Western States Pact

Last updated

The Western States Pact is an interstate compact between five western states in the United States to coordinate the rollback of economic restrictions implemented by the state governments in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Contents

Agreement

In announcing the Western States Pact on April 13, 2020, California, Oregon and Washington governors Gavin Newsom, Kate Brown, and Jay Inslee jointly announced that "COVID-19 doesn’t follow state or national boundaries. It will take every level of government, working together, and a full picture of what’s happening on the ground." [1]

The agreement was made with four goals:

On April 27, Colorado governor Jared Polis and Nevada governor Steve Sisolak announced their states would join the Western States Pact, with the latter noting the importance of information sharing. [3]

Timeline

On April 30, 2020, research and education networks from the states involved, such as the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research's Front Range GigaPop, Nevada System of Higher Education's NevadaNet, CENIC, Link Oregon, and the Pacific Northwest Gigapop, announced they would be joining the shared approach under the Western States Pact and would be offering ultra-broadband research and education telecommunications networks and services to support the Western States Pact. [4]

On May 11, the Western States Pact released a letter, signed by the governors and state legislative leaders of all five states, to Congress requesting $1 trillion in aid to help deal with the financial effects of the coronavirus. The letter states that the aid would "preserve core government services like public health, public safety, public education and help people get back to work. It would help our states and cities come out of this crisis stronger and more resilient." [5] [6]

On September 16, the governors of California, Oregon, and Washington announced a joint pilot project to test the COVID-19 Exposure Notification System developed by Apple and Google for mobile phones. If the pilot project is successful, these states would then plan to roll out the technology to all residents. Since Colorado and Nevada already have statewide Exposure Notification apps, all states in the Western States Pact would then be participants in the system. [7] [8]

On October 27, the governors of Nevada, Oregon, and Washington announced that their states would join California's COVID-19 Scientific Safety Review Workgroup. This workgroup would provide the Western States Pact with a coordinated review of any potential COVID-19 vaccine, independent of the federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA). [9]

On November 13, California, Oregon, and Washington issued a joint travel advisory, encouraging residents to avoid non-essential travel and urging people arriving from other states to self-quarantine for 14 days. [10] [11]

On December 14, the Western States Scientific Safety Review Workgroup analyzed safety and efficacy data for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The workgroup unanimously recommended authorization of the vaccine for emergency use, allowing California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington to proceed with vaccination campaigns without delay. [12] On December 20, the workgroup also recommended authorization of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. [13]

On March 3, 2021, the Western States Scientific Safety Review Workgroup recommended authorization of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. [14]

Parties

.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Eastern States Multi-state Council
Midwest Governors Regional Pact
Western States Pact U.S. states forming pacts to reopen the economy (coronavirus pandemic).svg
  Western States Pact
StateGovernorAccession
Flag of California.svg  California Gavin Newsom April 13, 2020
Flag of Colorado.svg  Colorado Jared Polis April 27, 2020
Flag of Nevada.svg  Nevada Steve Sisolak April 27, 2020
Flag of Oregon.svg  Oregon Kate Brown April 13, 2020
Flag of Washington.svg  Washington Jay Inslee April 13, 2020
Sources: [15] [16]

Reactions

Shortly after the Western States Pact and northeastern states announced their own joint plans on April 13, 2020, U.S. president Donald Trump asserted his "total authority" over the states' decisions about when to lift the shutdowns implemented in response to the pandemic. [17] After criticism from both Democratic and Republican members of Congress, Trump clarified on April 14 that he would be "authorizing each individual governor of each individual state to implement a reopening" of their economy. However, Cornell Law School professor Kathleen Bergin said, "Trump has no authority [...] These are matters for states to decide under [...] the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution." [18]

After Hawaiian business leaders and state House Speaker Scott Saiki encouraged joining the Western States Pact, governor David Ige said he considered joining the pact but decided not to because Hawaii did not share a land boundary with the member states of the pact. [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

Gavin Newsom 40th governor of California

Gavin Christopher Newsom is an American politician and businessman serving as the 40th governor of California since January 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as the 49th lieutenant governor of California from 2011 to 2019 and as the 42nd mayor of San Francisco from 2004 to 2011.

Alex Azar American politician

Alex Michael Azar II is an American politician, attorney, businessman, lobbyist, and former pharmaceutical executive who served as the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services from 2018 to 2021. Azar was nominated to his post by President Donald Trump on November 13, 2017, and confirmed by the United States Senate on January 24, 2018. He was also chairman of the White House Coronavirus Task Force from its inception in January 2020 to February 2020, when he was replaced by Vice President Mike Pence.

2020 in the United States was largely defined by the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the country, in addition to various other historical events such as the George Floyd protests and the economic recession resulting from the pandemic.

COVID-19 pandemic in the United States Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in the United States

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019. More than 34.4 million confirmed cases have been reported since January 2020, resulting in more than 610,000 deaths, the most of any country, and the twenty-first-highest per capita worldwide. As many infections have gone undetected, the Centers for Disease Control estimated that, as of March 2021, there are a total 114.6 million infections in the United States, or more than a third of the total population. The U.S. has about one-fifth of the world's confirmed cases and deaths. COVID-19 became the third-leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2020, behind heart disease and cancer. U.S. life expectancy dropped 3 years for Hispanic Americans, 2.9 years for African Americans, and 1.2 years for white Americans from 2019 to 2020.

COVID-19 pandemic in California Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in California, United States

Ten of the first twenty confirmed COVID-19 cases in the United States occurred in California, the first of which was confirmed on January 26, 2020. All of the early confirmed cases were persons who had recently travelled to China, as testing was restricted to this group. On January 29, 2020, as disease containment protocols were still being developed, the U.S. Department of State evacuated 195 persons from Wuhan, China aboard a chartered flight to March Air Reserve Base in Riverside County, and in the process may have contributed to spread within the state and the US at large. On February 5, 2020, the U.S. evacuated 345 more citizens from Hubei Province to two military bases in California, Travis Air Force Base in Solano County and Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, San Diego, where they were quarantined for 14 days. A state of emergency was declared in the state on March 4, 2020 and as of February 24, 2021 remains in effect. A mandatory statewide stay-at-home order was issued on March 19, 2020 that was ended on January 25, 2021. On April 6, 2021, the state announced plans to fully reopen the economy by June 15, 2021.

COVID-19 pandemic in Colorado Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in Colorado, United States

The COVID-19 pandemic reached Colorado on March 5, 2020, when the state's first two cases were confirmed. Many of the early COVID-19 cases in Colorado occurred in mountain resort towns such as Crested Butte, Aspen, and Vail, apparently brought in, and sometimes taken home, by international ski tourists.

COVID-19 pandemic in Nevada Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in Nevada, United States

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached the U.S. state of Nevada on March 5, 2020. Because of concerns about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Nevada governor Steve Sisolak declared a state of emergency on March 12, 2020. Four days later, Nevada reported its first death. On March 17, 2020, Sisolak ordered the closure of non-essential businesses in the state, to help prevent the spread of the coronavirus. Grocery stores were among the businesses considered essential, and restaurants were allowed to provide drive-thru, takeout, and delivery services. At the end of March 2020, Sisolak announced a 90-day moratorium on evictions and foreclosures for commercial and residential tenants.

COVID-19 pandemic in North Carolina Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in North Carolina, United States

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached the U.S. state of North Carolina on March 3, 2020.

The following is a timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States during 2020.

World Health Organizations response to the COVID-19 pandemic Overview of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic by the World Health Organization

The World Health Organization is a leading organization involved in the global coordination for mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic, within the broader United Nations response to the pandemic caused by the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in late 2019.

Trump administration communication during the COVID-19 pandemic Aspect of 2020 viral outbreak

The Donald Trump administration communicated in various ways during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, including via social media, interviews, and press conferences with the White House Coronavirus Task Force. Opinion polling conducted in mid-April 2020 indicated that less than half of Americans trusted health information provided by Trump and that they were more inclined to trust local government officials, state government officials, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases director Dr. Anthony Fauci.

Operation Warp Speed American public–private partnership designed to accelerate COVID-19 vaccine development

Operation Warp Speed (OWS) was a public–private partnership initiated by the United States government to facilitate and accelerate the development, manufacturing, and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. The first news report of Operation Warp Speed was on April 29, 2020, and the program was officially announced on May 15, 2020. It was headed by Moncef Slaoui from May 2020 to January 2021 and by David A. Kessler from January to February 2021. At the end of February 2021, Operation Warp Speed was transferred into the responsibilities of the White House COVID-19 Response Team.

Face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States Use of face coverings during the Coronavirus pandemic in the United States

The wearing of non-medical face masks in public to lessen transmission of COVID-19 in the United States was first recommended by the CDC on April 3, 2020 as supplemental to hygiene and appropriate social distancing. Over the course of the pandemic, various states, counties, and municipalities have issued health orders requiring the wearing of non-medical face coverings — such as cloth masks — in spaces and/or businesses accessible to the public, especially when physical distancing is not possible. Some areas only mandated their use by public-facing employees of businesses at first, before extending them to the general public.

U.S. federal government response to the COVID-19 pandemic Actions by the U.S. federal government regarding the COVID-19 pandemic

The federal government of the United States initially responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in the country with various declarations of emergency, some of which led to travel and entry restrictions, and the formation of the White House Coronavirus Task Force. As the pandemic progressed in the U.S. and throughout the rest of the world, the U.S. government began issuing recommendations regarding the response by state and local governments, as well as social distancing measures and workplace hazard controls. State governments play a primary role in adopting policies to address the pandemic. Following the closure of most businesses throughout a number of U.S. states, President Donald Trump announced the mobilization of the National Guard in the most affected areas.

Freedom Angels Foundation is an anti-vaccination group in California. Initially constituted in an attempt to counter the state's new vaccination laws in 2019, the group is playing a major role in protests against the public measures enacted in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic, joining groups in the protests against lockdowns and the defeat of Donald Trump in 2020.

The Eastern States Multi-state Council is an interstate compact between seven northeastern states in the United States to coordinate the rollback of economic restrictions implemented by the state governments in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Midwest Governors Regional Pact is an interstate compact between seven midwestern states in the United States to coordinate the rollback of economic restrictions implemented by the state governments in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 vaccination in the United States Plan to immunize against COVID-19

The COVID-19 vaccination campaign in the United States is an ongoing mass immunization campaign for the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. The FDA granted emergency use authorization to the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine on December 10, 2020; mass vaccinations began on December 14, 2020. The Moderna vaccine was granted emergency use authorization on December 17, 2020, and the Janssen vaccine was granted emergency use authorization on February 27, 2021. By April 19, 2021, all U.S. states had opened vaccine eligibility to residents aged 16 and over. On May 10, 2021, the FDA approved the Pfizer vaccine for adolescents aged 12 to 15.

California government response to the COVID-19 pandemic Actions by the California state government regarding the COVID-19 pandemic

The government of California initially responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in the state with a statewide lockdown, the first of its kind during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. As the pandemic progressed in California and throughout the rest of the country, the California government, following recommendations issued by the U.S. government regarding state and local government responses, began imposing social distancing measures and workplace hazard controls.

United States responses to the COVID-19 pandemic Actions by the United States regarding the COVID-19 pandemic

The United States' response to the COVID-19 pandemic with consists of various measures by the medical community; the federal, state, and local governments; the military; and the private sector. The public response has been highly polarized, with partisan divides being observed and a number of concurrent protests and unrest complicating the response.

References

  1. Luna, Taryn (April 13, 2020). "California, Oregon and Washington to work together on plan to lift coronavirus restrictions". Los Angeles Times. Sacramento. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  2. Segers, Grace; O'Keefe, Ed; Navarro, Aaron (April 15, 2020). "States move forward with coordinating coronavirus response after Trump backs down". CBS News. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  3. Klar, Rebecca (April 27, 2020). "Colorado and Nevada join western states cooperating on reopening". The Hill. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  4. "UCAR JOINS PARTNERS TO OFFER NETWORK SUPPORT TO COVID-19 WESTERN STATES PACT". National Center for Atmospheric Research. April 30, 2020. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  5. Mossburg, Cheri (May 11, 2020). "Western States Pact asks federal government for $1 trillion in relief". CNN. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
  6. "Western States Pact Urges Federal Support for States and Cities Responding to COVID-19 Pandemic". Office of Governor Gavin Newsom. May 14, 2020. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  7. "Washington and Oregon Join California in Pilot Project Using Google and Apple Exposure Notification Technology to Slow the Spread of COVID-19". Office of Governor Gavin Newsom. September 16, 2020. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  8. Blethen, Ryan (September 24, 2020). "University of Washington to test smartphone technology that tells you if you were exposed to the coronavirus; here's how it works". The Seattle Times. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  9. "Western States Join California's Scientific Safety Review Workgroup to Ensure Safety of COVID-19 Vaccine". Office of Governor Gavin Newsom. October 27, 2020. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  10. "California, Oregon, Washington issue virus travel advisories". AP News. November 13, 2020. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  11. Hawkins, Mackenzie (November 13, 2020). "West Coast states issue travel advisory ahead of Thanksgiving week". Politico. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  12. Hubbard, Kaia (December 14, 2020). "Western States Group Affirms Pfizer's Coronavirus Vaccine Is Based on Health – Not Politics". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  13. Rietmulder, Michael (December 20, 2020). "Gov. Jay Inslee announces Western states approval of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine". Seattle Times. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  14. "Western States Workgroup approves Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine". KATU. March 3, 2021. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  15. Reston, Maeve; Sgueglia, Kristina; Mossburg, Cheri (April 13, 2020). "Governors on East and West coasts form pacts to decide when to reopen economies". CNN. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  16. Perano, Ursula (April 27, 2020). "Colorado and Nevada join Western states in coronavirus reopening pact". Axios. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  17. White, Jeremy B. (April 13, 2020). "Trump claims 'total authority' over state decisions". Politico. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  18. Wise, Alana (April 14, 2020). "Trump Falsely Claimed 'Total' Authority Over States — Now He's Backpedaling". NPR. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  19. Ryan Finnerty (April 28, 2020). "Maui Business Leaders Push To Join Western States Pact, Ige Demurs". Hawaii Public Radio.