Inovio COVID-19 vaccine

Last updated

Inovio COVID-19 vaccine
Vaccine description
Target SARS-CoV-2
Vaccine type DNA
Clinical data
Other namesINO-4800
Routes of

Inovio COVID-19 vaccine is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Inovio Pharmaceuticals.



In February 2020 after receiving details of the genetic sequence of the coronavirus, Inovio announced that it had produced a preclinical DNA-based vaccine as a potential therapy for COVID-19. [1] [2] Inovio is in competition to develop a coronavirus vaccine with numerous other companies, which were conducting preclinical or early-stage human research on more than 170 vaccine candidates, as of late June. [3] In April 2020, Inovio began a Phase I trial of the COVID-19 vaccine candidate, INO-4800. [4]

Clinical trials

Inovio is collaborating with Beijing Advaccine Biotechnology Co., a Chinese biotech firm, [2] in order to speed its acceptance by regulatory authorities in China, with plans to begin human clinical trials of a candidate vaccine in China during the first half of 2020. [5] [6] Inovio has partnerships with manufacturers to scale up production of a vaccine if preliminary efficacy trials are successful. [2] In April 2020, the company began human Phase I safety studies of its lead vaccine (INO-4800) in the United States, and a Phase I-II trial in South Korea, to test for immunization against the COVID-19 virus. [5] [7]

In early June, Inovio partnered with the International Vaccine Institute and Seoul National University, South Korea, to advance human research on INO-4800 in a Phase I-II safety and efficacy trial to be conducted on 120 participants at Seoul National University Hospital beginning in June. [8] The trial is funded by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations and supported by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korea National Institute of Health. [8]

Related Research Articles

Moderna American biotechnology company

Moderna, Inc is an American pharmaceutical and biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It focuses on vaccine technologies based on messenger RNA (mRNA). Moderna's vaccine platform inserts synthetic nucleoside-modified messenger RNA (modRNA) into human cells using a coating of lipid nanoparticles. This mRNA then reprograms the cells to prompt immune responses. Moderna develops mRNA therapeutic vaccines that are delivered in lipid nanoparticle, using mRNA with pseudouridine nucleosides. Candidates are designed to have improved folding and translation efficiency via insertional mutagenesis.

Novavax American biotechnology company

Novavax, Inc., is an American biotechnology company based in Gaithersburg, Maryland that develops vaccines to counter serious infectious diseases. Prior to 2020, company scientists developed experimental vaccines for Ebola, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and other emerging infectious diseases. During 2020, the company redirected its efforts to focus on development and approval of its vaccine for COVID-19. Novavax has indicated it recognizes a continued need for innovative vaccines in other therapeutic areas and reports it has taken steps to ensure continued advancement of its influenza vaccine.

Arcturus Therapeutics is an American RNA medicines biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of therapeutics for rare diseases and infectious diseases. Arcturus has developed a novel, potent, and safe RNA therapeutics platform called LUNAR, a proprietary lipid-enabled delivery system for nucleic acid medicines including small interfering RNA (siRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), gene editing RNA, DNA, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), and microRNA.

Universal flu vaccine

A universal flu vaccine is a flu vaccine that is effective against all influenza strains regardless of the virus sub type, antigenic drift or antigenic shift. Hence it should not require modification from year to year. As of 2019 there has been no approved universal flu vaccine for general use, but several have been in development.

Inovio Pharmaceuticals is an American biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development, and commercialization of synthetic DNA products for treating cancers and infectious diseases. In April 2020, Inovio was among some 100 companies, academic centers, or research organizations developing a vaccine candidate for treating people infected with COVID-19, with more than 170 total vaccine candidates in development.

COVID-19 vaccine Designed to provide acquired immunity against SARS-CoV-2

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Prior to the COVID‑19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine technologies during early 2020. On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID-19. The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the spread, severity, and death caused by COVID-19.

COVID-19 drug development Preventative and therapeutic medications for COVID-19 infection

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop preventative therapeutic prescription drugs that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From early 2020 through 2021, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing therapeutic candidates for COVID-19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research, with 419 potential COVID-19 drugs in clinical trials, as of April 2021.

Bharat Biotech Indian biotechnology company and vaccine manufacturer

Bharat Biotech International Limited (BBIL) is an Indian multinational biotechnology company headquartered in Hyderabad, engaged in the drug discovery, drug development, manufacture of vaccines, bio-therapeutics, pharmaceuticals and health care products.

Medicago Inc. Canadian biotechnology company

Medicago Inc. is a privately-owned Canadian biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development, and commercialization of virus-like particles using plants as "bioreactors" to produce proteins as candidate vaccines and medications. By using live plant leaves as hosts in the discovery and manufacturing process, the Medicago "Proficia" technology has the goal to create a rapid, high-yield system for its product candidates.

Covaxin Vaccine against COVID-19

Covaxin is an inactivated virus-based COVID-19 vaccine developed by Bharat Biotech in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research.

Novavax COVID-19 vaccine Vaccine candidate against COVID-19

The Novavax COVID-19 vaccine, codenamed NVX-CoV2373, is a subunit COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Novavax and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), that is undergoing trials in India under the brand name Covovax. It requires two doses and is stable at 2 to 8 °C refrigerated temperatures.

ZF2001 Vaccine against COVID-19

ZF2001, trade-named ZIFIVAX or RBD-Dimer, is an adjuvanted protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine developed by Anhui Zhifei Longcom in collaboration with the Institute of Microbiology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. As of December 2020, the vaccine candidate was in Phase III trials with 29,000 participants in China, Ecuador, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan.

CoVLP COVID-19 vaccine candidate produced in a plant

CoVLP is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Medicago and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). It is a coronavirus virus-like particle vaccine grown in the Australian weed, Nicotiana benthamiana.

History of COVID-19 vaccine development Scientific work to develop a vaccine for COVID-19

COVID-19's caused virus, SARS-CoV-2, was isolated in late 2019. Its genetic sequence was published on 11 January 2020, triggering an urgent international response to prepare for an outbreak and hasten development of a preventive COVID-19 vaccine. Since 2020, vaccine development has been expedited via unprecedented collaboration in the multinational pharmaceutical industry and between governments. By June 2020, tens of billions of dollars were invested by corporations, governments, international health organizations, and university research groups to develop dozens of vaccine candidates and prepare for global vaccination programs to immunize against COVID‑19 infection. According to the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), the geographic distribution of COVID‑19 vaccine development shows North American entities to have about 40% of the activity, compared to 30% in Asia and Australia, 26% in Europe, and a few projects in South America and Africa.

CureVac COVID-19 vaccine Vaccine candidate against COVID-19

The CureVac COVID-19 vaccine is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by CureVac N.V. and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). The vaccine showed inadequate results in its Phase III trials with only 47% efficacy. The European Medicines Agency stated that: “(...) medicine developers should design studies to demonstrate a rate of efficacy of at least 50%.”

ZyCoV-D Vaccine candidate against COVID-19

ZyCoV-D is a DNA plasmid based COVID-19 vaccine being developed by Cadila Healthcare with support from the Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council.

SCB-2019 Vaccine candidate against COVID-19

SCB-2019 is a protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Clover Biopharmaceuticals using an adjuvant from Dynavax. Positive results of Phase I trials for the vaccine were published in The Lancet and the vaccine completed enrollment in its Phase II/III trials in July 2021, with efficacy results expected to be announced by Q3 2021. SCB-2019 is being funded by CEPI as part of COVAX and has received advanced purchase orders from GAVI for 400 million doses.

Nanocovax Vaccine candidate against COVID-19

Nanocovax is a Vietnamese COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Nanogen Pharmaceutical Biotechnology JSC. It is a subunit vaccine.

WIBP-CorV Vaccine against COVID-19

WIBP-CorV is one of two inactivated virus COVID-19 vaccines developed by Sinopharm. Peer-reviewed results show WIBP-CorV 72.8% effective against symptomatic cases and 100% against severe cases. The other inactivated virus COVID-19 vaccine developed by Sinopharm is BBIBP-CorV which is comparably more successful. 1 billion doses are expected to be produced per year.

Walvax COVID-19 vaccine Vaccine candidate against COVID-19

ARCoV, also known as the Walvax COVID-19 vaccine, is an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Walvax Biotechnology, Suzhou Abogen Biosciences, and the PLA Academy of Military Science. It is in Phase III trials in Mexico.


  1. Linnane C (8 March 2020). "Inovio shares rally after biotech says human trials of coronavirus vaccine will start in April". MarketWatch. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  2. 1 2 3 Freeman M. "Is a vaccine for the coronavirus coming? Inovio says it has designed one in San Diego". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  3. "COVID-19 vaccine tracker (Select vaccine tab)". Milken Institute. 22 June 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2020. Lay summary.
  4. Clinical trial number NCT04336410 for "Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of INO-4800 for COVID-19 in Healthy Volunteers" at
  5. 1 2 Thanh Le T, Andreadakis Z, Kumar A, Gómez Román R, Tollefsen S, Saville M, Mayhew S (May 2020). "The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 19 (5): 305–306. doi: 10.1038/d41573-020-00073-5 . PMID   32273591.
  6. Mazumdar T (30 January 2020). "Coronavirus: Scientists race to develop a vaccine". BBC News – Health. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  7. "IVI, INOVIO, and KNIH to partner with CEPI in a Phase I/II clinical trial of INOVIO's COVID-19 DNA vaccine in South Korea". International Vaccine Institute. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  8. 1 2 "IVI and SNU partner to trial Inovio Covid-19 vaccine in Korea". Clinical Trials Arena. 5 June 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.