First COVID-19 tier regulations in England

Last updated

England COVID-19 alert levels by district (as of 31 October)
Tier 1 (Medium)
Tier 2 (High)
Tier 3 (Very High) England COVID-19 alert levels by district.svg
England COVID-19 alert levels by district (as of 31 October)
Tier 1 (Medium)
Tier 2 (High)
Tier 3 (Very High)
Front page of the tier 1 regulations, SI 2020/1103 The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Local COVID-19 Alert Level) (Medium) (England) Regulations 2020, front page.png
Front page of the tier 1 regulations, SI 2020/1103

On 14 October 2020, the UK Government abandoned its attempts to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 by means of piecemeal local regulations and introduced a three-tier approach across England, with legal restrictions varying according to government-defined tiers (referred to in government statements as "Local COVID Alert Levels"). Tier 1 restrictions are referred to as 'Local COVID Alert Level Medium', with tier 2 being 'Local COVID Alert Level High' and tier 3 'Local COVID Alert Level Very High'. The restrictions were enforced by three English statutory instruments, as follows:

Contents

These are collectively referred to in this article as the "tier regulations".

On 5 November 2020 the tier regulations were revoked and were replaced by The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Restrictions) (England) (No. 4) Regulations 2020 which enforced a more rigorous second national lockdown.

Context and earlier regulations

In response to the developing COVID-19 pandemic the UK government issued advice to English schools on 12 March 2020 that they should cancel trips abroad, [1] and on 16 March that the public should avoid non-essential travel, crowded places, and visits to care homes. [2] This was followed by the closure of schools, colleges and nurseries from 21 March. [3]

On 21 March the government used emergency powers to make business closure regulations, enforcing the closure in England of businesses selling food and drink for consumption on the premises, as well as a range of other businesses such as nightclubs and indoor leisure centres where a high risk of infection could be expected. Five days later the restrictions were made more extensive. [4] On 26 March 2020 the even more stringent Lockdown Regulations came into force. These became the principal delegated English legislation restricting freedom of movement, gatherings, and business closures, and were progressively relaxed on 22 April, 13 May, 1 June, and 13/15 June. The No. 2 regulations of 4 July 2020 further relaxed the rules throughout most of England, [5] apart from City of Leicester and the surrounding area [6] which became the subject of the first of a series of local regulations.

Between July and September 2020, more extensive and increasingly rigorous ad hoc local regulations were introduced, which in many areas proved unsuccessful in controlling spread of the virus. [7] All of these local regulations were swept away on 14 October 2020, and were replaced by the tier regulations.

The tier regulations were introduced by way of Statutory Instruments made by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, Matt Hancock, using emergency powers under the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984, the stated legal basis being "the serious and imminent threat to public health which is posed by the incidence and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in England". In each case, the Secretary of State used section 45R of the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984 to enact the regulations without prior parliamentary consideration, subject to retrospective approval by resolution of each House of Parliament within twenty-eight days. [8]

Each of the three regulations was made on 12 October and came into force on 14 October 2020.

Tiered restrictions

The concept of standardised Local COVID Alert Levels – medium, high and very high – was introduced by these regulations on 14 October 2020. [9] The levels were referred to in government statements as Tier 1, 2 and 3 respectively. [10]

Only three days later, piecemeal local changes were re-introduced at the tier 3 level, with additional local restrictions applying only in Liverpool, [11] and different local restrictions applying only in Lancashire. [11]

Areas within each tier as at date of revocation

As at 5 November 2020, when the regulations were revoked by The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Restrictions) (England) (No. 4) Regulations 2020 the following areas fell into each Local COVID Alert Level. See Main changes by date for a list of earlier amendments.

Areas by tier
In effectAreaRef
Tier 1
Local COVID Alert Level - Medium
October 14, 2020All of England, apart from the areas in tiers 2 and 3 [12]
Tier 2
Local COVID Alert Level - High
October 14, 2020Cheshire: Cheshire East, Cheshire West, Chester. Derbyshire: parts of High Peak. Durham: Durham. Greater Manchester: Bolton, Bury, Manchester, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan. Leicestershire: Leicester, Oadby and Wigston. Northumberland: Northumberland. South Yorkshire: Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham, Sheffield. Tees Valley: Darlington, Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Redcar and Cleveland, Stockton-on-Tees. Tyne and Wear: Gateshead, Newcastle, North Tyneside, South Tyneside, Sunderland. West Midlands: Birmingham, Sandwell, Solihull, Wolverhampton, Walsall. West Yorkshire: Bradford, Calderdale, Kirklees, Leeds, Wakefield [13]
October 17, 2020Cumbria: Barrow-in-Furness. Derbyshire: Chesterfield, Erewash, North East Derbyshire. Essex: Basildon, Braintree, Brentwood, Castle Point, Chelmsford, Colchester, Epping Forest, Harlow, Maldon, Rochford, Tendring, Uttlesford. Greater London: City of London, Barking and Dagenham, Barnet, Bexley, Brent, Bromley, Camden, Croydon, Ealing, Enfield, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Haringey, Harrow, Havering, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Islington, Kensington and Chelsea, Kingston upon Thames, Lambeth, Lewisham, Merton, Newham, Redbridge, Richmond upon Thames, Southwark, Sutton, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, Wandsworth, Westminster. North Yorkshire: York. Surrey: Elmbridge [14]
October 24, 2020Berkshire: Slough, Staffordshire: Stoke-on-Trent, West Midlands: Coventry [15]
October 31, 2020Bedfordshire: Luton. Derbyshire: Amber Valley, Bolsover, Derby, Derbyshire Dales, High Peak (all areas), South Derbyshire. East Riding of Yorkshire: East Riding, Hull. Shropshire: [16] Telford & Wrekin. Leicestershire: Charnwood. Lincolnshire: NE Lincs, N Lincs. Oxfordshire: Oxford. Staffordshire: East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Stafford, Stafford Moorlands, Tamworth, West Midlands: Dudley [17]
October 31, 2020Carlisle [16]
Tier 3 *
Local COVID Alert Level - Very High
October 17, 2020

(originally October 14, 2020)

Liverpool region: Halton, Knowsley, Liverpool, Sefton, St Helens, Wirral [18]
October 17, 2020Lancashire: Blackpool, Blackburn with Darwen, Burnley, Chorley, Fylde, Hyndburn, Lancaster City Council, Pendle, Preston, Ribble Valley, Rossendale, South Ribble, West Lancashire, Wyre [19]
October 23, 2020Greater Manchester: Bolton, Bury, Manchester, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan [20]
October 24, 2020South Yorkshire: Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham, Sheffield [21]
October 27, 2020Cheshire: Warrington [22]
October 30, 2020Nottinghamshire: Ashfield, Bassetlaw, Broxtowe, Gedling, Mansfield, Newark & Sherwood, Nottingham, Rushcliffe [23]

* Tier 3 areas were intended to expire automatically after 28 days. [24]

Restrictions on gatherings

In all tiers, gatherings were restricted. In the spaces indicated, these were the only permitted gatherings, unless one of the exceptions applied.

Permitted gatherings
SpaceTier 1 [25] Tier 2 [26] Tier 3 [27]
Private dwelling

(indoors)

Up to 6None permittedNone permitted
Other private

indoor space

Up to 6None permittedNone permitted
Private dwelling

(outdoors, e.g. garden)

Up to 6Up to 6None permitted
Private outdoor

space

Up to 6Up to 6None permitted
Public outdoor

space

Up to 6Up to 6Up to 6*

* For Local COVID Alert Level - Very High ("Tier 3"), some gatherings of more than 6 were allowed but only in free-to-access public outdoor areas, and pay-to-access public outdoor sports grounds and facilities, botanical gardens and the gardens of castles, stately homes and historic houses. [28] [29] Fairgrounds and funfairs were not included. [30]

Exceptions to restrictions on gatherings

There were a variety of permitted exceptions to the above prohibitions, with the details varying according to tier.

Tier 1 exceptions

Tier 1 exceptions
TypeIndoor and outdoor exceptionsRef
Same or linked householdsAll are members of a common household, or of two linked households ("support bubble") [31]
Permitted organised gatheringsOrganised, with precautions, by a business, charity or public body after a risk assessment. Participants must attend either alone or as part of a sub-group of no more than 6 (apart from larger single or linked household groups). Not allowed at a private dwelling [32]
Gatherings necessary for certain purposesWork, voluntary services, education, registered childcare, supervised activities for children, emergency assistance, avoiding harm, providing care to a vulnerable person, child access to parents, contact between certain siblings, prospective adopters [33]
Legal obligations and proceedingsFulfilling a legal obligation or participating in legal proceedings [34]
Criminal justice accommodationAny gathering in criminal justice accommodation [35]
Support groupsFormally organised support groups of no more than 15 people. Not allowed at a private dwelling [36]
BirthsAttending a person giving birth [37]
Marriages and civil partnerships etc.No more than 15 people. Organised, with precautions, after a risk assessment. Includes non-faith ceremonies, but not at a private dwelling [38]
Wedding and civil partnership receptionsNo more than 15 people. Organised, with precautions, after a risk assessment. Not allowed at a private dwelling [39]
FuneralsNo more than 30 people. Organised, with precautions, after a risk assessment. Must be in a public outdoor space or a business or charity premises. Not allowed at a private dwelling [40]
Commemorative event following a person's deathNo more than 15 people. Organised, with precautions, after a risk assessment. Not allowed at a private dwelling [41]
ProtestsOrganised, with precautions, by a business, charity, public body or political body after a risk assessment [42]
Elite sportsTraining and competition for elite sportspersons and coaches [43]
Other sportsOrganised outdoor sports or fitness activities, with precautions, after a risk assessment. Indoor activities for disabled people [44]
Outdoor activitiesAn outdoor physical activity for which a licence or permit issued by a public body (other than a driving licence or a food or alcohol licence) is required [45]
Remembrance SundayCommemorations where spectators participate either alone or as part of a sub-group of no more than 6 (apart from larger single or linked household groups). Provisions also for attendees who are working, members of the armed or voluntary services, and veterans [46]

Tier 2 exceptions

Tier 2 exceptions
TypeIndoor exceptionsRefOutdoor exceptionsRef
Same or linked householdsAll are members of a common household, or of two linked households ("support bubble") [47] As indoor exceptions [48]
Permitted organised gatheringsOrganised, with precautions, by a business, charity or public body after a risk assessment. Participants must attend either alone or as part of a sub-group of no more than 6 (apart from larger single or linked household groups). Not allowed at a private dwelling [49] As indoor exceptions [50]
Gatherings necessary for certain purposesTo facilitate a house move; or as outdoor exceptions [51] Work, voluntary services, education, registered childcare, supervised activities for children, emergency assistance, avoiding harm, providing care to a vulnerable person, child access to parents, contact between certain siblings, prospective adopters [52]
LegalFulfilling a legal obligation or participating in legal proceedings [53] Fulfilling a legal obligation [54]
Criminal justice accommodationAny gathering in criminal justice accommodation [55] As indoor exceptions [56]
Support groupsFormally organised support groups of no more than 15 people. Not allowed at a private dwelling [57] As indoor exceptions [58]
BirthsAttending a person giving birth [59] As indoor exceptions [60]
Marriages and civil partnerships etc.No more than 15 people. Organised, with precautions, after a risk assessment. Includes non-faith ceremonies, but not at a private dwelling [61] As indoor exceptions [62]
Wedding and civil partnership receptionsNo more than 15 people. Organised, with precautions, after a risk assessment. Not allowed at a private dwelling [63] As indoor exceptions [64]
FuneralsNo more than 30 people. Organised, with precautions, after a risk assessment. Must be held at a business or charity premises. Not allowed at a private dwelling [65] As indoor exceptions, but must be held in a public outdoor space [66]
Commemorative event following a person's deathNo more than 15 people. Organised, with precautions, after a risk assessment. Must be held a premises, but not a private dwelling [67] As indoor exceptions [68]
Visiting a dying personVisitor is a member of that person's household, a close family member, or a friend [69] N/A
Visiting persons receiving treatment etc.Visitor is a member of that person's household, a close family member, or a friend. Applies to hospitals, hospices and care homes [70] N/A
ProtestsOrganised, with precautions, by a business, charity, public body or political body after a risk assessment [71] As indoor exceptions [72]
Elite sportsTraining and competition for elite sportspersons and coaches [73] As indoor exceptions [74]
Other sportsIndoor activities for disabled people only [75] Organised outdoor sports or fitness activities, with precautions, after a risk assessment [76]
Outdoor activitiesN/AAn outdoor physical activity for which a licence or permit issued by a public body (other than a driving licence or a food or alcohol licence) is required [77]
Remembrance SundayCommemorations where spectators participate either alone or as part of a sub-group of no more than 6 (apart from larger single or linked household groups). Provisions also for attendees who are working, members of the armed or voluntary services, and veterans [78] As indoor exceptions [79]

Tier 3 exceptions

There were no exception at tier 3 for wedding and civil partnership receptions.

Tier 3 exceptions
TypeIndoor and outdoor exceptionsRef
Same or linked householdsAll people meeting are members of a common household, or of two linked households ("support bubble") [80]
Permitted organised gatheringsOrganised, with precautions, by a business, charity or public body after a risk assessment. Participants must attend either alone or as part of a sub-group of no more than 6 (apart from larger single or linked household groups). Not allowed at a private dwelling [81]
Gatherings necessary for certain purposesWork, voluntary services, education, registered childcare, supervised activities for children, emergency assistance, avoiding harm, providing care to a vulnerable person, child access to parents, contact between certain siblings, prospective adopters, to facilitate a house move [82]
Legal obligations and proceedingsFulfilling a legal obligation or participating in legal proceedings [83]
Criminal justice accommodationAny gathering in criminal justice accommodation [84]
Support groupsFormally organised support groups of no more than 15 people. Not allowed at a private dwelling [85]
BirthsAttending a person giving birth [86]
Marriages and civil partnerships etc.No more than 15 people. Organised, with precautions, after a risk assessment. Includes non-faith ceremonies, but not at a private dwelling [87]
FuneralsNo more than 30 people. Organised, with precautions, after a risk assessment. Must be held at a business or charity premises. Not allowed at a private dwelling [88]
Commemorative event following a person's deathNo more than 15 people. Organised, with precautions, after a risk assessment. Must be held a premises, but not a private dwelling [89]
ProtestsOrganised, with precautions, by a business, charity, public body or political body after a risk assessment [90]
Elite sportsTraining and competition for elite sportspersons and coaches [91]
Remembrance SundayCommemorations where spectators participate either alone or as part of a sub-group of no more than 6 (apart from larger single or linked household groups). Provisions also for attendees who are working, members of the armed or voluntary services, and veterans [92]
TypeIndoor exceptionsRefOutdoor exceptionsRef
Visiting a dying personVisitor is a member of that person's household, a close family member, or a friend [93] N/A
Visiting persons receiving treatment etc.Visitor is a member of that person's household, a close family member, or a friend. Applies to hospitals, hospices and care homes [94] N/A
Informal childcareChildcare provided by a member of a linked household [95] N/A
Other sportsIndoor activities for disabled people only [96] Organised outdoor sports or fitness activities, with precautions, after a risk assessment [96]
Outdoor activitiesN/AAn outdoor physical activity for which a licence or permit issued by a public body (other than a driving licence or a food or alcohol licence) is required [97]

Linked households

A household containing exactly one adult (no more) and any number of children could form a permanent link with one other household of any size (such linked households were referred to in government statements as "support bubbles"). [98] Households which were already linked under earlier regulations could not link with any other household. [99] [100] [101]

Business closures and restrictions

All the tiers were subject to business closures and restrictions on trading.

Tier 1 business restrictions

Tier 1 closures and restrictions
DetailsRefExceptionsRef
Businesses that must closeNightclubs, dance halls, discos, sexual entertainment venues, hostess bars, any venue with music and dancing that opens at night [102] Where the owner runs a separate shop, cafe or restaurant, or an online delivery service [103]
Opening hours restrictionsMust close between 22:00 and 05:00: restaurants*, food and drink takeaways*, cafes and workplace canteens*, bars*, pubs*, social clubs*, casinos*, bowling alleys, cinemas, theatres, amusement arcades or other indoor leisure centres, funfairs (indoors or outdoors), theme and adventure parks and activities, bingo halls, and concert halls [104] Supermarkets, convenience stores, pharmacists, petrol stations; [105] motorway service stations); [106] air and sea ports; [107] on public transport; [108] online food and drink deliveries and collections, drive-through takeaways. [109] Cinemas, theatres and concert halls may remain open after 22:00 for the purpose of completing performances which began before that time [110]
Table service and customer eatingVenues marked * above which sell alcohol must serve all food and drink to customers seated at tables. Customers must order at the table, and must remain seated while eating and drinking. Venues so marked which do not sell alcohol need not serve customers at a table, but they must ensure that customers eating and drinking on the premises remain seated [111]

Tier 2 business restrictions

As at 14 October, these were the same as tier 1.

Tier 2 closures and restrictions
DetailsRefExceptionsRef
Businesses that must closeNightclubs, dance halls, discos, sexual entertainment venues, hostess bars, any venue with music and dancing that opens at night [112] Where the owner runs a separate shop, cafe or restaurant, or an online delivery service [113]
Opening hours restrictionsMust close between 22:00 and 05:00: restaurants*, food and drink takeaways*, cafes and workplace canteens*, bars*, pubs*, social clubs*, casinos*, bowling alleys, cinemas, theatres, amusement arcades or other indoor leisure centres, funfairs (indoors or outdoors), theme and adventure parks and activities, bingo halls, and concert halls [114] Supermarkets, convenience stores, pharmacists, petrol stations; [114] motorway service stations); [115] air and sea ports; [116] on public transport; [117] online food and drink deliveries and collections, drive-through takeaways. [118] Cinemas, theatres and concert halls may remain open after 22:00 for the purpose of completing performances which began before that time [119]
Table service and customer eatingVenues marked * above which sell alcohol must serve all food and drink to customers seated at tables. Customers must order at the table, and must remain seated while eating and drinking. Venues so marked which do not sell alcohol need not serve customers at a table, but they must ensure that customers eating and drinking on the premises remain seated [120]

Tier 3 base-level business restrictions

Major differences from the tier 2 restrictions are shown in italic.

Tier 3 base-level closures and restrictions
DetailsRefExceptionsRef
Businesses that must closeNightclubs, dance halls, discos, sexual entertainment venues, hostess bars, any venue with music and dancing that opens at night [121] Where the owner runs a separate shop, cafe or restaurant, or an online delivery service [122]
Restrictions on pubs, bars, and other venues selling alcohol for consumption on the premisesThese venues must close unless they serve alcohol only as part of a main meal (at least equivalent to the main course of a main midday or evening meal). The meal must be eaten while seated at a table (not at a serving counter). This rule applies equally to areas adjacent to the premises used by customers [123] Alcohol served as part of a hotel's room service [124]
Opening hours restrictionsMust close between 22:00 and 05:00: restaurants*, food and drink takeaways*, cafes and workplace canteens*, bars*, pubs*, social clubs*, bowling alleys, cinemas, theatres, amusement arcades or other indoor leisure centres, funfairs (indoors or outdoors), theme and adventure parks and activities, bingo halls, and concert halls [125] Supermarkets, convenience stores, pharmacists, petrol stations; [126] motorway service stations); [127] air and sea ports; [128] on public transport; [129] online food and drink deliveries and collections, drive-through takeaways. [130] Cinemas, theatres and concert halls may remain open after 22:00 for the purpose of completing performances which began before that time [131]
Table service and customer eatingVenues marked * above which sell alcohol must serve all food and drink to customers seated at tables. Customers must order at the table, and must remain seated while eating and drinking. Venues so marked which do not sell alcohol need not serve customers at a table, but they must ensure that customers eating and drinking on the premises remain seated [132]

Tier 3 additional restrictions in specific regions

These restrictions applied in the areas specified, in addition to the tier 3 base-level restrictions

In effectDetailsRef
Tier 3 areas within Liverpool19 Oct 2020Must close (or remain closed): betting shops and adult gaming centres, casinos, indoor gyms, fitness and dance studios, and indoor sports facilities [11]
24 Oct 2020Must close: soft play areas [133]
Tier 3 areas within Lancashire19 Oct 2020Must close (or remain closed): betting shops and adult gaming centres, casinos, bingo halls, soft play areas, car boot sales [11]
Tier 3 areas within Greater Manchester23 Oct 2020Must close: betting shops and adult gaming centres, casinos, bingo halls, soft play areas [134]
Tier 3 areas within South Yorkshire23 Oct 2020Must close: betting shops and adult gaming centres, casinos, soft play areas [134]
Tier 3 areas within Cheshire27 Oct 2020Must close: betting shops and adult gaming centres, casinos, soft play areas [135]
Tier 3 areas within Nottinghamshire30 Oct 2020Must close: restaurants, cafes (except for the serving of a substantial table meal, without alcohol); betting shops and adult gaming centres, casinos, bingo halls, car boot sales, most auction houses; theme parks, circuses, funfairs, fairgrounds; spas and beauty salons (other than hairdressers), nail bars, tanning salons, tattoo and piercing parlours, saunas; most conference centres and exhibition halls, museums and galleries; many indoor entertainment venues including: visitor attractions, amusement arcades, bowling alleys, play centres and soft play areas, roller-skating rinks, indoor games, recreation and entertainment venues (such as laser quests and escape rooms); hookah lounges.

Off-licences must close between 9 pm and 5 am

[136]

Amendments to earlier measures

A schedule attached to the 'tier 1' regulations added cinemas, concert venues and theatres to the requirement for venue operators to obtain contact details (name and phone number) from people or groups entering the venue. [137]

Enforcement

Breaches of the regulations were offences and could be prosecuted or dealt with by fixed penalty notices with penalties ranging up to £10,000 for repeated violations. [138]

Reviews and revocation

The Secretary of State had to review the need for all the restrictions every 28 days, and also the applicability of the tier 2 geographical areas every 14 days. There was no separate review of the tier 1 geographical areas. [139] Tier 3 geographical area designations were set to expire automatically after 28 days. [24]

All of the tier regulations were set to expire automatically on 14 April 2021. [139] In the event, however, they were all revoked early, on 5 November 2020, by The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Restrictions) (England) (No. 4) Regulations 2020 which enforced a more rigorous second lockdown.

Main changes by date

This chronological table lists the main changes made by amendments to the tier regulations.

SIIn effectRefMain changes
2020/112817 Oct 2020 [14] Move up to tier 2: Greater London and the City of London, Essex (apart from Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock), Derbyshire (parts of High Peak), Cumbria (Barrow-in-Furness), North Yorkshire (York) and Surrey (Elmbridge)
2020/113117 Oct 2020 [19] Move up to tier 3: Lancashire
19 Oct 2020 [140] Allow the re-opening of casinos, betting shops, indoor gyms, fitness and dance studios and indoor sports facilities, except in Liverpool and Lancashire where special rules apply
2020/115423 Oct 2020 [134] Move up to tier 3: Greater Manchester. Additional closures there, beyond base tier 3 closures
24 Oct 2020 [134] [15] Move up to tier 2 Slough, Stoke-on-Trent and Coventry

Move up to tier 3: South Yorkshire. Additional closures there, beyond base tier 3 closures.

Close soft play areas in Liverpool.

2020/117627 Oct 2020 [22] Move up to tier 3:Cheshire: Warrington
2020/118330 Oct 2020 [23] Move up to tier 3:Nottinghamshire.
[136] Many more business closures in Nottinghamshire; off-licences must close at 9 pm
2020/118931 Oct 2020 [17] Move up to tier 2:Bedfordshire: Luton. Derbyshire: Amber Valley, Bolsover, Derby, Derbyshire Dales, remaining areas of High Peak, South Derbyshire. East Riding of Yorkshire: East Riding, Hull. Shropshire: [16] Telford & Wrekin. Leicestershire: Charnwood. Lincolnshire: NE Lincs, N Lincs. Oxfordshire: Oxford. Staffordshire: East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Stafford, Stafford Moorlands, Tamworth, West Midlands: Dudley
2020/119231 Oct 2020 [16] Move up to tier 2: Carlisle

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The following is a timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in England from July 2020 to December 2020. There are significant differences in the legislation and the reporting between the countries of the UK: England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales.

The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Restrictions) (Steps) (England) Regulations 2021 United Kingdom emergency legislation

The Health Protection (Steps) (England) Regulations 2021 is an English emergency statutory instrument which replaced The Health Protection (England) Regulations 2020 from 29 March 2021. Initially, all of England was subject to Step 1 restrictions. Step 2 applied from 12 April 2021 and Step 3 from 17 May 2021. The regulations were originally set to expire on 30 June 2021, but that was later extended to the end of 18 July 2021. They were revoked on the latter date.

The Health Protection (Coronavirus, International Travel and Operator Liability) (England) Regulations 2021 United Kingdom emergency legislation

The Health Protection (England) Regulations 2021 is a statutory instrument (SI) enacted on 17 May 2021 by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, Matt Hancock, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, revoking and replacing The Health Protection (England) Regulations 2020.

The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Wearing of Face Coverings) (England) Regulations 2021 United Kingdom emergency legislation

The Health Protection (England) Regulations 2021 is a statutory instrument (SI) brought into force on 30 November 2021 by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Subject to some exceptions, it requires members of the public in England to wear a face covering on public transport and in most indoor shops. The regulations are similar to previous face covering regulations that had been revoked in July 2021.

The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Restrictions) (Entry to Venues and Events) (England) Regulations 2021 United Kingdom emergency legislation

The Health Protection (England) Regulations 2021 is a statutory instrument (SI) made on 13 December 2021 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The regulations, which cover England only, were introduced following increasing concerns about the Omicron variant. They mostly came into effect on 15 December 2021.

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Bibliography