U.S. state and local government responses to the COVID-19 pandemic

Last updated

States, territories, and counties that have issued a stay-at-home order
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Came into effect before March 22
Came into effect before March 29
Came into effect before April 5
Came into effect before April 12
No order ever issued
Full map including municipalities COVID-19 outbreak USA stay-at-home order county map.svg
States, territories, and counties that have issued a stay-at-home order
  Came into effect before March 22
  Came into effect before March 29
  Came into effect before April 5
  Came into effect before April 12
  No order ever issued
Full map including municipalities

State, territorial, tribal, and local governments have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States with various declarations of emergency, closure of schools and public meeting places, lockdowns, and other restrictions intended to slow the progression of the virus.

Contents

Multiple groups of states have formed compacts in an attempt to coordinate some of their responses. On the West coast: California, Oregon, and Washington state; in the Northeast: Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island; and in the Midwest: Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. [1] [2] [3]

There was a link between public health outcomes and partisanship between states. At the beginning of the pandemic to early June 2020, Democratic-led states had higher case rates than Republican-led states, while in the second half of 2020, Republican-led states saw higher case and death rates than states led by Democrats. States with tougher policies generally had fewer coronavirus cases and deaths. [4] [5] Thousands of US counties also initiated their own policy responses to the pandemic, resulting in significant variability even within states. [6]

State-level regulations

Initial pandemic responses, including full lockdowns

This is a list of regulations that were imposed at the state level, restricting activities and closing facilities as a result of the pandemic. Many counties and municipal jurisdictions have imposed more stringent regulations. A Columbia University model estimated 54,000 deaths would have been prevented if states had enacted restrictions starting a few weeks earlier, on March 1. [7]

State/territoryState of emergency declared Stay at home ordered Face coverings required in public [8] Gatherings bannedOut-of-state travel restrictionsClosures orderedSources
SchoolsDaycaresBars & sit-down restaurantsNon-essential retail
Flag of Alabama.svg Alabama March 13April 4Yes10 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Alaska.svg Alaska March 11March 28No10 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [15] [11] [16] [12] [13]
Flag of American Samoa.svg American Samoa January 29NoNo10 or moreTravel suspendedYes (remainder of term)YesNoNo [17] [18] [19]
Flag of Arizona.svg Arizona March 11March 31No50 or moreLimited quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [20] [11] [21] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansas March 11NoYes10 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesRegional [22] [11] [23] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of California.svg California (government response)March 4March 19YesAllNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [24] [25] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado March 10March 26Yes10 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)RestrictedYesYes [11] [26] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Connecticut.svg Connecticut March 10March 23YesAllRecommended quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [27] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Delaware.svg Delaware March 12March 24YesAllMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [28] [11] [29] [30] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Washington, D.C..svg District of Columbia March 11March 30Yes10 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [31] [32] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Florida.svg Florida March 1April 3No10 or moreLimited quarantine / ScreenedYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [33] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Georgia March 14April 3No10 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)NoYesYes [11] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Guam.svg Guam March 14NoNoAllNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [34]
Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii March 4March 25Yes11 or more, and public gathering in public placesMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [35] [36] [12] [13]
Flag of Idaho.svg Idaho March 13March 25NoAllMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesRestricted [11] [37] [38] [12] [13] [39] [14]
Flag of Illinois.svg Illinois March 9March 21YesAllNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [40] [41] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Indiana.svg Indiana March 6March 25YesAll outside, and 11 or more inside a householdNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [12] [13] [14] [42] [43] [44]
Flag of Iowa.svg Iowa March 9NoNo10 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [45] [12] [13] [46] [14]
Flag of Kansas.svg Kansas March 9March 30Yes10 or moreLimited quarantineYes (remainder of term)NoYesYes [11] [47] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Kentucky.svg Kentucky March 6March 26 (advisory)Yes10 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [12] [13] [14] [48] [49]
Flag of Louisiana.svg Louisiana March 11March 23Yes11 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [12] [13] [14] [50] [51] [52]
Flag of Maine.svg Maine March 15April 2Yes10 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesRestricted [11] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Maryland.svg Maryland March 5March 30Yes10 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [53] [54] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Massachusetts.svg Massachusetts March 10March 24 (advisory)Yes11 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [55] [56] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Michigan.svg Michigan March 11March 24YesAllNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [57] [58] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Minnesota.svg Minnesota March 13March 27YesAllNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [12] [13] [14] [59] [44]
Flag of Mississippi.svg Mississippi March 4April 3NoAllNoYes (remainder of term)NoYesYes [11] [60] [61] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Missouri.svg Missouri March 13April 6No10 or moreRegionalYes (remainder of term)NoYesYes [11] [62] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Montana.svg Montana March 12March 28No10 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (districts' choice)YesYesYes [11] [63] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Nebraska.svg Nebraska March 13NoNo10 or moreLimited quarantineYes (remainder of term)RestrictedRestrictedNo [11] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada March 12April 1Yes10 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [64] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of New Hampshire.svg New Hampshire March 13March 27No50 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [65] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of New Jersey.svg New Jersey March 9March 21YesAllNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [66] [67] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico March 11March 24Yes6 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [68] [69] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of New York.svg New York (government response)March 7March 22YesAllNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [70] [71] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of North Carolina.svg North Carolina March 10March 30Yes10 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [72] [73] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of North Dakota.svg North Dakota March 13NoNo50 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg N. Mariana Islands January 29NoNo10 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)YesNoNo [74] [12]
Flag of Ohio.svg Ohio March 9March 23Yes11 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)RestrictedYesYes [11] [12] [13] [14] [75] [44]
Flag of Oklahoma.svg Oklahoma March 15April 2 (partial advisory)No11 or moreLimited quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [76] [12] [13] [77] [14]
Flag of Oregon.svg Oregon March 8March 23YesAllNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesRestricted [11] [78] [79] [12] [13] [14] [80]
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg Pennsylvania March 6April 1No10 or more (recommended)Limited quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [81] [82] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Puerto Rico March 12March 15NoAllScreenedYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [83]
Flag of Rhode Island.svg Rhode Island March 9March 28Yes25 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [84] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of South Carolina.svg South Carolina March 13April 7No50 or moreLimited quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [85] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of South Dakota.svg South Dakota March 13RegionalNo50 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)YesNoNo [11] [86] [87] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Tennessee.svg Tennessee March 12April 2Varies by county10 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [88] [89] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of Texas.svg Texas (government response)March 13April 2Yes10 or moreLimited quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [12] [13] [90] [91] [14]
Flag of Utah.svg Utah March 6RegionalYes10 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesRegional [11] [92] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg U.S. Virgin Islands March 13March 25NoAllNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [93]
Flag of Vermont.svg Vermont March 16March 25No10 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [94] [95] [12] [96] [13] [14]
Flag of Virginia.svg Virginia March 12March 30Yes10 or moreNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesRestricted [11] [12] [13] [14] [97] [98] [99]
Flag of Washington.svg Washington February 29March 23YesAllNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [100] [101] [12] [13] [14]
Flag of West Virginia.svg West Virginia March 4March 23YesAllNoYes (remainder of term)YesYesYes [11] [12] [13] [14] [102] [103]
Flag of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin March 12March 25 (declared unconstitutional on May 13)YesAllMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)RestrictedYesYes [11] [12] [13] [14] [104] [105] [106]
Flag of Wyoming.svg Wyoming March 12RegionalNo10 or moreMandatory quarantineYes (remainder of term)YesYesNo [11] [107] [108] [12] [13] [14]

In Michigan, Puerto Rico, Texas, and Vermont, retailers who sold a mix of essential and non-essential items were only allowed to sell essential items. [109]

Regions that formerly had a stay-at-home order or advisory [110] [111]
StateDate enactedDate lifted
AlabamaApril 4, 2020April 30, 2020
ColoradoMarch 26, 2020April 26, 2020
FloridaApril 3, 2020May 4, 2020
GeorgiaApril 3, 2020April 30, 2020
IdahoMarch 25, 2020April 30, 2020
IllinoisMarch 21, 2020May 30, 2020
IndianaMarch 25, 2020May 1, 2020
KansasMarch 30, 2020May 4, 2020
LouisianaMarch 30, 2020May 15, 2020
MaineApril 2, 2020April 30, 2020
MarylandMarch 30, 2020May 15, 2020
MassachusettsMarch 24, 2020May 18, 2020
MichiganMarch 24, 2020June 2, 2020
MississippiApril 3, 2020April 27, 2020
MissouriApril 6, 2020May 3, 2020
MontanaMarch 28, 2020April 26, 2020
New HampshireMarch 27, 2020June 11, 2020
New JerseyMarch 21, 2020June 9, 2020
South CarolinaApril 7, 2020May 4, 2020
TennesseeMarch 31, 2020April 30, 2020
TexasApril 2, 2020April 30, 2020
West VirginiaMarch 23, 2020May 4, 2020
WisconsinMarch 25, 2020May 13, 2020 [112] [113]

Fully reopening for states that chose to shut down

September 2020

Florida nearly fully reopened on September 25, 2020. All businesses were allowed to reopen at 100% except bars which were allowed to be restricted to 50% capacity by local governments. The governor, after initially leaving mask mandates up to local governments, overrode all local mandates and announced that no Florida government could fine someone for failing to social distance or wear a mask. [114]

February 2021

On February 5, Iowa announced that all mandates would be repealed by February 8. This caught some by surprise since Iowa was struggling (compared to other states) to distribute coronavirus vaccines in early February. [115]

On February 26, Arkansas fully repealed all mandates except for a mask mandate, which the governor said would likely be repealed at the end of March. Arkansas continues to make recommendations. [116]

March 2021

Mississippi announced on March 2, 2021, that it would fully reopen on March 3. The state would continue to make recommendations, but would repeal all mandates. [117] Texas also announced on March 2 that it would be fully reopened on March 10, 2021, with no mask requirements; the state would continue to issue recommendations. [118]

Wyoming announced on March 8, 2021, that it will fully reopen March 16. That reopening would include ending its mask mandate. Additionally, by March 11, 2021, Connecticut and West Virginia had fully reopened except for mask mandates, and Arizona had fully reopened except for mask and social distancing mandates. [119]

Indian Reservations

On March 19, the Wiyot Tribe issued a shelter-in-place order on the Table Bluff Reservation effective March 20 to April 7. [120]

The Navajo Nation imposed a stay-at-home order on the entire reservation, the largest reservation in the country, on March 20. [121] The Navajo Nation reissued this order on March 24. [122]

The Northern Cheyenne and Crow Indian reservations in Montana imposed curfews. [121]

On March 21, the Makah Reservation in northwestern Washington State issued a shelter-in-place order. [123] On March 22, the Lummi Nation also announced a shelter in place order after five cases in the area were confirmed, including two members of the tribe. [124]

On March 23, the Red Lake Indian Reservation in northwestern Minnesota issued a shelter-in-place order and curfew for 30 days. [125] The Southern Ute Indian Reservation in southwestern Colorado issued a stay-at-home advisory. [126] On March 26, the reservation closed its borders and replaced its stay-at-home advisory with a mandatory order. [127]

On March 23, the Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho tribes issued a joint stay-at-home directive for the Wind River Indian Reservation. [128] The Quinault Indian Nation issued a shelter-in-place order for the Quinault Reservation until further notice. [129]

On March 24, the Nooksack Tribe issued a shelter-in-place order effective March 24 until April 7. [130] The Swinomish Tribe issued a stay-at-home order for the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community effective March 25 through April 6. [131]

On March 26, the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation issued a stay-at-home order effective March 27 until further notice. [132] The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes issued a shelter-in-place order for the Flathead Indian Reservation effective March 26. [133]

On March 27, the Crow Tribe of Montana and Northern Cheyenne Tribe issued stay-at-home orders for the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian reservations, respectively, effective March 28 through April 10. [134] The Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho issued a stay-at-home order effective until further notice. [135] The Shoshone-Bannock tribes issued a stay-at-home order for the Fort Hall Indian Reservation effective until April 17. [136] The Coeur d'Alene Reservation issued a stay-at-home order. [137] The Rosebud Sioux Tribe issued a shelter-in-place order for the Rosebud Indian Reservation (which is coterminous with Todd County, South Dakota). [138]

All 22 tribes in Arizona, including the Ak-Chin Indian Community, Gila River Indian Community, Hualapai Tribe, Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian Community, and Tohono O'odham Nation, have declared states of emergency, closed facilities and casinos, and limited governmental business to essential functions, among other measures. [139]

CARES Act and tribal nations

On March 25, Congress announced that $8 billion of the CARES Act would be allocated to help native tribes fight COVID-19. More than $600 million was redistributed to the Navajo Nation. [140] On 22 April 2020, 10 tribal nations (including Alaska's Akiak Native Community, Asa'cararmiut Tribe, Aleut Community of St. Paul Island, and the Navajo Nation) began procedures to sue the U.S. Treasury and Interior department secretaries over the allocation of funds to Alaska Native corporations. [141] [142] In May 2020, the Department of Treasury stated that the funding for Alaska Native corporations would be held back while the lawsuit awaited a decision. [143]

See also

Further reading

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