in the majority of importations. By 1 March this had changed to Spain and by mid-March it changed again to France; because of the travel restrictions imposed, importations after mid April were at very low levels. It was estimated that around half of the importations were by UK nationals returning to the UK. In the period up to 3 May, approximately 34% of detected UK transmission lineages arrived via travel from Spain, 29% from France, 14% from Italy and 23% from other countries. Less than 0.1% were from China.

By 15 June the number of people in hospital had fallen steadily to around 3,900 and daily admissions were down to around 360, [37] but each day there were still around 50 deaths reported. [41]

On 30 June the government imposed the first local lockdown in the UK after 10% of all positive cases in the UK over the past week were found in Leicester. Non-essential shops in the city had to close, and the public houses and restaurants hoping to reopen on 4 July had to delay opening for at least two weeks; schools would also be shut for most pupils. [50]

By 30 June daily COVID-19 hospital admissions were fewer than 200 [37] and COVID-19 daily deaths in hospital were around 30; [41] the total number in hospital with COVID-19 was fewer than 2,700. [37]

July 2020

On Friday 24 July 2020 new regulations made it compulsory to wear face coverings in most indoor shops, shopping centres, banks, post offices and public transport hubs. Those breaking the rules could be fined up to £100. Face coverings remained optional in other indoor public places including museums, cinemas and hairdressers. Excluded from the regulations were venues where wearing a mask might be 'impractical', such as restaurants and gyms. Exemptions were available for children under 11, individuals with physical or mental illness or disability, and for anyone to whom it would cause significant distress. [51]

On 24 July it was reported that, as a result of the pandemic and job losses, almost 1,000 people applied to a restaurant in Manchester advertising a vacancy for a receptionist. [52]

Indoor gyms and pools started to re-open on 25 July. [53]

During July the total number of COVID-19 hospital admissions fell to around 3,050, [37] the number of deaths in hospital from COVID-19 fell to around 480, [41] and around 4,200 patients with the disease were discharged from hospitals. [37]

August 2020

August saw the fewest monthly hospital admissions (1,600) since the start of the pandemic [37] and hospital deaths (208); [41] the number of patients in hospital on 31 August was under 500. [37] Throughout August the daily hospital death rate was essentially in single digits. [41]

The rules aimed at stopping the spread of the virus were eased on 15 August: casinos, bowling alleys and conference halls were among a range of venues allowed to reopen across much of England. Also permitted were indoor performances with socially distanced live audiences (including in theatres and sports stadiums), wedding receptions for up to 30 people, skating rinks and beauticians as long as they had measures in place to reduce COVID-19 transmission. Beauticians, tattooists, spas and tanning salons could offer additional services, including front-of-face treatments such as eyebrow threading. [54]

September 2020

On 2 September the minimum number of hospital patients since the start of the pandemic was recorded (451); hospital admissions were around 60 a day at the start of the month. [37] Until 12 September, the number of deaths in hospital was essentially in single digits but thereafter rose until it was around 40 a day by the end of the month. [41]

On 8 September, following a rise in case numbers, the government published new social distancing rules to come into effect in England from 14 September. These restricted gatherings of separate households to groups of six or few people (the so-called "rule of six"), excluding work or educational settings. [55] By 18 September, the COVID Symptom Study estimated the value in England to be 1.4, meaning that cases were doubling every seven days. [56]

Hospital admissions in September were around 5,900. [37] There were around 560 deaths in hospital [41] and more than 3,750 discharges of patients who had caught COVID-19. [37]

October 2020

Between July and September 2020, ever more extensive and increasingly rigorous ad hoc local regulations were introduced, which in many areas proved unsuccessful in controlling the spread of the virus. [57] In England, all of these local regulations were swept away on 14 October, and replaced by new tier regulations with three levels of restrictions.

The easing of restrictions and emergence of a second more infectious variant of COVID-19 [58] resulted in a second wave of the virus becoming well established. Hospital admissions rose from less than 6,000 in September to over 25,000 in October. [37] Almost 3,500 people who had tested positive for COVID-19 in the previous 28 days died in hospital [41] from COVID-19 but more than 14,700 patients were discharged.

November 2020

After further forecasts predicting unsustainable pressure on the healthcare system, new uniform national restrictions were put in place from 5 November to at least 2 December. [59] On 8 November, 1 million cases had been confirmed in England.

Despite these tighter regulations, the number of hospital admissions during November was more than 41,200; deaths in hospital of patients who had tested positive for COVID-19 in the previous 28 days was around 8,300 [41] with 29,000 patient discharges. [37] On 30 November there were 13,700 people in hospital. [37] It is now known that, in London, the new variant of COVID-19 accounted for around 25% of the cases. [58]

December 2020

From 2 December, the national restrictions were replaced by a second version of tier regulations, again with three levels; 57% of the population was placed in Tier 2 and 42% in the strictest Tier 3. [60] The government also announced that, from 23 December to 27 December, a 'Christmas bubble' would be permitted, [61] allowing people from up to three households to meet in private homes and/or gardens, and travel between tiers for the purpose of meeting others in the same bubble. [62]

After the existence of the new variant – referred to as Variant of Concern 202012/01 – was announced [63] the government issued new public health guidance and were expected to impose transit restrictions. [64] By mid-December around two-thirds of the cases reported in London were the new variant. [58] On 19 December it was announced that a new "tier four" measure would be applied to Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Kent, London and parts of Cambridgeshire, East Sussex, Essex and Surrey, and Christmas season relaxation would be limited to only Christmas Day. [65] [66]

These attempts at controlling the second wave had limited success: the total number of hospital admissions rose again during December to more than 58,600, and deaths in hospital of patients who had tested positive for COVID-19 in the previous 28 days approached 10,600. [41] Although almost 39,000 patients were discharged there were still more than 22,700 people in hospital on 31 December. [37]

January 2021

On 1 January, the government announced that all primary schools in London would remain closed. [67] This caused uproar from many headmasters and teaching staff in other areas.[ citation needed ] On 4 January the majority of primary schools opened. That evening, Boris Johnson made a televised address to the nation, announcing a third lockdown in England. The rules were similar to the first lockdown in March 2020 and schools would close for most pupils on 5 January. In view of the increase of hospitalized cases, the government's slogan was changed back to "Stay Home, Protect the NHS, Save Lives." [68] On 25 January, Boris Johnson said the government would give an update on when schools can reopen in England as soon as they could. [69] On the same day, the Health Secretary Matt Hancock said there were early signs that the current restrictions are working, but it was not a moment to ease them. [70]

The peak of hospital admissions occurred on 12 January at 4,134 patients; the peak number of people in hospital occurred almost a week later on 18 January at 34,336, this is over 80% higher than that recorded in the first wave of the pandemic. [37] In January, the total number of patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospital exceeded 100,000, more than 22,000 patients who had tested positive for COVID-19 in the previous 28 days died but there were over 73,200 discharges.

On 30 January 2021, a group of asylum seekers set light to a barracks building at Napier Barracks, where they had been housed temporarily pending resolution of their cases. The asylum seekers were beset by COVID-19 at the rate of one person in four. Coventry South MP Zarah Sultana called on the government to "provide good, safe and liveable housing instead". [71]

February 2021

On 1 February, door to door testing was announced to identify cases of the South African variant. There would be around 80,000 tests across 8 different areas of the country where the 11 cases were found that had no travel history. [72] The cumulative total of deaths had surpassed 100,000 by 9 February. On 22 February, Boris Johnson announced the roadmap out of lockdown starting on 8 March with schools and colleges reopening and the lockdown ending on 21 June with nearly all restrictions being lifted. [73]

By the end of February, daily cases were as low as they were during September 2020, with 5,080 cases being reported in England on 28 February. [74]

In February, more than 35,800 people were admitted to hospital with COVID-19, around 9,400 patients who had tested positive for COVID-19 in the previous 28 days died but more than 44,200 patients recovered and were discharged.

March 2021

On 3 March, there were fewer than 10,000 patients in hospitals for the first time since 1 November 2020. [75] Students returned to face-to-face education in schools and colleges on 8 March, with rapid testing being carried out in secondary schools. [76] By 13 March, over 20 million people had received their first dose of vaccinations, as well as over 1 million people having received their second dose. [77] There had been a surge of infections in many countries of Europe, however the current roadmap out of England's lockdown would still go as planned. [78] On March 29, the next phase of easing the lockdown took place, with people being able to meet up in groups of 6 or 2 households outdoors, and outdoor sporting facilities could reopen. [79] Cases began to drop towards the end of March, with less than 3,000 people getting infected a day. [80]

In March, just over 11,400 were admitted to hospital, around 2,090 people who had tested positive for COVID-19 in the previous 28 days died in hospital and more than 17,000 people were discharged.

April 2021

On 5 April, Boris Johnson announced the next phase of the lockdown easing would go as planned, with pubs and non-essential shops reopening from 12 April. [81] Over 10 million people had been fully vaccinated by 23 April with the cumulative total of second doses exceeding 10 million. [82] On 18 April a one-day "trial" festival at Sefton Park, Liverpool on 2 May that year was announced, to be headlined by band Blossoms. The festival was notable as it was to be the first festival in the UK for fourteen months with no social distancing or face masks following the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. [83] [84]

In April, just over 4,000 people with COVID-19 had been admitted to hospital; around 450 patients who had tested positive for COVID-19 in the previous 28 days died but over 5,400 people were discharged. The number of people in hospital with COVID-19 on 30 April was 1,161 and daily admissions from the disease had dropped to around 80. [37]

The effectiveness of the vaccine is beginning to become apparent as ONS data shows that as a percentage of all deaths from COVID-19 those in care homes has reduced from around 20% a week at its peak to less than 15% in April.

May 2021

On 6 May, there were fewer than 1,000 patients with COVID-19 in hospital; the last time this had happened was mid-September 2020. [85] On 20 May the number of COVID-19 patients in hospital was 749, the last time this level had occurred was mid-September 2020. Cases began to rise towards the end of May, mostly in the North West. This was due to the spread of the Delta (Indian) variant. [86]

Just over 2,600 people were admitted to hospital in May, there were 170 deaths in hospital of people who had tested positive for COVID-19 in the previous 28 days; more than 2,700 patients recovered from the virus and were discharged. [37]

June 2021

At the beginning of June the Delta variant had become the dominant strain in England, the increased transmission rate associated with it had resulted in a small increase in daily admissions and the number of people in hospital was now around 800. On 14 June it was announced that the final step of easing the lockdown on 21 June would be delayed for 4 weeks until 19 July. [87] Government research found a 50% increase in infections from 3 May to 7 June, and an increase in the Delta variant, which became dominant in the UK. The rise in infections is, however, strongest among younger, unvaccinated patients. Older, vaccinated people are less at risk. A third wave of infections had began in June, and around 110,000 swab tests carried out in England from 20 May to 7 June appeared to show COVID-19 cases were doubling every 11 days. The disease was most common in the north-west and one person in 670 was infected. [88]

COVID-19 hospital admissions in June were slightly higher than May at around 405,700 and the number of people in hospital with COVID-19 at the end of June was almost double that for the end of May at 1,560; there were 247 hospital deaths in June of people who had tested positive for COVID-19 in the previous 28 days. [37] Over 4,100 COVID-19 patients were discharged in June. [37]

July 2021

In July, cases began to rise rapidly. On 19 July, the 4 week delayed "Freedom Day" took place. Social distancing and mask wearing became optional, and night clubs were allowed to re-open, however self isolation was still mandatory if you came in contact with a positive case. [89] The total number of infections in England surpassed 5 million on 27 July. Despite the rise in cases, deaths and hospitalisations had been lower compared to the previous waves before due to the vaccination programme. [90] Cases began to fall after 17 July when 50,955 cases were reported, however scientists believed that it was too early to say if infection rates had dropped. [91]

Over 19,000 people were admitted to hospital with COVID-19 in July, more than 1,140 people died in hospital from COVID-19 but there almost 14,500 patients had been discharged after recovering. [37]

ONS data now shows that as a percentage of all deaths from COVID-19 those in care homes has fallen from around 20% at its peak to around 10%.

August 2021

In mid August self isolation rules had changed. From 16 August if you had been in contact with a positive COVID-19 case, you would no longer need to self isolate if you had been fully vaccinated or were under the age of 18. [92] With more social and household mixing there has been an inevitable rise in hospital admissions to more than 23,000; the number of people dying in hospital from coronavirus was almost double that of July at 2,100. August saw more than 19,800 hospital discharges. Perhaps more worrying is the continued rise in excess deaths with over 2,000 in August due to other causes.

September 2021

During September, the number of people in hospital has continued to rise and the weekly number of excess deaths from other causes has increased to around 600. Hospital deaths from coronavirus during September was around 2500 and there were almost 18,500 discharges.

In September, the government issued its COVID-19 winter plan. This included increasing vaccination among younger people, offering vaccines to all people over 12 years old, rolling out a booster jab programme for vulnerable groups, and increasing the rollout of the flu vaccine. [93]

The government issued the "Plan B" backup plan for COVID-19 at this time, which includes the mandatory wearing of facemasks, work-from-home orders, and vaccine passports for entrance to large events. [93] No single event or set of figures would trigger the plan, but scientific advisers to the government are monitoring factors such as hospitalisations, increases or rapid rates of change in COVID-19 figures, as well as the overall capacity of the NHS to cope. [94] If implemented, Plan B would bring England in line with restrictions in the other countries of the UK. [94]

October 2021

The NHS Confederation and the British Medical Association have urged the government to implement "Plan B" for COVID-19 in the winter due to a backlog of 5 million patients. [95] [96] However, the government has made it clear that there are currently no plans to move to Plan B. [97] The number of people in hospital at the end of October was around 50% greater than at the end of September, the number of deaths in hospital was around 2,500 and there were around 18,000 discharges.

November 2021

On 24 November it was announced that a new variant of COVID-19 (B.1.1.529) had been detected in South Africa, see SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Early evidence suggests it has a higher reinfection risk. [98] The first confirmed infection was in samples collected on 8 November. The variant has a large number of mutations, some of which the WHO Technical Advisory Group on SARS-CoV-2 Virus Evolution (TAG-VE) consider concerning. It has been designated a variant of concern and named Omicron.

On 27 November the government confirmed that two cases of the Omicron variant had been detected in Brentwood, Essex, and Nottingham; these cases were linked and connected to travel in southern Africa. [99] To slow the spread of this variant the government announced that face coverings will once again become mandatory in shops and on public transport in England. PCR tests for everyone entering the UK will be re-introduced and all contacts of new variant cases will have to self-isolate, even if fully vaccinated. Ten countries - South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Lesotho, Eswatini, Angola, Mozambique, Malawi and Zambia - are now on the UK's travel red list, meaning that from Sunday 28 November at 04:00 GMT all arrivals will have to quarantine in a hotel for ten days.

Hospital death statistics

Statistics for deaths in hospital up to 30 December 2020 showed that those with a pre-existing condition – especially diabetes, chromic kidney disease, dementia or ischemic heart disease but also asthma, chronic neurological or pulmonary disease – were around twenty-three times more likely to die than those who did not have one. Age and sex also influenced the risk of death, with men between 60 and 79 showing a death rate almost double that of women. Men over 80 were over 30% more likely to die than women in the same age group. The percentages in each category showed only small changes through the year. [100]

Deaths by age range, presence of pre-condition and sex
Age rangePre-conditionNo known
pre-condition
FemaleMale
0–19 years0.04%0.01%0.02%0.03%
20–39 years0.54%0.09%0.27%0.36%
40–59 years6.06%0.68%2.42%4.33%
60–79 years36.09%1.70%13.38%24.53%
80+ years53.04%1.63%23.67%30.99%

ONS data

Registered deaths

The Office of National Statistics publishes data on weekly deaths in England and Wales, which include information on deaths from COVID-19. [101] These data give the number of deaths registered in England during a seven-day period; the total number of deaths will be greater as there is normally a delay between the date death occurred and the date it is registered.

2020

Up to and including the week ending 6 March 2020, the number of deaths in England was on average 442 fewer each week than the five-year average (2015–2019). The number of deaths above the average is generally referred to as 'excess' deaths, in both 2020 and 2012 the data were influenced by many factors including the lockdowns, social distancing, mask wearing, reduced elective surgery and less medical diagnosis and care. This resulted in very few deaths from influenza, slightly less from road traffic accident but more because people did not seek or were unable to get healthcare.

The total number of excess deaths in England for the whole of 2020, based on the 5 year average for 2015–2019, was 71,677 but if the starting point of the pandemic is taken as 6 March, the total number of excess deaths would be more than 76,000. A recent BMJ paper based on a 4-year average (2016–2019) reported a value of 85,400 (83,900 to 86,800 (95% confidence intervals)) excess deaths for England and Wales in 2020; on a pro rata basis this would give a value of around 79,800 for England. [102]

The registration data were affected by closure of the registry offices over bank holidays, Christmas and the New Year. In addition, 2020 was a 53-week year. [101]

Registered Deaths in England 2 March 2020 – 1 January 2021 [101]
Week EndingAll Recorded DeathsCOVID-19 Deaths5 Year AverageTotal Excess DeathsWeek EndingAll Recorded DeathsCOVID-19 Deaths5 Year AverageTotal Excess Deaths
6 March10,225007 August8,3651288,50255,569
13 March10,317510,447-13014 August8,7671258,49455,842
20 March9,9031009,841-6821 August9,0211268,56056,303
27 March10,4125159,41493028 August8,425977,67457,054
3 April15,4433,3309,6016,7724 September7,232748,60455,682
10 April17,5635,8999,80714,52811 September9,215978,70856,189
17 April21,1578,3359,78725,89818 September8,9551348,66356,481
24 April20,8417,8069,76836,97125 September9,0052038,74456,742
1 May17,0045,7489,28944,6862 October9,2572968,94257,057
8 May11,9463,7168,93747,6959 October9,3084019,16857,197
15 May13,7833,6249,52651,95216 October9,8336229,21557,815
22 May11,5862,4559,29954,23923 October10,0709139,10458,781
29 May9,2281,7157,60755,86030 October10,1661,2589,24859,699
5 June9,9951,4889,34656,5096 November10,9621,7719,67560,986
12 June9,3911,0578,80357,09713 November11,4952,2749,66262,819
19 June8,7167448,81057,00320 November11,6752,4719,70164,793
26 June8,4145748,69556,72227 November11,6452,8209,69066,748
3 July8,5424978,60656,6584 December11,4502,6239,99568,203
10 July8,1033448,64856,11311 December11,4602,53010,03469,629
17 July8,2622848,50255,87318 December12,1132,72910,80470,938
24 July8,3172098,45255,73825 December10,6802,6317,42174,197
31 July8,4041838,43655,7061 January9,3252,8317,42176,101

2021

For the first nine weeks of 2021 the total number of excess deaths in 2021 continued to increase, then from 12 March it started to reduce, this in likely to be in part is because some of the people who died prematurely from COVID-19 would have succumbed to something else at a slightly later date. At the beginning of July the number of excess deaths started to rise again, many of these deths are not attributed to COVID-19 which suggests delays in obtaining diagnosis and subsequent treatment in 2020 and 2021 has starting to influence the data. The data are affected by a number of public holidays; 2 and 9 April – Good Friday and Easter Monday Bank Holiday, 7 May – Spring Bank Holiday, 30 August – Summer Bank Holiday. [103]

Registered Deaths in England from 2 January 2021 [104]
Week EndingAll Recorded DeathsCOVID-19 Deaths5 Year AverageTotal Excess DeathsWeek EndingAll Recorded DeathsCOVID-19 Deaths5 Year AverageTotal Excess Deaths
8 January16,5275,59711,4125,1159 July9,0921768,60624,068
15 January16,8456,76712,9938,96716 July9,1202138,64824,540
22 January17,5677,95612,37014,16423 July9,0923088,50225,130
29 January17,4458,06311,93319,67630 July9,4813898,45226,159
5 February16,9906,99011,41925,2476 August9,5375028,43627,259
12 February14,5725,46411,15428,66513 August9,7055508,50228,462
19 February12,9953,89110,86730,79320 August9,4015518,49429,369
26 February11,8842,77210,79031,88727 August9,6306498,56030,439
5 March10,8821,99410,44832,3213 September8,3246327,67431,089
12 March10,2771,42810,74531,85310 September10,3527868,60432,837
19 March9,67391210,44731,07917 September10,3227838,70834,451
26 March9,3816879,84130,61924 September9,9577998,66335,745
2 April7,7063859,41428,9111 October9,8337158,74436,834
9 April8,5123609,60127,8228 October10,0645828,94237,956
16 April9,7823469,80727,79715 October10,4386409,16839,226
23 April9,3122449,78727,32222 October10,5777089,21540,588
30 April9,0941989,76826,64829 October10,2727779,10441,758
7 May7,4121249,28924,7715 November10,7288929,24843,236
14 May9,5121458,93725,34612 November11,3059439,67544,866
21 May9,2441009,52625,06419 November ? ?9,662 ?
28 May9,006929,29924,77126 November ? ?9,701 ?
4 June7,302967,60724,4663 December ? ?9,690 ?
11 June9,554839,34624,67410 December ? ?9,995 ?
18 June8,8741028,80324,74517 December ? ?10,034 ?
25 June8,115978,81024,05024 December ? ?10,804 ?
2 July8,2271068,69523,58231 December ? ?7,421 ?

Deaths by place of occurrence

13 March – 4 September 2020

The ONS data includes information on deaths by place of occurrence. During the first wave of infections, the majority of deaths were in hospital (63%) but deaths in care homes was also high (30%). The percentage of deaths in each setting remained essentially constant from mid June to early September.

Deaths by Place of Occurrence [104]
Week EndingHomeHospitalHospiceCare HomeOther communalElsewhereTotal
13 March5-5
20 March1972100
27 March144802181515
3 April1112,985291873153,330
10 April3094,7275176817275,899
17 April3985,8311031,92934408,335
24 April4024,5641072,66940247,806
1 May2363,043842,32936205,748
8 May1481,859751,59022223,716
15 May1411,800571,5922593,624
22 May1011,238581,046662,455
29 May6594227670651,715
5 June7484126536921,488
12 June4762220360531,057
19 June49431202422744
26 June2835671812574
3 July332821416323497
10 July3421078913344
17 July2815769111284
24 July2410966721209
31 July141204441183
7 August1185329128
14 August10714391125
21 August136743912126
28 August963123197
4 September648217174
Total2,30631,03371714,72021119149,178
Percentage4.763.11.529.90.40.4100.0

11 September 2020 – 1 January 2021

During the second wave there was a significant increase in the percentage of deaths in hospital, and a corresponding decrease in care-home deaths.

Deaths by Place of Occurrence [101]
Week EndingHomeHospitalHospiceCare HomeOther communalElsewhereTotal
11 September76227197
18 September894230134
25 September101523371203
2 October182301461296
9 October253103612401
16 October29482610122622
23 October44714714323913
30 October751,00411159451,258
6 November77141516257511,771
13 November1141,73728389152,274
20 November1361,87735409862,471
27 November1792,0683851112122,820
4 December1151,96036500752,623
11 December1121,87935488792,530
18 December1381,975385641042,729
25 December1121,97836492852,631
1 January1392,112455181072,831
Total1,33820,0493404,732786726,604
Percentage5.075.41.317.80.30.3100.0

2 January 2021 – present

Deaths by Place of Occurrence 2021 [104]
Week EndingHomeHospitalHospiceCare HomeOther communalElsewhereTotal
8 January2694,3197389320235,597
15 January4025,0341041,18318266,767
22 January4935,5801391,68827297,956
29 January4985,5091211,87824338,063
5 February4594,6901411,66020206,990
12 February4103,805861,13212195,464
19 February2672,7687775314123,891
26 February2291,970654881372,772
5 March1901,37947367651,994
5 March1901,37947367651,994
12 March1321,01329242571,428
19 March916511914146912
26 March684691812237687
2 April46248117523385
9 April4824266211360
16 April6221965504346
23 April3615464503244
30 April3612812805198
7 May228411313124
14 May279032401145
21 May185822002100
28 May22571101192
4 June1964192196
11 June9601121083
18 June137111511102
25 June1869180197
2 July10832901106
9 July2113312001176
16 July2116252203213
23 July2225872100308
30 July3431443601389
6 August38416731010503
13 August5744924110550
20 August4446842915551
27 August5151647107551
3 September3852675902632
10 September49647107622786
17 September7362257823783
24 September6665826832799
1 October7656866401715
8 October61450105614582
15 October3851837902640
22 October6156247821708
29 October5662698024777
05 November6574087513892
12 November96763106806943
Total5,05149,5901,11712,35119628468,589
Percentage7.472.31.618.00.30.4100.0

COVID-19 deaths by age in 2020

ONS Data are only available for England and Wales; the differences in the percentage of all deaths with age between the two waves of the pandemic were small. Almost three-quarters of the deaths occurred in those over 75 years (around 11% of the population) while those aged between 70 and 75 accounted for a further 9% of the deaths. Some differences were observed between the genders, with a generally higher percentage of deaths for men; the exception was those over 75, but this reflects the greater number of older women in the population. [101]

2020 Registered COVID-19 Deaths in England and Wales by Age Range [101]
Age range (years)All (%)Male (%)Female (%)
0–390.50.60.5
40–440.50.50.4
45–490.91.00.7
50–541.61.81.3
55–592.73.22.1
60–644.04.83.1
65–695.76.74.4
70–749.411.07.6
75+74.770.579.9

Vaccination programme

A programme of mass vaccinations began on 8 December 2020, with priority given to the elderly, their carers and frontline health and social care workers. [105]

Although there is a lag between catching the disease and mortality, the ONS data provides a way of identifying the effectiveness of the vaccination programme; only combined date for England and Wales are available. In December 2020, around 75% of deaths registered in England and Wales where COVID-19 was mentioned on the death certificate were in the 75+ age group, following the vaccination program by the end of March this had fallen to 63%. [101] [104] By the end of March 2021, around 50% of the population had received at least one dose of the vaccination and as a result the total number of registered deaths from COVID-19 had fallen from a maximum of more than 8,000/week to less than 700/week.

An alternative source that confirms the effectiveness of the vaccination program in England is the deaths in hospital data released daily by NHS. The caveat when considering this information is that around 30% of all deaths from Covid are not in hospitals and the majority of these deaths are people who are likely to be 80+ years old. In the period 1 January to 26 March 2021 there was a significant and continuous decrease in the weekly number of hospital deaths being recorded in the 80+ age group from 58.4% to 49.2%.

In June 2021 it was calculated that general practice had delivered 27.3 million out of 41.1 million covid-19 vaccinations in England at that point, with better response rates than the “mass” centres. This was considerably more than expected. [106]

Regulations and legislation

Restaurant in London offering home deliveries after dining-in was banned. March 2020. Restaurant in London offering home deliveries during the Coronavirus pandemic March 2020.jpg
Restaurant in London offering home deliveries after dining-in was banned. March 2020.

The government published the Health Protection (Coronavirus) Regulations 2020 on 10 February 2020, a statutory instrument covering the legal framework behind the government's initial containment and isolation strategies and its organisation of the national reaction to the virus for England. [107] Other published regulations include changes to Statutory Sick Pay (into force on 13 March), [108] and changes to Employment and Support Allowance and Universal Credit (also 13 March). [109]

On 19 March, the government introduced the Coronavirus Act 2020, which grants the government discretionary emergency powers in the areas of the NHS, social care, schools, police, the Border Force, local councils, funerals and courts. [110] The act received royal assent on 25 March 2020. [111] Closures to pubs, restaurants and indoor sports and leisure facilities were imposed via The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Business Closure) (England) Regulations 2020 (SI 327). [112]

On 23 March the Government announced a number of restrictions on movement some of which were later enacted into law, [113] these included:

  1. Shopping for basic necessities, as infrequently as possible;
  2. One form of exercise a day – for example a run, walk, or cycle – alone or with members of your household (was not enacted in law);
  3. Any medical need, to provide care or to help a vulnerable person;
  4. Travelling to and from work, but only where this is absolutely necessary and cannot be done from home.

The full regulations are detailed in:

Local lockdown regulations

In England, up until 14 October 2020 most of the COVID-19 lockdown regulations covered the whole country, but some local areas of particular concern are or have been subject to more restrictive rules at various times, namely Leicester, Luton, Blackburn with Darwen, Bradford, Tameside, Bury, Manchester, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, Stockport, Trafford, Wigan, Pendle, Hyndburn, Burnley, Calderdale and Kirklees. In most cases, the effect of the local regulations had been to slow down the gradual easing of the lockdown regulations which applied to the rest of the country.

Tier regulations

In England the local lockdown regulations were swept away on 14 October 2020, and were replaced by the first COVID-19 tier regulations in England. The restrictions were enforced by three statutory instruments, as follows:

These are referred to as the 'first tier regulations". The regulations relate to England only.

Following the November lockdown, a new framework of tiers, known as the second tier regulations, were introduced in The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Restrictions) (All Tiers) (England) Regulations 2020. The regulations apply from 2 December 2020 until 2 February 2021, with special arrangements over the Christmas period, 23–27 December 2020.

In December 2020, a new Fourth Tier was added to the second tier regulations. Households in this tier were subjected to further restrictions including a restrictions on movement, a ban on international travel and a ban on meeting more than one person outside. [116] The Christmas regulations were changed, so that only households in Tiers 1–3 could mix with up to three other households only on Christmas Day only; Tier 4 households could not mix over the festive period.

Tiers by local government district for each period of being in force Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4

Travel restrictions

On 7 May, the government released a list of countries with quarantine rules when returning to England. [117]

Before entering EnglandOn arrival into EnglandCountries
Red
  • Complete a passenger locator form
  • Take a COVID-19 test
  • Book a quarantine hotel package, including 2 COVID-19 tests
  • Quarantine in a managed hotel, including 2 COVID-19 tests
Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burundi, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Congo (Democratic Republic), Ecuador, Eswatini, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Guyana, India, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Suriname, Tanzania, Turkey, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Amber
  • Complete a passenger locator form
  • Take a COVID-19 test
  • Book and pay for day 2 and day 8 COVID-19 travel tests – to be taken after arrival in England
  • Quarantine at home or in the place you are staying for 10 days
  • Take a COVID-19 test on or before day 2 and on or after day 8
Afghanistan, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Aruba,

Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, Bosnia and Herzegovina, British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic (Czechia), Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece (including islands), Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Kosovo, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Montserrat, Morocco, Myanmar (Burma), Nauru, Netherlands, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, North Macedonia, Norway, The Occupied Palestinian Territories, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, Poland, Réunion, Romania, Russia, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Korea, South Sudan, Spain (including the Balearics and Canary Islands), Sri Lanka, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Martin and St Barthélemy, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United States (USA), Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis and Futuna, Western Sahara and Yemen.

Green
  • Complete a passenger locator form
  • Take a COVID-19 test
  • Book and pay for a day 2 COVID-19 test
  • You must take a COVID-19 test on or before day 2 after you arrive
  • You do not need to quarantine unless the test result is positive
  • You must self-isolate if NHS Test & Trace informs you that you travelled to England with someone who has tested positive for COVID-19.
Australia, Brunei, Falkland Islands, Faroe Islands, Gibraltar, Iceland, Israel and Jerusalem, New Zealand, Portugal (including the Azores and Madeira), Singapore, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands and St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

Impact

Finance and the economy

During the second half of March, one million British workers applied for the Universal Credit benefit scheme. [118] [119] On 20 March the government announced a Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme, where it would offer grants to companies to pay 80% of a staff wage each month up to a total of £2,500 per a person, if companies kept staff on their payroll. The scheme would cover three months' wages and would be backdated to the start of March. [120] Following a three-week extension of the countrywide lockdown the scheme was extended until the end of June 2020. [121] [122] Initially the scheme was only for those workers who started work at their company on or before 28 February 2020; this was later changed to 19 March 2020, the day before the scheme was announced, allowing 200,000 additional workers to be part of it. [123] On the first day of operation 140,000 companies used the scheme. [124] Later the scheme was extended until the end of October with the Chancellor saying that from August companies would have to contribute towards the 80% of employees wages that the government was covering. It was stated that the scheme was costing £14 billion a month to run, with nearly a quarter of all workers in Britain furloughed by their employers within two weeks of the start of the scheme. [125] The decision to extended the job retention scheme was made to avoid mass redundancies, company bankruptcies and potential unemployment levels not seen since the 1930s. [126]

In March the Self Employed Income Support Scheme (SEISS) was announced. [127] The scheme paid a grant worth 80% of self employed profits profits up to £2,500 each month, for companies whose trading profit was less than £50,000 in the 2018–19 financial year or averaged less than £50,000 over the last three financial tax years. HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) were tasked with contacting those who were eligible and the grant was taxable. The government also had announced a six-month delay on tax payments. Self employed workers who pay themselves a salary and dividends are not covered by the scheme and instead had to apply for the job retention scheme. [128] The scheme went live on 13 May. [129] The scheme went live ahead of schedule and people were invited to claim on a specific date between 13 and 18 May based on their Unique Tax Reference number. Claimants would receive their money by 25 May or within six days of a completed claim. [130] By 15 May, more than 1 million self employed people had applied to the scheme. [131]

The government announced Retail, Hospitality and Leisure Grant Fund (RHLGF) and changes to the Small Business Grant Fund (SBGF) on 17 March. The SBGF was changed from £3,000 to £10,000, while the RHLGF offered grants of up to £25,000. [132] [133] [134] £12.33 billion in funding was committed to the SBGF and the RHLGF schemes with another £617 million added at the start of May. [135] By 25 April only around 50% of eligible business had received funding. [136]

On 23 March the Government announced the Coronavirus Business Interruption Loan Scheme (CBILS) for small and medium-sized businesses and Covid Corporate Financing Facility for large companies. [137] The government banned banks from seeking personal guarantees on Coronavirus Business Interruption loans under £250,000 following complaints. [138] [139] Coronavirus Large Business Interruption Loan Scheme (CLBILS) was announced on 3 April and later tweaked to include more companies. [139] [140] In May the amount a company could borrow on the scheme was raised from £50 million to £200 million. Restrictions were put in place on companies on the scheme including dividends payout and bonuses to members of the board. [141] On 20 April the Government announced a scheme worth £1.25 billion to support innovative new companies that could not claim for coronavirus rescue schemes. [142] The government additionally announced the Bounce Back Loan Scheme (BBLS) for small and medium size businesses. The scheme offered loans of up to £50,000 and was interest free for the first year before an interest rate of 2.5% a year was applied, with the loan being paid back within six years. Businesses who had an existing CBILS loan of up to £50,000 could transfer on to this scheme, but had to do so by 4 November 2020. The scheme launched on 4 May. [143] [144] The loan was 100% guaranteed by the government and was designed to be simpler than the CBILS scheme. [145] More than 130,000 BBLS applications were received by banks on the first day of operation with more than 69,500 being approved. [146] [145] On 13 May the Government announced that it was under writing Trade credit insurance, to prevent businesses struggling in the pandemic from having no insurance cover. [147] [148] On 12 May almost £15 billion of state aid had been given to businesses. [149] The Treasury and the Bank of England on 17 March announced the Covid Corporate Financing Facility (CCFF). [150] [151]

The Resolution Foundation surveyed 6,000 workers, and concluded that 30% of those in the lowest income bracket had been affected by the pandemic compared with 10% of those in the top fifth of earners. [152] The foundation said that about a quarter of 18 to 24-year-olds included in the research had been furloughed whilst another 9% had lost their job altogether. They also said that 35 to 44 year olds were least likely to be furloughed or lose their jobs with only around 15% of the surveyed population having experienced these outcomes. [153] Earlier research by the Institute for Fiscal Studies concluded that young people (those under 25) and women were more likely to be working in a shutdown business sector. [154]

The Guardian reported that after the government had suspended the standard tender process so contracts could to be issued "with extreme urgency", over a billion pounds of state contracts had been awarded under the new fast-track rules. The contracts were to provide food parcels, personal protective equipment (PPE) and assist in operations. The largest contract was handed to Edenred by the Department for Education, it was worth £234 million and was for the replacement of free school meals. [155]

National health service response

Appointments and self-isolation

A Coronavirus 'pod' at Hull Royal Infirmary Coronavirus Pod at Hull Royal Infirmary (geograph 6406192).jpg
A Coronavirus 'pod' at Hull Royal Infirmary

In March, hospitals in England began to cancel all elective procedures. [156] On 22 March, the government announced that it would be asking about 1.5 million people (everyone in England with certain health conditions that carry serious risk if infected) to "shield" for 12 weeks. They were to be notified by mail or text messaged by their NHS general practitioners, and provided deliveries of medication, food, and household essentials, delivered by pharmacists and local governments, and at least initially paid for by the UK government. [157] Members of the public were told to stay at home, should they suspect they have symptoms of COVID-19, and not visit a GP, pharmacy, or hospital. [158] For advice, the public were told to use a dedicated online self-assessment form before calling NHS 111, the non-emergency medical helpline. [159]

To allow vulnerable patients with underlying conditions to still be able to attend for routine blood tests without having to come to a hospital, from 8 April, the Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust opened a drive-through phlebotomy service operating out of a tent in the car park of Sheffield Arena. [160] This allows patients to have their blood tests taken from within their car, in a similar manner to how COVID-19 swabbing drive-through stations work. Following the success of the service, it was expanded to cover all patients registered with any GP in the Sheffield area from 27 April. [161]

Beds

NHS England freed up 30,000 beds by discharging patients who were well enough and by delaying non-emergency treatment, [162] and acquired use of 8,000 beds in private sector facilities. [162] Emergency building work was undertaken to add capacity to existing hospitals, 52 beds in Wigan, for example. [163] An additional capacity of almost 20,000 beds was created with NHS Nightingale Hospitals in major conurbations across the United Kingdom.[ citation needed ] Only a small amount of the capacity was used, and most of the hospitals were put on standby as the situation progressed.

On 18 October 2020, The Guardian reported that according to the National Health Service (NHS) report, the Greater Manchester is at risk of running out of hospital beds during the pandemic. NHS data revealed that before Friday 211 of the 257 critical care beds were occupied in Greater Manchester, and 82% of the total supply was in use by Covid-positive people or people admitted for other critical cases. [164]

Communication

NHS England’s approach to communications during the pandemic was described as “truly dreadful” by Sir Richard Leese, chair of Greater Manchester Health and Social Care Partnership in May 2021. He said their tight control of public communications had made getting crucial messages to the public a “nightmare”. “We took the view that having a fully informed public might have helped us tackle covid, but that’s not the view we got from NHSE. People’s willingness to comply with guidelines around covid was beginning to weaken and we wanted to get a message out [that] our hospitals were on the edge of falling over. We wanted to have responsible media to be able to go into hospitals and tell that story, but it took us ages to get consent to do that.” Although this criticism was rejected by NHS England medical director Steve Powis dozens of local NHS leaders and communications staff privately agreed. [165]

Law and order

In March, police forces in each nation of the UK were given powers to arrest and fine citizens who broke lockdown rules. [166] [167] [168] [169] [170] The National Police Chiefs' Council said police had issued their first fines for people breaking lockdown rules on 27 March. The fixed penalty notices were £60 but would be reduced to £30 if paid within 14 days. [171] By 31 March, some police forces and individual officers, were being criticised by a variety of people including, [172] former Supreme Court judge Lord Sumption, [173] [174] former Justice secretary David Gauke, [172] former Chancellor George Osborne and privacy and civil liberties group Big Brother Watch for over-zealous and incorrect application of the new powers. [172] [175] New guidance was released by the National Police Chiefs Council. [173] [176]

According to data from the National Police Chiefs' Council, around 9,000 people were issued fines for breaking lockdown rules in England and Wales, between 27 March and 27 April. [177] National Police Chiefs’ Council figures from 27 March to 11 May (the date when fines in England increased [178] ) showed that more than 14,000 fines were issued for breaking lockdown rules in England and Wales. There were 862 repeat offenders in the figures with one person fined 9 times. The Easter weekend (11 and 12 April) had the highest amount of fines issued within the period. The crown prosecution service stated 56 people were wrongly charged with offences related to the pandemic. This was mainly due to Welsh regulations being applied in England and vice versa. [179] [180] [181]

There have been reports of hate incidents against Italian and Chinese persons and a Singaporean student was assaulted in London in an attack that police linked to coronavirus fears. [182] [183] In addition there have been reports of young people deliberately coughing and spitting in the faces of people, including an incident involving health workers. [184] [185] [186] [187] [188]

On 9 May, Police broke up an anti-lockdown protest took place in London consisting of around 40 people. It was thought to be the first such protest in the UK following protests in other nations. [189] It was reported that around 60 protests had been planned on the weekend of the 16 May, with police saying that they were preparing to break them up. [190] Protests took place in London and Southampton, with several protesters arrested and fined at the London demonstration. [191]

In October, police broke up a wedding with 100 guests at the Tudor Rose, Southall, breaking social isolation laws. A police spokesman said the owner could be fined £10,000. [192]

Fraud

During the contact tracing app trial on the Isle of Wight the Chartered Trading Standards Institute found evidence of a phishing scam. In the scam recipients would receive a text stating that they had been in contact with someone with COVID-19 and were directed to a website to input their personal details. [193] Local councils found fake goods being sold including testing kits, face masks and hand sanitiser. There had also been reports of scams involving the replacement school meals scheme and incidents of people posing as government officials, council staff or IT workers. [194]

Courts and prisons

On 17 March, trials lasting longer than three days were postponed until May in England and Wales, Those cases already running would continue in the hope of reaching a conclusion. [195] [196]

The government released specific guidance to prisons in the event of COVID-19 symptoms or cases, specifically the rule that "any prisoner or detainee with a new, continuous cough or a high temperature should be placed in protective isolation for 7 days". [197] There are around 83,000 prisoners in England and Wales. [198] On 24 March, the Ministry of Justice announced that prison visits would be suspended and that inmates would be confined to their cells. [199] In order to maintain communication between prisoners and their families, the government promised 900 secure phones to 55 prisons, with calls being monitored and time-limited. [200] In a committee meeting on the same day, Justice Secretary Robert Buckland suggested that 50 pregnant inmates might be given early release, and another 9,000 inmates awaiting trial could be transferred to bail hostels. [201] On 14 April, the Ministry of Justice ordered 500 modular buildings, reportedly adapted from shipping containers, to provide additional single prison cell accommodation at seven prisons: HMPs North Sea Camp, Littlehey, Hollesley Bay, Highpoint, Moorland, Lindholme and Humber. [202] Following a COVID-19 case in HMP Manchester, public services think tank Reform called for the release of 2,305 "low-risk" offenders on short sentences to reduce the risk of COVID-19 on the prison population. [203] [204] Former justice secretary David Gauke echoed similar sentiments, citing the "churn" of prisoners going in and out of prison as a risk. [205] Up to 4,000 prisoners in England and Wales are to be released. [206] Amnesty International's Europe Deputy Director of Research said that authorities in UK should consider releasing those who are more vulnerable to COVID-19. [207]

On 18 March, the first COVID-19 case was reported within the UK prison population. The prisoner, who had been serving time in HMP Manchester (commonly referred to as Strangeways), was moved to a hospital. While no other prisoners or staff tested positive for the virus, thirteen prisoners and four members of staff were put into isolation as a precaution. [208] On 26 March, it was reported that an 84-year-old sex offender had died from COVID-19 on 22 March at HMP Littlehey in Cambridgeshire, becoming the first inmate in the UK to die from the virus. [198] On 28 April, Public Health England had identified around 2,000 "possible/probable" and confirmed COVID-19 cases; outbreaks had occurred in 75 different institutions, with 35 inmates treated in hospital and 15 deaths. [209]

Aviation

From the latter half of January, Heathrow Airport received additional clinical support and tightened surveillance of the three direct flights it receives from Wuhan every week; each were to be met by a Port Health team. [210] Later, airlines including British Airways and Ryanair announced a number of flight cancellations for March. [32]

On 25 March, London City Airport announced it would temporarily close due to the COVID-19 outbreak. [211] Heathrow Airport closed one runway from 6 April, while Gatwick Airport closed one of its two terminals, and said its runway would open for scheduled flights only between 2:00 pm and 10:00 pm. [212]

Public transport

On 20 March, Southeastern became the first train operating company to announce a reduced timetable, which would come into use from 23 March. [213]

On 19 March, the Stagecoach Supertram light rail network in Sheffield announced that they would be switching to a modified Sunday service from 23 March until further notice. [214] Local bus operators First South Yorkshire and Stagecoach Yorkshire, which operate across the same area, announced that they would also be switching to a reduced timetable from 23 March. [215] National Express suspended all its long-distance coach services from 6 April. [216]

A sign stating that a face covering must be worn on TfL services at Tower Hill tube station in August 2021. TfL Face Covering Sign.jpg
A sign stating that a face covering must be worn on TfL services at Tower Hill tube station in August 2021.

Transport for London (TfL) services were reduced in stages. All Night Overground and Night Tube services, as well as all services on the Waterloo & City line, were suspended from 20 March, and 40 tube stations were closed on the same day. [217] The Mayor of London and TfL urged people to use public transport only if absolutely essential, so it could be used by critical workers. [218]

In April, TfL trialled changes encouraging passengers to board London buses by the middle or rear doors to lessen the risks to drivers, after the deaths of 14 TfL workers including nine drivers. [219] This measure was extended to all routes on 20 April, and passengers were no longer required to pay, so they did not need to use the card reader near the driver. [220]

On 22 April, London mayor Sadiq Khan warned that TfL could run out of money to pay staff by the end of April unless the government stepped in. [221] Since London entered lockdown on 23 March, Tube journeys had fallen by 95% and bus journeys by 85%. [222] On 7 May, it was reported that TfL had requested £2 billion in state aid to keep services running until September 2020. [223] on 12 May, TfL documents warned it expected to lose £4bn due to the pandemic and said it needed £3.2bn to balance a proposed emergency budget for 2021, having lost 90% of its overall income. Without an agreement with the government, deputy mayor for transport Heidi Alexander said TfL might have to issue a 'section 114 notice' – the equivalent of a public body becoming bankrupt. [224] On 14 May, the UK Government agreed £1.6bn in emergency funding to keep Tube and bus services running until September. [225]

In April, Govia Thameslink Railway re-branded three trains with special liveries to show its support for the NHS and the 200,000 essential workers commuting on GTR's network every week. [226]

British Armed Forces

The COVID-19 pandemic affected British military deployments at home and abroad. Training exercises, including those in Canada and Kenya, had to be cancelled to free up personnel for the COVID Support Force. [227] The British training mission in Iraq, part of Operation Shader, had to be down-scaled. [228] An air base supporting this military operation also confirmed nine cases of COVID-19. [229] The British Army paused face-to-face recruitment and basic training operations, instead conducting them virtually. [230] Training locations, such as Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and HMS Raleigh, had to adapt their passing out parades. Cadets involved were made to stand 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) apart in combat dress and there were no spectators in the grandstands. [231] [232] Ceremonial duties, such as the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace and the Gun Salute for the Queen's Official Birthday were either scaled-down or cancelled. [233] [234] The Royal Air Force suspended all displays of its teams and bands, with some replaced by virtual displays. [235] [236] The British Army deployed two experts to NATO to help counter disinformation around the pandemic. [237]

Elsewhere in defence, air shows, including the Royal International Air Tattoo at RAF Fairford, were cancelled. [238] Civilian airports, including Birmingham Airport, were used to practice transferring COVID-19 patients to local hospitals via helicopter. [239] [240] Several defence and aerospace companies contributed to the national effort to produce more ventilators. [241] BAE Systems, the country's largest defence company, also loaned its Warton Aerodrome site to be used as a temporary morgue. [242] The Government's defence and security review, named the Integrated Review, was delayed. [243]

The armed forces assisted in the transportation of coronavirus patients in some of the country's remotest regions, such as Shetland and the Isles of Scilly. [244] [245] On 23 March 2020, Joint Helicopter Command began assisting the COVID-19 relief effort by transporting people and supplies. Helicopters were based at RAF Leeming to cover Northern England and Scotland, whilst helicopters based at RAF Benson, RAF Odiham and RNAS Yeovilton supported the Midlands and Southern England. [246]

On 24 March 2020, the armed forces helped plan and construct a field hospital at the ExCeL London conference centre, named NHS Nightingale Hospital London. Further critical care field hospitals were later built with military assistance in Birmingham, Manchester, Harrogate, Bristol, Exeter, Washington and Glasgow. These hospitals were staffed by military medics, alongside the NHS. [247] [248]

See also

Related Research Articles

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The COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019. The virus reached the UK in late January 2020. As of 11 November 2021, there had been 9,637,190 confirmed cases, the most in Europe and fifth highest number worldwide, and 145,728 deaths among people who had recently tested positive. The UK has the world's 7th highest death toll, 26th highest death rate by population and second-highest death toll in Europe after Russia. There has been some disparity between the outbreak's severity in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – health-care in the UK is a devolved matter. Each constituent country has its own publicly-funded healthcare system operated by devolved governments.

COVID-19 pandemic in Scotland Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in Scotland

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COVID-19 pandemic in London Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in London, England

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COVID-19 pandemic in Northern Ireland Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in Northern Ireland

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NHS Nightingale Hospital London Temporary NHS COVID-19 hospital set up in ExCeL London

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British government response to the COVID-19 pandemic UK government response to COVID-19

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Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom (January–June 2020) Daily UK events related to the 2020 pandemic

The following is a timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom from January 2020 to June 2020.

The following is a timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in Scotland during 2020. There are significant differences in the legislation and the reporting between the countries of the UK: England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales.

The following is a timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in England from January 2020 to June 2020. There are significant differences in the legislation and the reporting between the countries of the UK: England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales.

Social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom Indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.K.

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Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom (July–December 2020) Daily UK events related to the 2020 pandemic

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During the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, numerous protests have taken place over the government's response.

Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom (January–June 2021) Daily UK events related to the pandemic in 2021

The following is a timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom from January 2021 to June 2021.

The following is a timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in England during 2021. There are significant differences in the legislation and the reporting between the countries of the UK: England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales.

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United Kingdom responses to the COVID-19 pandemic Actions by the United Kingdom regarding the COVID-19 pandemic

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History of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom

This article outlines the history of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. Though later reporting indicated that there may have been some cases dating from late 2019, COVID-19 was confirmed to be spreading in the UK by the end of January 2020. The country was initially relatively slow implementing restrictions but a legally enforced stay-at-home order had been introduced by late March. Restrictions were steadily eased across the UK in late spring and early summer that year.

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