New Mexico

Last updated

New Mexico
State of New Mexico
Estado de Nuevo México  (Spanish)
Yootó Hahoodzo  (Navajo)
Nickname(s):  
Land of Enchantment
Motto(s):  
Crescit eundo (English: It grows as it goes)
Anthem: "O Fair New Mexico" and "Así Es Nuevo México"
New Mexico in United States.svg
Map of the United States with New Mexico highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehood Nuevo México (1598–1848)
New Mexico Territory (1850–1912)
Admitted to the Union January 6, 1912 (47th)
Capital Santa Fe
Largest city Albuquerque
Largest metro and urban areas Greater Albuquerque
Government
   Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham (D)
   Lieutenant Governor Howie Morales (D)
Legislature New Mexico Legislature
   Upper house Senate
   Lower house House of Representatives
Judiciary New Mexico Supreme Court
U.S. senators
U.S. House delegation (list)
Area
  Total121,590 [1]  sq mi (314,917 km2)
  Land121,298 [1]  sq mi (314,161 km2)
  Water292 [1]  sq mi (757 km2)  0.24%
Area rank 5th
Dimensions
  Length371 mi (596 km)
  Width344 mi (552 km)
Elevation
5,701 ft (1,741 m)
Highest elevation13,161 ft (4,011.4 m)
Lowest elevation
(Red Bluff Reservoir on Texas border [3] [4] )
2,845 ft (868 m)
Population
 (2020)
  Total2,120,220
  Rank 36th
  Density17.2/sq mi (6.62/km2)
  Density rank 45th
   Median household income
$46,744 [5]
  Income rank
47th
Demonym(s) New Mexican (Spanish: Neomexicano, Neomejicano) [6]
Language
   Official language None
   Spoken language English, Spanish, Navajo, Keres, Zuni [7]
Time zones
entire state (legally) UTC−07:00 (Mountain)
  Summer (DST) UTC−06:00 (MDT)
Nara Visa (informally) UTC−06:00 (Central)
  Summer (DST) UTC−05:00 (CDT)
USPS abbreviation
NM
ISO 3166 code US-NM
Traditional abbreviation N.M., N.Mex.
Latitude31°20′ N to 37°N
Longitude103° W to 109°3′ W
Website www.newmexico.gov
New Mexico state symbols
Flag of New Mexico.svg
Seal of New Mexico.svg
Living insignia
Bird Greater roadrunner
Fish Rio Grande cutthroat trout
Flower Yucca
Grass Blue grama
Insect Tarantula Hawk Wasp
Mammal American black bear
Reptile New Mexico whiptail
Tree Two-needle piñon
Inanimate insignia
Colors Red and yellow
Food Chile peppers, pinto beans, and biscochitos
Fossil Coelophysis
Gemstone Turquoise
State route marker
New Mexico 120.svg
State quarter
2008 NM Proof.png
Released in 2008
Lists of United States state symbols

New Mexico (Spanish : Nuevo México [ˈnweβo ˈmexiko] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Navajo : Yootó Hahoodzo [joː˩tʰo˥ ha˩hoː˩tso˩] ) is a state in the Southwestern United States. It is one of the Mountain States of the southern Rocky Mountains, sharing the Four Corners region of the western U.S. with Utah, Colorado, and Arizona, and bordering Texas to the east and southeast, Oklahoma to the northeast, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora to the south. The state capital is Santa Fe, which is the oldest capital in the U.S., founded in 1610 as the government seat of Nuevo México in New Spain; the largest city is Albuquerque.

Contents

New Mexico is the fifth-largest of the fifty states, but with just over 2.1 million residents, ranks 36th in population and 46th in population density. [Note 1] Its climate and geography are highly varied, ranging from forested mountains to sparse deserts; the northern and eastern regions exhibit a colder alpine climate, while the west and south are warmer and more arid; the Rio Grande and its fertile valley runs from north-to-south, creating a riparian climate through the center of the state that supports a bosque habitat and distinct Albuquerque Basin climate. One–third of New Mexico's land is federally owned, and the state hosts many protected wilderness areas and national monuments, including three UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

New Mexico's economy is highly diversified, with major sectors including oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, acequia and landrace agriculture, lumber, retail, scientific research laboratories, technological development, and the arts, especially textiles and visual arts. Its total gross domestic product (GDP) in 2020 was $95.73 billion, with a GDP per capita of roughly $46,300. [8] [9] State tax policy is characterized by low to moderate taxation of resident personal income by national standards, with tax credits, exemptions, and special considerations for military personnel and favorable industries; subsequently, its film industry is one of the largest and fastest growing in the country. [10] Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a significant U.S. military presence, most notably the White Sands Missile Range, and many U.S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in the state, such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories, known as Project Y during the 1940s; here, the Manhattan Project was responsible for the world's first atomic bomb and first nuclear test, Trinity.

In prehistoric times, New Mexico was home to Ancestral Puebloans, Mogollon, and the modern Comanche and Utes. [11] Spanish explorers and settlers arrived in the 16th century, naming the territory Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico; thus, the state didnot derive its name from Mexico. [12] [13] Isolated by its rugged terrain and the relative dominance of its indigenous people, New Mexico was a peripheral part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Following Mexican independence in 1821, it became an autonomous region of Mexico, though this autonomy was increasingly threatened by the centralizing policies of the Mexican government, culminating in the Revolt of 1837; at the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the U.S. annexed New Mexico as part of the larger New Mexico Territory. It played a central role in American westward expansion, and was admitted to the Union in 1912.

New Mexico's history has contributed to its unique demographic and cultural character. One of only six majority-minority states, it has the nation's highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans and the second-highest percentage of Native Americans after Alaska. [14] New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities, and three different federally recognized Apache tribes. Its large Hispanic population includes Hispanos, who descend from early Spanish settlers, as well as Chicanos and Mexicans. The New Mexican flag, which is among the most recognizable in the U.S., [15] reflects the state's eclectic origins, bearing the scarlet and gold coloration of Spain's Cross of Burgundy along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe. [16] The confluence of indigenous, Spanish, Mexican, Hispanic, and American influences is also evident in New Mexico's unique cuisine, music genre, and architecture.

Etymology

New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. The name "Mexico" derives from Nahuatl and originally referred to the heartland of the Mexica (Aztec) Empire in the Valley of Mexico, far from the area of New Mexico.

Following their conquest of the Aztecs in the early 16th century, the Spanish began exploring what is now the western United States, using "Mexico" in 1563 to name the region of New Mexico (Spanish: Nuevo México). In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande San Felipe del Nuevo México. [17] The Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous cultures similar to those of the Mexica's in central Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, however, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas and lacking in riches, but the name persisted. [18] [19]

Before statehood in 1912, the name "New Mexico" loosely applied to various configurations of territories in the same general area, which evolved throughout the Spanish, Mexican, and American periods, but typically encompassed most of present-day New Mexico along with sections of neighboring states. [20]

Geography

Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Range Wheeler Pk from Valle Vidal.jpg
Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Range
Puebloan ruins at Chaco Canyon Chaco Canyon Hungo Pavi ruins staircase NPS.jpg
Puebloan ruins at Chaco Canyon
Carlsbad Caverns National Park Carlsbad Interior Formations.jpg
Carlsbad Caverns National Park
White Sands National Park White sands national monument dune.jpg
White Sands National Park
Rio Grande Gorge and Bridge Rio Grande Gorge Bridge.jpg
Rio Grande Gorge and Bridge
Shiprock Shiprock.snodgrass3.jpg
Shiprock

With a total area of 121,590 square miles (314,900 km2), [1] New Mexico is the fifth-largest state, after Alaska, Texas, California, and Montana. Its eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and 2.2 miles (3.5 kilometres) west of 103°W longitude with Texas (due to a 19th-century surveying error). [21] [22] On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that. The western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. [23] The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel. The 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. Its surface water area is about 292 square miles (760 km2). [1]

Despite its popular depiction as mostly arid desert, New Mexico has one of the most diverse landscapes of any U.S. state, ranging from wide, auburn-colored deserts and verdant grasslands, to broken mesas and high, snow-capped peaks. [24] Close to a third of the state is covered in timberland, with heavily forested mountain wildernesses dominating the north. The Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north–south along the east side of the Rio Grande, in the rugged, pastoral north. The Great Plains extend into the eastern third of the state, most notably the Llano Estacado ("Staked Plain"), whose westernmost boundary is marked by the Mescalero Ridge escarpment. The northwestern quadrant of New Mexico is dominated by the Colorado Plateau, characterized by unique volcanic formations, dry grasslands and shrublands, open pinyon-juniper woodland, and mountain forests. [25] The Chihuahuan Desert, which is the largest in North America, extends through the south.

Over four–fifths of New Mexico is higher than 4,000 feet (1,250 meters) above sea level. The average elevation ranges from up to 8,000 feet (2,500 metes) above sea level in the northwest, to less than 4,000 feet in the southeast. [24] The highest point is Wheeler Peak at over 13,160 feet (4,011 meters) in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, while the lowest is the Red Bluff Reservoir at around 2,840 feet (866 meters), in the southeastern corner of the state.

In addition to the Rio Grande, which is tied for the fourth-longest river in the U.S., New Mexico has four other major river systems: the Pecos, Canadian, San Juan, and Gila. [26] Nearly bisecting New Mexico from north to south, the Rio Grande has played an influential role in the region's history; its fertile floodplain has supported human habitation since prehistoric times, and European settlers initially lived exclusively in its valleys and along its tributaries. [24] The Pecos, which flows roughly parallel to the Rio Grande at its east, was a popular route for explorers, as was the Canadian River, which rises in the mountainous north and flows east across the arid plains. The San Juan and Gila lie west of the Continental Divide, in the northwest and southwest, respectively. With the exception of the Gila, all major rivers are dammed in New Mexico and provide a major water source for irrigation and flood control.

Aside from its rivers, New Mexico has few sizeable natural bodies of water; there are several artificial lakes and reservoirs, the largest being Elephant Butte Reservoir, which was created by the damming of the Rio Grande. At its height in the early 20th century, the reservoir was the largest man-made lake in the world. [27]

Climate

Koppen climate types of New Mexico New Mexico Koppen.svg
Köppen climate types of New Mexico

New Mexico has long been reputable for its pleasant, temperate climate. [24] Overall the state is semiarid to arid, with areas of continental and alpine climates at higher elevations. New Mexico's statewide average precipitation is 12.9 inches (330 mm) a year, with average monthly amounts peaking in the summer, particularly in the more rugged north-central area around Albuquerque and in the south. Generally, the eastern third of the state receives the most rainfall, while the western third receives the least. Higher altitudes receive around 40 inches (1,000 mm), while the lowest elevations see as little as 8 to 10 inches (200–250 mm). [24]

Annual temperatures can range from 65 °F (18 °C) in the southeast to below 40 °F (4 °C) in the northern mountains, [23] with the average being the mid-50s °F (12 °C). During the summer, daytime temperatures can often exceed 100 °F (38 °C) at elevations below 5,000 feet (1,500 m); the average high temperature in July ranges from 99 °F (37 °C) at the lower elevations down to 78 °F (26 °C) at the higher elevations. In the colder months of November to March, many cities in New Mexico can have nighttime temperature lows in the teens above zero, or lower. The highest temperature recorded in New Mexico was 122 °F (50 °C) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Loving on June 27, 1994; the lowest recorded temperature is −50 °F (−46 °C) at Gavilan (near Lindrith) on February 1, 1951. [28]

Due to the state's stable climate, which provides for clearer skies, and relative isolation, which mitigates light pollution, there are several major astronomical observatories in New Mexico, including the Apache Point Observatory, the Very Large Array, the Magdalena Ridge Observatory, and others. [29] [30]

Flora and fauna

Greater roadrunner (the state bird of New Mexico) Geococcyx californianus.jpg
Greater roadrunner (the state bird of New Mexico)

Owing to its varied topography, New Mexico has six distinct vegetation zones that provide diverse sets of habitats for many plants and animals. [31] The Upper Sonoran Zone is by far the most prominent, constituting about three-fourths of the state; it includes most of the plains, foothills, and valleys above 4,500 feet, and is defined by prairie grasses, low piñon pines, and juniper shrubs. The Llano Estacado in the east features shortgrass prairie with blue grama, which sustain bison. The Chihuahuan Desert in the south is characterized by shrubby creosote. The Colorado Plateau in the northwest corner of New Mexico is high desert with cold winters, featuring sagebrush, shadescale, greasewood, and other plants adapted to the saline and seleniferous soil.

The mountainous north hosts a wide array of vegetation types corresponding to elevation gradients, such as piñon-juniper woodlands near the base, through evergreen conifers, spruce-fir and aspen forests in the transitionary zone, and Krummholz, and alpine tundra at the very top. [31] The Apachian zone tucked into the southwestern bootheel of the state has high-calcium soil, oak woodlands, Arizona cypress, and other plants that are not found in other parts of the state. [32] [33] The southern sections of the Rio Grande and Pecos valleys have 20,000 square miles (52,000 square km) of New Mexico's best grazing land and irrigated farmland.

New Mexico's varied climate and vegetation zones consequently support diverse wildlife. Black bears, bighorn sheep, bobcats, cougars, deer, and elk, which live in habitats above 7,000 feet, while coyotes, jackrabbits, kangaroo rats, javelina, porcupines, pronghorn antelope, western diamondbacks, and wild turkeys [34] [35] [36] live in less mountainous and elevated regions. The iconic roadrunner, which is the state bird, is abundant in the southeast. Endangered species include the Mexican gray wolf, which is being gradually reintroduced in the world, and Rio Grande silvery minnow. [37]

Conservation

New Mexico and 12 other western states account for 93% of all federally owned land in the U.S. Roughly one–third of the state, or 24.7 million of 77.8 million acres, is held by the U.S. government, the tenth-highest percentage in the country. More than half this land is under the Bureau of Land Management, while another third managed by the U.S. Forest Service.

New Mexico was central to the early–20th century conservation movement, with Gila Wilderness being designated the world's first wilderness area in 1924. [38] The state also hosts nine of the country's 84 national monuments, the most of any state after Arizona; these include the second oldest monument, El Morro, which was created in 1906, and the Gila Cliff Dwellings, proclaimed in 1907. [38]

National Forests in New Mexico [39]
Carson National Forest
Carson National Forest - 2021-01-20.jpg
Cibola National Forest
Trailhead, Trail 77, Gooseberry Trail, Cibola, National Forest - panoramio (1).jpg
Lincoln National Forest
Lincoln National Forest (15397461699).jpg
Santa Fe National Forest
Looking South from Hermit's Peak, Pecos Wilderness, Santa Fe National Forest.jpg
Gila National Forest
Gila Natl Forest Nima3.JPG
Gila Wilderness
GilaWilderness.jpg

Areas managed by the National Park Service include: [40]

Areas managed by the New Mexico State Parks Division: [42]

Environmental issues

In January 2016, New Mexico sued the United States Environmental Protection Agency over negligence after the 2015 Gold King Mine waste water spill. The spill had caused heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and toxins such as arsenic to flow into the Animas River, polluting water basins of several states. [43] The state has since implemented or considered stricter regulations and harsher penalties for spills associated with resource extraction. [44]

New Mexico is a major producer of greenhouse gases. [45] A study by Colorado State University showed that the state's oil and gas industry generated 60 million metric tons of greenhouse gases in 2018, over four times greater than previously estimated. [45] The fossil fuels sector accounted for over half the state's overall emissions, which totaled 113.6 million metric tons, about 1.8% of the country's total and more than twice the national average per capita. [45] [46] The New Mexico government has responded with efforts to regulate industrial emissions, promote renewable energy, and incentivize the use of electric vehicles. [46] [47]

History

Ancestral Pueblo territory shown in pink over New Mexico Map Anasazi, Hohokam and Mogollon cultures-en.svg
Ancestral Pueblo territory shown in pink over New Mexico

Prehistory

The first known inhabitants of New Mexico were members of the Clovis culture of Paleo-Indians. [48] :19 Later inhabitants include American Indians of the Mogollon and Ancestral Pueblo peoples cultures. [49] :52

Seven Cities of Cibola and Nuevo México

Statue of Pope, leader of the Pueblo Revolt. The statue, entitled Po'pay, is among two statues depicting New Mexicans at the United States Capitol National Statuary Hall Collection, the other being Dennis Chavez. Flickr - USCapitol - Po'pay Statue.jpg
Statue of Popé, leader of the Pueblo Revolt. The statue, entitled Po'pay, is among two statues depicting New Mexicans at the United States Capitol National Statuary Hall Collection, the other being Dennis Chávez.

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado assembled an enormous expedition at Compostela in 1540–1542 to explore and find the mythical Seven Golden Cities of Cibola as described by Fray Marcos de Niza. [49] :19–24 The name New Mexico was first used by a seeker of gold mines named Francisco de Ibarra, who explored far to the north of New Spain in 1563 and reported his findings as being in "a New Mexico". [50] Juan de Oñate officially established the name when he was appointed the first governor of the new Province of New Mexico in 1598. [49] :36–37 The same year, he founded the San Juan de los Caballeros capital at San Gabriel de Yungue-Ouinge , the first permanent European settlement in New Mexico, [51] on the Rio Grande near Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. [49] :37 Oñate extended El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro , Royal Road of the Interior, by 700 miles (1,100 km) from Santa Bárbara, Chihuahua, to his remote colony. [52] :49

The settlement of La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís was established as a more permanent capital at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1610. [52] :182 As a result of the Pueblo Revolt, the only successful revolt against European expansion by Native Americans, these early cities were occupied by the Puebloan peoples until the Spanish returned with an offer of better cultural and religious liberties for the Pueblos. [53] [54] [48] :6,48 After the death of the Pueblo leader Popé, Diego de Vargas restored the area to Spanish rule. [49] :68–75 The returning settlers founded La Villa de Alburquerque in 1706 at Old Town Albuquerque as a trading center for existing surrounding communities such as Barelas, Isleta, Los Ranchos, and Sandia, [49] :84 naming it for the viceroy of New Spain, Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 10th Duke of Alburquerque. [55]

Territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico when it belonged to Mexico in 1824 Santa Fe of New Mexico (location map scheme).svg
Territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México when it belonged to Mexico in 1824

As a part of New Spain, the claims for the province of New Mexico passed to independent Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. [49] :109 The Republic of Texas claimed the portion east of the Rio Grande when it seceded from Mexico in 1836 when it incorrectly assumed the older Hispanic settlements of the upper Rio Grande were the same as the newly established Mexican settlements of Texas. Texas's only attempt to establish a presence or control in the claimed territory was the failed Texan Santa Fe Expedition. Their entire army was captured and jailed by the Hispanic New Mexico militia.

At the turn of the 19th century, the extreme northeastern part of New Mexico, north of the Canadian River and east of the spine of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains was still claimed by France, which sold it in 1803 as part of the Louisiana Purchase. When the Louisiana Territory was admitted as a state in 1812, the U.S. reclassified it as part of the Missouri Territory. The region (along with territory that makes up present-day southeastern Colorado, the Texas and Oklahoma Panhandles, and southwestern Kansas) was ceded to Spain under the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819.

By 1800, the population of New Mexico had reached 25,000. [56]

Territorial phase

Following the victory of the United States in the Mexican–American War (1846–48), the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo resulted in Mexico ceding its northern holdings to the U.S., including the territories of California, Texas, and New Mexico. [49] :132 The American government vowed to accept the residents' claims to their lands and to accept them as full citizens with rights of suffrage.

After Texas was admitted as a state in 1845, it continued to claim a northeastern portion of New Mexico east of the Rio Grande. Under the Compromise of 1850, it was forced by the U.S. government to drop these claims in exchange for $10 million in federal funds. [49] :135 Pursuant to the compromise, Congress established the separate New Mexico Territory in September of that year; [57] it included most of present-day Arizona and New Mexico, along with the Las Vegas Valley and what would later become Clark County in Nevada.

In 1853, the U.S. acquired the mostly desert southwestern bootheel of the state, along with Arizona land south of the Gila River, in the Gadsden Purchase, which was needed for the right-of-way to encourage construction of a transcontinental railroad. [49] :136

Civil war effects in New Mexico
Wpdms Arizona Territory 1860 ZP.svg
New Mexico territory including Arizona, 1860
Wpdms new mexico territory 1867.png
Territories divided, 1867

When the U.S. Civil War broke out in 1861, both Confederate and Union governments claimed ownership and territorial rights over New Mexico Territory. The Confederacy claimed the southern tract as its own Arizona Territory, and as part of the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the war, waged the ambitious New Mexico Campaign to control the American Southwest and open up access to Union California. Confederate power in the New Mexico Territory was effectively broken after the Battle of Glorieta Pass in 1862. However, the Confederate territorial government continued to operate out of Texas, and Confederate troops marched under the Arizona flag until the end of the war. More than 8,000 men from New Mexico Territory served in the Union Army. [58]

During the American frontier, many of the folklore characters of the Western genre had their origins in New Mexico, most notably businesswoman Maria Gertrudis Barceló, outlaw Billy the Kid, as well as lawmen Pat Garrett and Elfego Baca.

In the late 19th century, the majority of officially European-descended residents in New Mexico were ethnic mestizos of Native Mexican and Native American (Pueblo, Navajo, Apache, Genízaro, and Comanche) ancestry, many of whom had deep roots in the area from early Spanish colonial times, this distinctly New Mexican ethnic group became referred to as the Hispanos of New Mexico. Politically, they still controlled most of the town and county offices through area elections, and wealthy sheepherder families commanded considerable influence, preferring business, legislative, and judicial relations with fellow indigenous New Mexican groups. The Anglo Americans (which included recent African American arrivals) tended to have more ties to the territorial governor and judges, who were appointed by officials outside of the region. The Anglo minority was "outnumbered, but well-organized and growing". [59] These newly arrived settlers often tried to maintain New Mexico as a territory, since the governor was being assigned by the President of the United States, and they were worried about Native and Hispano communities being in positions of power. This mob mentality would sometimes culminate in the lynching of the Native, Hispanic, and Mexican peoples, as was attempted at the Frisco shootout. Prominent people attempted to fight this prejudice, including Vigil, Garrett, Otero, Curry, Larrazolo, Baca, Hagerman, and major constituents from both major political parties, the Democratic Party of New Mexico and the Republican Party of New Mexico. [60] [61]

Statehood

A Hispano boy in Chamisal, 1940. Spanish-American boy, Chamisal, New Mexico.jpg
A Hispano boy in Chamisal, 1940.
A homesteader and his children at the New Mexico Fair in Pie Town, New Mexico, 1940 Homesteader and his children eating barbeque at the New Mexico Fair. Pie Town, New Mexico, October 1940.jpg
A homesteader and his children at the New Mexico Fair in Pie Town, New Mexico, 1940

The United States Congress admitted New Mexico as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. [49] :166 It had been eligible for statehood 60 years earlier but was delayed due to its majority of the population being "alien" (i.e. Mexican-American). [62]

European-American settlers in the state had an uneasy relationship with the large Native American tribes, most of whose members lived on reservations at the beginning of the 20th century. Although Congress passed a law in 1924 that granted all Native Americans U.S. citizenship, as well as the right to vote in federal and state elections, New Mexico was among several states with Jim Crow laws, e.g. those who do not pay taxes cannot vote. [63]

A major oil discovery in 1928 brought wealth to the state, especially Lea County and the town of Hobbs. The town was named after James Hobbs, a homesteader there in 1907. [64] The Midwest State No. 1 well, begun in late 1927 with a standard cable-tool drilling rig, revealed the first signs of oil from the Hobbs field on June 13, 1928. Drilled to 4,330 feet and completed a few months later, the well-produced 700 barrels of oil per day on state land. The Midwest Refining Company's Hobbs well-produced oil until 2002. The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources called it "the most important single discovery of oil in New Mexico's history". [65]

During World War II, the first atomic bombs were designed and manufactured at Los Alamos, a site developed by the federal government specifically to support a high-intensity scientific effort to rapidly complete research and testing of this weapon. The first bomb was tested at Trinity site in the desert between Socorro and Alamogordo on what is now White Sands Missile Range. [49] :179–180

Historical population
CensusPop.
1850 61,547
1860 93,51651.9%
1870 91,874−1.8%
1880 119,56530.1%
1890 160,28234.1%
1900 195,31021.9%
1910 327,30167.6%
1920 360,35010.1%
1930 423,31717.5%
1940 531,81825.6%
1950 681,18728.1%
1960 951,02339.6%
1970 1,016,0006.8%
1980 1,302,89428.2%
1990 1,515,06916.3%
2000 1,819,04620.1%
2010 2,059,17913.2%
2020 2,117,5222.8%
Source: 1910–2020 [66]

Native Americans from New Mexico fought for the United States in both the First and Second World Wars. Veterans were disappointed to return and find their civil rights limited by state discrimination. In Arizona and New Mexico, veterans challenged state laws or practices prohibiting them from voting. In 1948, after veteran Miguel Trujillo, Sr. of Isleta Pueblo was told by the county registrar that he could not register to vote, he filed suit against the county in federal district court. A three-judge panel overturned as unconstitutional New Mexico's provisions that Indians who did not pay taxes (and could not document if they had paid taxes) could not vote. [63] Judge Phillips wrote:

Any other citizen, regardless of race, in the State of New Mexico who has not paid one cent of tax of any kind or character, if he possesses the other qualifications, may vote. An Indian, and only an Indian, in order to meet the qualifications to vote, must have paid a tax. How you can escape the conclusion that makes a requirement with respect to an Indian as a qualification to exercise the elective franchise and does not make that requirement with respect to the member of any race is beyond me. [63]

New Mexico has received large amounts of federal government spending on major military and research institutions in the state. It is home to three Air Force bases, the White Sands Missile Range, and the federal research laboratories Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. The state's population grew rapidly after World War II, nearly doubling between 1940 and 1960; [67] by 2000, residents numbered over 1.8 million from roughly 532,000 in 1940. [68] While the high military presence brought considerable investment, it has also been the center of controversy; on May 22, 1957, a B-36 accidentally dropped a nuclear bomb 4.5 miles from the control tower while landing at Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque; only its conventional "trigger" detonated. [69] [70]

In addition to federal personnel and agencies, many residents and businesses moved to state, particularly from the northeast, often drawn by its warm climate and low taxes. The pattern continues into the 21st century, with New Mexico adding over 400,000 residents between 2000 and 2020.

In the late 20th century, Native Americans were authorized by federal law to establish gaming casinos on their reservations under certain conditions, in states which had authorized such gaming. Such facilities have helped tribes close to population centers generate revenues for reinvestment in the economic development and welfare of their peoples.

In the 21st century, employment growth areas in New Mexico include electronic circuitry, scientific research, call centers, and Indian casinos. [71]

Demographics

Population

The 2020 Census recorded a population of 2,117,522, an increase of 2.8% from 2,059,179 in the 2010 census. [72] This was the lowest rate of growth in the western U.S. after Wyoming, and among the slowest nationwide. [73] By comparison, between 2000 and 2010, New Mexico's population increased by 11.7% from 1,819,046—among the fastest growth rates in the country. [74] A report commissioned by the New Mexico Legislature attributed the slow growth to a negative net migration rate, particularly among those 18 or younger, and to a 19% decline in the birth rate. [73] However, growth among the Hispanic and Native American communities remained healthy.

More than half of New Mexicans (51.4%) were born in the state; 37.9% were born in another state; 1.1% were born in either Puerto Rico, an island territory, or abroad to at least one American parent; and 9.4% were foreign born (compared to a national average of roughly 12%). [75] Almost a quarter of the population (22.7%) was under the age of 18, and the state's median age of 38.4 is slightly above the national average of 38.2. New Mexico's somewhat older population is partly reflective of its popularity among retirees: It ranked as the most popular retirement destination in 2018, [76] with an estimated 42% of new residents being retired. [77]

Hispanics and Latinos constitute nearly half of all residents (49.3%), giving New Mexico the highest proportion of Hispanic ancestry among the fifty states. This broad classification includes descendants of Spanish colonists who settled between the 16th and 18th centuries as well as recent immigrants from Latin America (particularly Mexico and Central America).

From 2000 to 2010, the number of persons in poverty increased to 400,779, or approximately one-fifth of the population. [74] The latest 2020 census recorded a slightly reduced poverty rate of 18.2%, albeit the third-highest among the U.S. states, compared to a national average of 10.5%. Poverty disproportionately affects minorities, with about one-third of African-Americans and Native Americans living in poverty, compared with less than a fifth of whites and roughly a tenth of Asians; likewise, New Mexico ranks 49th among states for education equality by race and 32nd for its racial gap in income. [78]

New Mexico's population is among the most difficult to count, according to the Center for Urban Research at the City University of New York. Challenges include the state's size, sparse population, and numerous isolated communities. [73] Likewise, the Census Bureau estimated that roughly 43% of the state's population (about 900,000 people) live in such "hard-to-count" areas. [73] In response, the New Mexico government invested heavily in public outreach to increase census participation, resulting in a final tally that exceeded earlier estimates and outperformed several neighboring states. [79]

Birth data

The majority of live births in New Mexico are to non-Hispanic whites, with Hispanics of any race consistently accounting for well over half of all live births since 2013.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother [Note 2]
Race 2013 [80] 2014 [81] 2015 [82] 2016 [83] 2017 [84] 2018 [85] 2019 [86]
White: [Note 3] 21,325 (80.9%)21,161 (81.2%)21,183 (82.0%)............
> Non-Hispanic White 7,428 (28.2%)7,222 (27.7%)7,157 (27.7%)7,004 (28.4%)6,522 (27.4%)6,450 (28.0%)6,218 (27.1%)
American Indian 3,763 (14.3%)3,581 (13.7%)3,452 (13.4%)2,827 (11.4%)2,694 (11.3%)2,603 (11.3%)2,643 (11.5%)
Asian 597 (2.3%)578 (2.2%)517 (2.0%)425 (1.7%)420 (1.8%)409 (1.8%)392 (1.7%)
Black 669 (2.5%)732 (2.8%)664 (2.6%)354 (1.4%)387 (1.6%)387 (1.7%)355 (1.5%)
Hispanic (of any race)14,402 (54.6%)14,449 (55.5%)14,431 (55.9%)13,639 (55.2%)13,362 (56.2%)12,783 (55.4%)12,924 (56.3%)
Total New Mexico26,354 (100%)26,052 (100%)25,816 (100%)24,692 (100%)23,767 (100%)23,039 (100%)22,960 (100%)

Settlements

New Mexico population density map New Mexico population map.png
New Mexico population density map

With just 17 people per square mile (6/km2), New Mexico is one of the least densely populated states, ranking 45th out of 50. By contrast, the overall population density of the U.S. is 90/mi2 (35.5/km2 ). The state is divided into 33 counties and 106 municipalities, which include cities, towns, villages, and a consolidated city-county, Los Alamos. Only two cities have at least 100,000 residents: Albuquerque and Las Cruces, whose respective metropolitan areas together account for the majority of New Mexico's population.

Residents are concentrated in the north-central region of New Mexico, anchored by the state's largest city, Albuquerque. Centered in Bernalillo County, the Albuquerque metropolitan area includes New Mexico's third-largest city, Rio Rancho, and has a population of over 918,000, accounting for one-third of all New Mexicans. It is adjacent to Santa Fe, the capital and fourth-largest city. Altogether, the Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area includes more than 1.17 million people, or nearly 60% of the state population.

New Mexico's other major center of population is in south-central area around Las Cruces, its second-largest city and the largest city in both Doña Ana County and the southern region of the state. Its metropolitan area includes roughly 214,000 residents, but with neighboring El Paso, Texas forms a combined statistical area numbering over 1 million. [87]

The state hosts 23 federally recognized tribal reservations, of which 11 hold off-reservation trust lands. The vast majority are concentrated in the northwest, followed by the north-central region.

Like several other southwestern states, New Mexico hosts numerous colonias along the Mexico-U.S. border, a type of unincorporated, low-income, slum. These areas are characterized by abject poverty, the absence of basic services such as water and sewage, and scarce housing and infrastructure. [88] The University of New Mexico estimates there are 118 colonias in the state, though the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development identifies roughly 150. [89]

Race and ethnicity

New Mexico is one of six "majority-minority" states where non-Hispanic whites constitute less than half the population. [90] As early as 1940, roughly half the population was estimated to be nonwhite. [91]

According to the 2020 census, the majority of Hispanics in New Mexico claim descendance from Spanish colonists who settled between the 16th and 18th centuries, when the state was part of New Spain. Most remaining Hispanics are first and second generation immigrants from Mexico and Central America

New Mexico has the fourth largest Native American community in the U.S., at over 200,000. Comprising roughly one-tenth of all residents, this is the second largest population by percentage after Alaska. [92] [93] New Mexico is also the only state besides Alaska where indigenous people have maintained a stable proportion of the population for over a century: In 1890, Native Americans made up 9.4% of New Mexico's population, roughly the same percentage as in 2020. [94] By contrast, during that same period, neighboring Arizona went from one-third indigenous to less than 5%. [94]

New Mexico Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition1970 [95] 1990 [95] 2000 [96] 2010 [97] 2020
White:90.1%75.6%66.7%68.6%73.9%
> White alone, not Hispanic or Latino 36.8%
Native 7.2%8.9%9.5%9.4%9.5%
Black 1.9%2.0%1.9%2.1%2.3%
Asian 0.2%0.9%1.1%1.4%1.7%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
0.1%0.1%0.2%
Other race 0.6%12.6%17.0%15.0%9.0%
Two or more races 3.6%3.7%2.6%
Hispanic or Latino, any race 49.3%

According to the 2000 United States Census, [98] :6 the most commonly claimed ancestry groups in New Mexico were:

Census data from 2020 found that 1.5% of the population identifies as multiracial/mixed-race, a population larger than both the Asian and NHPI population groups. [92]

Languages

Languages Spoken in New Mexico
English only64%
Spanish28%
Navajo 4%
Others4%

New Mexico ranks third after California and Texas in the number of multilingual residents. [99] According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 28.45% of the population age 5 and older speak Spanish at home, while 3.50% speak Navajo. [100] Some speakers of New Mexican Spanish are descendants of pre-18th century Spanish settlers. [101] Contrary to popular belief, New Mexican Spanish is not an archaic form of 17th-century Castilian Spanish; though some archaic elements exists, linguistic research has determined that the dialect "is neither more Iberian nor more archaic" than other varieties spoken in the Americas. [102] [103] Nevertheless, centuries of isolation during the colonial period insulated the New Mexican dialect from "standard" Spanish, leading to the preservation of older vocabulary as well as its own innovations. [104] [105]

Besides Navajo, which is also spoken in Arizona, several other Native American languages are spoken by smaller groups in New Mexico, most of which are endemic to the state. Native New Mexican languages include Mescalero Apache, Jicarilla Apache, Tewa, Southern Tiwa, Northern Tiwa, Towa, Keres (Eastern and Western), and Zuni. Mescalero and Jicarilla Apache are closely related Southern Athabaskan languages, and both are also related to Navajo. Tewa, the Tiwa languages, and Towa belong to the Kiowa-Tanoan language family, and thus all descend from a common ancestor. Keres and Zuni are language isolates with no relatives outside of New Mexico.

Official language

New Mexico's original state constitution of 1911 required all laws be published in both English and Spanish for twenty years after ratification; [106] this requirement was renewed in 1931 and 1943, [107] with some sources stating the state was officially bilingual until 1953. [108] Nonetheless, the constitution does not declare any language "official". [109] While Spanish was permitted in the legislature until 1935, all state officials are required to have a good knowledge of English; consequently, some analysts argue that New Mexico cannot be considered a bilingual state, since not all laws are published in both languages. [107]

However, the state legislature remains constitutionally empowered to publish laws in English and Spanish, and to appropriate funds for translation. Amendments to the New Mexico constitution must be approved by referendum printed on the ballot in both English and Spanish. [110] Certain legal notices must be published in English and Spanish, and the state maintains a list of newspapers for Spanish publication. [111]

With regard to the judiciary, witnesses and defendants have the right to testify in either of the two languages, and monolingual speakers of Spanish have the same right to be considered for jury duty as do speakers of English. [109] [112] In public education, the state has the constitutional obligation to provide bilingual education and Spanish-speaking instructors in school districts where the majority of students are Hispanophone. [109] The constitution also provides that all state citizens who speak neither English nor Spanish have a right to vote, hold public office office, and serve on juries. [113]

In 1989, New Mexico became the first of only four states to officially adopt the English Plus resolution, which supports acceptance of non-English languages. [114] In 1995, the state adopted an official bilingual song, "New Mexico – Mi Lindo Nuevo México". [115] :75,81 In 2008, New Mexico was the first to officially adopt a Navajo textbook for use in public schools. [116]

Religion

San Miguel Chapel, built in 1610 in Santa Fe, is the oldest church structure in the continental U.S. Santa Fe San miguel chapel.jpg
San Miguel Chapel, built in 1610 in Santa Fe, is the oldest church structure in the continental U.S.
Religion in New Mexico (2014) [117]
ReligionPercent
Protestant
38%
Catholic
34%
Unaffiliated
21%
Latter-day Saint
2%
Jehovah's Witness
1%
Buddhist
1%
Other faith
3%

Like most U.S. states, New Mexico is predominantly Christian, with Roman Catholicism and Protestantism each constituting roughly a third of the population. According to Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), the largest denominations in 2010 were the Catholic Church (684,941 members); the Southern Baptist Convention (113,452); The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (67,637), and the United Methodist Church (36,424). [118] Approximately one-fifth of residents are unaffiliated with any religion, which includes atheists, agnostics, deists.

Catholicism is deeply rooted in New Mexico's history and culture, going back to its settlement by the Spanish in the early 17th century. The oldest Christian church in the continental U.S., and the third oldest in any U.S. state or territory, is the San Miguel Mission in Santa Fe, which was built in 1610.Within the hierarchy of the Catholic Church, New Mexico belongs to the Ecclesiastical Province of Santa Fe. The state has three ecclesiastical districts: [119] the Archdiocese of Santa Fe, the Diocese of Gallup, and the Diocese of Las Cruces. [120]

Since the 1970s, New Mexico has been a leading center of New Age faith, attracting adherents from across the U.S. [121] The state's "thriving New Age network" encompasses various schools of alternative medicine, holistic health, psychic healing, and new religion churches; it also hosts many celebrations, festivals, and pilgrimage sites. New Mexico's popularity among practitioners of alternative medicine and religion has been linked to the ancient spirituality of its indigenous population, which emphasized spiritual connections to nature and the land. [121]

According to a 2017 survey by the Pew Research Center, New Mexico ranks 18th out of the 50 U.S. states in religiosity, with 63% stating they believe in God with certainty and 59% considering religion to be important in their lives. [122]

Economy

New Mexico state quarter, circulated in April 2008 2008 NM Proof.png
New Mexico state quarter, circulated in April 2008

Oil and gas production, tourism, and federal government spending are important drivers of the state economy. [123] The state government has an elaborate system of tax credits and technical assistance to promote job growth and business investment, especially in new technologies.

Economic indicators

As of 2021, New Mexico's gross domestic product was over $95 billion, [124] compared to roughly $80 billion in 2010. [125] State GDP peaked in 2019 at nearly $99 billion, but declined in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. In 2021, the per capita personal income was slightly over $45,800, compared to $31,474 in 2007; [126] it was the third lowest in the country after West Virginia and Mississippi. [127] The percentage of persons below the poverty level has largely plateaued in the 21st century, from 18.4% in 2005 to $18.2% in 2021. [128] [129]

Traditionally dependent on resource extraction, ranching, and railroad transportation, New Mexico has become increasingly reliant on tourism. The state tourism department estimates that in the 2006 fiscal year, the travel industry in New Mexico generated expenditures of $6.5 billion. [130] In 2014, visitors contributed close to $8.6 billion in direct and indirect spending. [131]

Oil and gas production

New Mexico is the third-largest crude oil and ninth-largest natural gas producer in the United States. [132] The Permian and San Juan Basins, which are located partly in New Mexico, account for some of these natural resources. In 2000 the value of oil and gas produced was $8.2 billion, [133] and in 2006, New Mexico accounted for 3.4% of the crude oil, 8.5% of the dry natural gas, and 10.2% of the natural gas liquids produced in the United States. [134] However, the boom in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling since the mid-2010s led to a large increase in the production of crude oil from the Permian Basin and other U.S. sources; these developments allowed the United States to again become the world's largest producer of crude oil by 2018. [135] [136] [137] [138] New Mexico's oil and gas operations contribute to the state's above-average release of the greenhouse gas methane, including from a national methane hot spot in the Four Corners area. [139] [140] [141] [142]

In common with other states in the Western U.S., New Mexico receives royalties from the sale of federally owned land to oil and gas companies. [143] It has the highest proportion of federal land with oil and gas, as well as the most lucrative: since the last amendment to the U.S. Mineral Leasing Act in 1987, New Mexico had by far the lowest percent of land sold for the minimum statutory amount of $2 per acre, at just 3%; by contrast, all of Arizona's federal land was sold at the lowest rate, followed by Oregon at 98% and Nevada at 84%. [143] The state had the fourth-highest total acreage sold to the oil and gas industry, at about 1.1 million acres, and the second-highest number of acres currently leased fossil fuel production, at 4.3 million acres, after Wyoming's 9.2 million acres; only 11 percent of these lands, or 474,121 acres, are idle, which is the lowest among Western states. [143] Nevertheless, New Mexico has had recurring disputes and discussions with the U.S. government over management and revenue rights over federal land. [144]

Federal government

An F-22 Raptor flown by the 49th Fighter Wing at Holloman AFB Holloman AFB F-22.jpg
An F-22 Raptor flown by the 49th Fighter Wing at Holloman AFB

Federal government spending is a major driver of the New Mexico economy. In 2005, the federal government spent $2.03 on New Mexico for every dollar of tax revenue collected from the state, higher than any other state in the Union. [145] By 2017, federal expenditure per state tax dollar increased to $2.34, the third highest after Virginia and Kentucky. [146] New Mexico received $9,624 per resident in federal services, or roughly $20 billion than what the state pays in federal taxes. [147] The state governor's office estimated that the federal government spends roughly $7.8 billion annual in services such as healthcare, infrastructure development, and public welfare. [73]

Federal employees make up 3.4% of New Mexico's labor force. [143] Many federal jobs in the state relate to the military: the state hosts three air force bases (Kirtland Air Force Base, Holloman Air Force Base, and Cannon Air Force Base); a testing range (White Sands Missile Range); and an army proving ground (Fort Bliss's McGregor Range). A 2005 study by New Mexico State University estimated that 11.65% of the state's total employment arises directly or indirectly from military spending. [148] New Mexico is also home to two major federal research institutions: the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. The former alone accounts for 24,00 direct and indirect jobs and over $3 billion in annual federal investment. [149]

Economic incentives

Albuquerque Studios, built in 2007 for the rising demand of film production in the state Albuquerque Studios.jpg
Albuquerque Studios, built in 2007 for the rising demand of film production in the state

New Mexico provides a number of economic incentives to businesses operating in the state, including various types of tax credits and tax exemptions. Most incentives are based on job creation: state and local governments are permitted to provide land, buildings, and infrastructure to businesses that will generate employment. [150] Several municipalities impose an Economic Development Gross Receipts Tax (a form of Municipal Infrastructure GRT) to pay for these infrastructure improvements and for marketing their areas. [151]

The New Mexico Finance Authority operates the New Market Tax Credits (NMTC) to provide greater access to financing for new, expanding, or relocating businesses in "highly distressed" areas (defined by metrics such as poverty above 30% and median family income below 60% of the statewide median). [152]

Media and film

The state provides financial incentives for film production. [153] [154] One such program, enacted in 2019, provides benefits to media companies that commit to investing in the state for at least a decade and that utilize local talent, crew, and businesses. [155] The New Mexico Film Office estimated at the end of 2007 that the incentive program had brought more than 85 film projects to the state since 2003 and had added $1.2 billion to the economy. [156] Data for 2021 found direct spending for film production at close to $624 million. In 2018, Netflix chose New Mexico for its first U.S. production hub, pledging to spend over $1 billion over the next decade to create one of the largest film studios in North America. [157] NBCUniversal followed suit in 2019 with the opening of its own film studio and plans to employ New Mexican actors and crew members. [155]

Taxation

New Mexico is one of the largest tax havens in the U.S., offering numerous economic incentives and tax breaks on personal and corporate income. [158] [159] It does not levy taxes oninheritance, estate, or sales. [160] [161] Personal income tax rates range from 1.7% to 5.9% within five income brackets; [162] the top marginal rate was increased from 4.9% in 2021 per a 2019 law. [163] Active-duty military salaries are exempt from state income tax, as is income earned by Native American members of federally recognized tribes on tribal land. [164]

New Mexico imposes a Gross Receipts Tax (GRT) on many transactions, which may even include some governmental receipts. This resembles a sales tax but, unlike the sales taxes in many states, it applies to services as well as tangible goods. Normally, the provider or seller passes the tax on to the purchaser, however legal incidence and burden apply to the business, as an excise tax. GRT is imposed by the state and by some counties and municipalities. [165] As of 2021, the combined tax rate ranged from 5.125% to 9.063%. [166]

Property tax is imposed on real property by the state, by counties, and by school districts. In general, personal-use personal property is not subject to property taxation. On the other hand, property tax is levied on most business-use personal property. The taxable value of property is one-third the assessed value. A tax rate of about 30 mills is applied to the taxable value, resulting in an effective tax rate of about 1%. In the 2005 tax year, the average millage was about 26.47 for residential property, and 29.80 for non-residential property. Assessed values of residences cannot be increased by more than 3% per year unless the residence is remodeled or sold. Property tax deductions are available for military veterans and heads of household. [167]

A 2021 analysis by the nonprofit Tax Foundation placed New Mexico 23rd in business tax climate; its property taxes were found to be the least burdensome in the U.S., while taxation for unemployment insurance and on corporations each ranked as the ninth least burdensome. [168]

Wealth and poverty

New Mexico is one of the poorest states in the U.S. and has long struggled with poverty. [169] Its poverty rate of roughly 18% is among the highest in the country, exceeded only by Louisiana and Mississippi. Nearly 30% of New Mexico's children were in poverty, which is 40% higher than the national average. [78] The vast majority of births (72%) were financed by Medicaid, a federal healthcare program for the poor, the highest of any state. [170] As of May 2021, around 44% of residents were enrolled in Medicaid.

New Mexico is one of only six states without a billionaire; ranks 39th in the share of households with more than $1 million in wealth (5%); and is among fourteen states without a Fortune 500 company. [171] The state has a relatively high level of income disparity, with a Gini coefficient of 0.4769, albeit below the national average of 0.486. Household income is slightly less than $47,000, which is the fourth lowest in the U.S. The unemployment rate for June 2021 is 7.9%, tied with Connecticut as the highest in the country, and close to the peak of 8.0% for June–October 2010, following the 2007-2008 financial crisis. [172]

The New Mexico government has enacted several policies to alleviate chronic poverty, including approving a minimum wage increase in January 2021 and requiring paid sick leave. [169] The state's minimum wage of $10.50 is higher than that of the federal government and 34 other states; [173] it is set to increase to $11.50 on January 1, 2022, and $12.00 on January 1, 2023. [174] Additionally, counties and municipalities have set their own minimum wages; Santa Fe County enacted a "Living Wage Ordinance" on March 1, 2021, mandating $12.32. [175]

The New Mexico Legislature is considering implementing a statewide guaranteed basic income program targeting poorer residents; if enacted, it would be only the second U.S. state after California with such a policy. [176] In August 2021, Santa Fe announced a one-year pilot program that would provide a "stability stipend" of $400 monthly to 100 parents under the age of 30 who attend Santa Fe Community College; [177] the results of the program will determine whether the state government follows suit with its own basic income proposals. [178] [169] Las Cruces, the state's second largest city, is officially discussing the enactment of a similar program. [178]

Transportation

In this photo, the Mexico-United States border divides Sunland Park and the Mexican state of Chihuahua. USA Mexico border New Mexico.JPG
In this photo, the Mexico–United States border divides Sunland Park and the Mexican state of Chihuahua.

New Mexico has long been an important corridor for trade and migration. The builders of the ruins at Chaco Canyon also created a radiating network of roads from the mysterious settlement. [179] Chaco Canyon's trade function shifted to Casas Grandes in the present-day Mexican state of Chihuahua; however, north–south trade continued. The pre-Columbian trade with Mesoamerican cultures included northbound exotic birds, seashells and copper. Turquoise, pottery, and salt were some of the goods transported south along the Rio Grande. Present-day New Mexico's pre-Columbian trade is especially remarkable for being undertaken on foot. The north–south trade route later became a path for horse-drawn colonists arriving from New Spain as well as trade and communication; later called El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, it was among the four "royal roads" that were crucial lifelines to Spanish colonial possessions in North America. [180]

Santa Fe Trail sign IMG 0516.JPG

The Santa Fe Trail was the 19th-century territory's vital commercial and military highway link to the Eastern United States. [181] All with termini in Northern New Mexico, the Camino Real, the Santa Fe Trail and the Old Spanish Trail are all recognized as National Historic Trails. New Mexico's latitude and low passes made it an attractive east–west transportation corridor. [182] As a territory, the Gadsden Purchase increased New Mexico's land area for the purpose of constructing a southern transcontinental railroad, that of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Another transcontinental railroad was completed by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. The railroads essentially replaced the earlier trails, but brought on a population boom. Early transcontinental auto trails later crossed the state, bringing more migrants. Railroads were later supplemented or replaced by a system of highways and airports. Today, New Mexico's Interstate Highways approximate the earlier land routes of the Camino Real, the Santa Fe Trail and the transcontinental railroads.

Road

National-atlas-new-mexico.png

New Mexico has had a problem with drunk driving, but that has lessened. According to the Los Angeles Times , for years the state had the highest alcohol-related crash rates in the US, but ranked 25th in alcohol-related fatal crash rates as of July 2009. [183]

New Mexico had 59,927 route miles of highway as of 2000, of which 7,037 receive federal aid. [184] In that same year there were 1,003 miles (1,614 km) of freeways, of which a thousand were the route miles of Interstate Highways 10, 25 and 40. [185] The former number has increased with the upgrading of roads near Pojoaque, Santa Fe and Las Cruces to freeways. The highway traffic fatality rate was 1.9 fatalities per million miles traveled in 2000, the 13th highest rate among U.S. states. [186] Notable bridges include the Rio Grande Gorge Bridge near Taos. As of 2001, 703 highway bridges, or one percent, were declared "structurally deficient" or "structurally obsolete". [187]

Larger cities in New Mexico typically have some form of public transportation by road; ABQ RIDE is the largest such system in the state. [188] Rural and intercity public transportation by road is provided by Americanos USA, LLC, Greyhound Lines and several government operators. Personal automobiles remain the primary means of transportation for most New Mexicans, especially in rural areas. [47]

Highways

New Mexico has only three Interstate Highways: Interstate 10 travels southwest from the Arizona state line near Lordsburg to the area between Las Cruces and Anthony, near El Paso, Texas; Interstate 25 is a major north–south interstate highway starting from Las Cruces to the Colorado state line near Raton; and Interstate 40 is a major east–west interstate highway starting from the Arizona state line west of Gallup to the Texas state line east from Tucumcari. In Albuquerque, I-25 and I-40 meet at a stack interchange called The Big I The state is tied with Delaware, North Dakota, Puerto Rico, and Rhode Island in having the fewest primary interstate routes, which is partly a reflection of its rugged geography and sparse population. [189]

New Mexico currently has 15 United States Highways, which account for over 2,980 miles (4,797 km) of its highway system. All but seven of its 33 counties are served by U.S. routes, with most of the remainder connected by Interstate Highways. Most routes were built in 1926 by the state government and are still managed and maintained by state or local authorities. The longest is U.S. 70, which spans over 448 miles (721 km) across southern New Mexico, making up roughly 15% of the state's total U.S. Highway length; the shortest is U.S. 160, which runs just 0.86 miles (1.38 km) across the northwestern corner of the state, between the Arizona and Colorado borders.

The most famous route in New Mexico, if not the United States, was U.S. 66, colloquially known as the nation's "Mother Road" for its scenic beauty and for its reliance by migrants fleeing West from the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. [190] The road crossed through northern New Mexico, connecting the cities of Albuquerque and Gallup, before being replaced by I-40 in 1985. Much of U.S. 66 remains in use for tourism and has been preserved for historical significance. [191] Another famous route was U.S. 666, which ran south to north along the eastern portion of the state, serving the Four Corners area. It was known as the "Devil's Highway" due to the number 666 denoting the "Number of the Beast" in Christianity; this numerical designation, as well as its high fatality rate was subject to controversy, superstition, and numerous cultural references. U.S. 666 was subsequently renamed U.S. Route 491 in 2003.

Many existing and former highways in New Mexico are recognized for their aesthetic, cultural, or historical significance, particularly for tourism purposes. [192] The state hosts ten out of 184 "America's Byways", which are federally designated for preservation due to their scenic beauty or national importance. [193]

Rail

The Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad Cumbres & Toltec Scenic Railroad excursion train headed by locomotive 484 in 2015.jpg
The Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad

There were 2,354 route miles of railroads in the year 2000; this number increased by a few miles with the opening of the Rail Runner's extension to Santa Fe in 2006. [194] In addition to local railroads and other tourist lines, the state jointly owns and operates a heritage narrow-gauge steam railroad, the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railway, with the state of Colorado since 1970. Narrow-gauge railroads once connected many communities in the northern part of the state, from Farmington to Santa Fe. [195] :110 No fewer than 100 railroads of various names and lineage have operated in the state at some point. [195] :8 New Mexico's rail transportation system reached its height in terms of length following admission as a state; in 1914, eleven railroads operated 3124 route miles. [195] :10

Railroad surveyors arrived in New Mexico in the 1850s shortly after it became a U.S. territory. [196] The first railroads incorporated in 1869, [195] :9 and the first railway became operational in 1878 with the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway (ATSF), which entered via the lucrative and contested Raton Pass. The ATSF eventually reached El Paso, Texas in 1881, and with the entry of the Southern Pacific Railroad from the Arizona Territory in 1880, created the nation's second transcontinental railroad, with a junction at Deming. [195] :9,18,58–59 [196] The Denver & Rio Grande Railway, which generally used narrow gauge equipment in New Mexico, entered the territory from Colorado, beginning service to Española in December 1880. [195] :95–96 [196] These first railroads were built as long-distance corridors; later railroad construction also targeted resource extraction. [195] :8–11

The railway station in Tucumcari Tucumcari NM Train Station.jpg
The railway station in Tucumcari

The rise of rail transportation was a major source of demographic and economic growth in the state, with many settlements expanding or being established shortly thereafter. As early as 1878, the ATSF promoted tourism in the region with an emphasis on Native American imagery. [197] :64 Named trains often reflected the territory they traveled: Super Chief , the streamlined successor to the Chief; [197] Navajo , an early transcontinental tourist train; and Cavern , a through car operation connecting Clovis and Carlsbad (by the early 1950s as train 23–24), were some of the named passenger trains of the ATSF that connoted New Mexico, [195] :49–50 [198] :51 The Super Chief became a favorite of early Hollywood stars and among the most famous named trains in the U.S.; it was known for its luxury and exoticness, with cars bearing the name of regional Native American tribes and outfitted with the artwork of many local artists—but also for its speed: as brief as 39 hours 45 minutes westbound from Chicago to Los Angeles. [197]

The New Mexico Rail Runner Express is a commuter operation that runs along the Central Rio Grande Valley. RailRunner.jpg
The New Mexico Rail Runner Express is a commuter operation that runs along the Central Rio Grande Valley.

At its height, passenger train service once connected nine of New Mexico's present ten most populous cities (the sole exception is Rio Rancho); currently, only Albuquerque and Santa Fe are connected by a rail network. [199] With the decline of most intercity rail service in the U.S. in the late 1960s, New Mexico was left with minimal services; no less than six daily long-distance roundtrip trains, supplemented by many branch-line and local trains, served New Mexico in the early 1960s. Declines in passenger revenue, but not necessarily ridership, prompted many railroads to turn over their passenger services in truncated form to Amtrak, a state owned enterprise. Amtrak, also known as the National Passenger Railroad Corporation, began operating the two extant long-distance routes on May 1, 1971. [195] [197] [198] Resurrection of passenger rail service from Denver to El Paso, a route once plied in part by the ATSF's El Pasoan, [198] :37 has been proposed; in the 1980s, then–Governor Toney Anaya suggested building a high-speed rail line connecting the two cities with New Mexico's major cities. [200] In 2004, the Colorado-based nonprofit Front Range Commuter Rail was established with the goal of connecting Wyoming and New Mexico with high-speed rail; [201] however, it became inactive in 2011. [202]

Downtown Santa Fe train station Santa fe depot railrunner.jpg
Downtown Santa Fe train station

Since 2006, a state owned, privately run commuter railway, the New Mexico Rail Runner Express, has served the Albuquerque metropolitan area, connecting the city proper with Santa Fe and other communities. [199] [203] The system expanded in 2008 with the adding of the BNSF Railway's line from Belen to a few miles south of Lamy. [204] Phase II of Rail Runner extended the line northward to Santa Fe from the Sandoval County station, the northernmost station under Phase I service; the service now connects Santa Fe, Sandoval, Bernalillo, and Valencia counties. Rail Runner operates scheduled service seven days per week, [205] connecting Albuquerque's population base and central business district to downtown Santa Fe with up to eight roundtrips in a day; the section of the line running south to Belen is served less frequently. [206]

Amtrak's Southwest Chief passes through daily at stations in Gallup, Albuquerque, Lamy, Las Vegas, and Raton, offering connections to Los Angeles, Chicago and intermediate points. [207] A successor to the Super Chief and El Capitan. [198] :115 the Southwest Chief is permitted a maximum speed of 90 mph (140 km/h) in various places on the tracks of the BNSF Railway; [208] it also operates on New Mexico Rail Runner Express trackage. The Sunset Limited makes stops three times a week in both directions at Lordsburg, and Deming, serving Los Angeles, New Orleans and intermediate points. [209] The Sunset Limited is the successor to the Southern Pacific Railroad's train of the same name and operates exclusively on Union Pacific trackage in New Mexico.

New Mexico is served by two of the nation's ten class I railroads, which denote the highest revenue railways for freight: the BNSF Railway and the Union Pacific Railroad. Together they operate 2,200 route miles of railway in the state. [210]

Aerospace

New Mexico has four primary commercial airports that are served by most major domestic and international airliners. Albuquerque International Sunport is the state's main aerial port of entry and by far the largest airport: It is the only one designated a medium-sized hub by the Federal Aviation Administration, serving millions of passengers annually.

Spaceport America terminal, The Gateway. Spaceport America terminal - The Gateway (15094090585).jpg
Spaceport America terminal, The Gateway.

The only other comparatively large airports are Lea County Regional Airport, Roswell International Air Center, and Santa Fe Regional Airport, which have varying degrees of service by major airlines. Most airports in New Mexico are small, general aviation hubs operated by municipal and county governments, and usually served solely by local and regional commuter airlines.

Due to its sparse population and many isolated, rural communities, New Mexico ranks among the states most reliant on Essential Air Service, a federal program that maintains a minimal level of scheduled air service to communities that are otherwise unprofitable.

Spaceport America

New Mexico hosts the world's first operational and purpose-built commercial spaceport, Spaceport America, located in Upham, near Truth or Consequences. [211] [212] [213] It is operated by the state-backed New Mexico Spaceport Authority (NMSA). Rocket launches began in April 2007, [213] with the spaceport officially opening in 2011. [214] Tenants include HAPSMobile, UP Aerospace, SpinLaunch, and Virgin Galactic. [215] Over 300 suborbital flights have been successfully launched from Spaceport America since 2006, with the most notable being Virgin Galactic's VSS Unity on May 22, 2021, which made New Mexico the third U.S. state to launch humans into space, after California and Florida. [216] [217]

Government and politics

Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) Michelle Lujan Grisham official photo.jpg
Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham (D)

The Constitution of New Mexico was adopted by referendum in 1911 and establishes a republican form of government based on popular sovereignty and separation of powers. It includes a bill of rights with greater protections and freedoms in some areas than its federal counterpart; for example, victims of certain crimes have specific rights, such as to privacy, dignity, and timely adjudication of their case. [218] Major state issues may be decided by popular votes, and the constitution may be amended a majority vote of both lawmakers and the electorate. [219]

Governmental structure

Mirroring the federal system, the New Mexico government consists of executive, legislative, and judicial departments. The executive is led by the governor and other popularly elected officials, including the lieutenant governor (elected on the same ticket as the governor), attorney general, secretary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, and commissioner of public lands. New Mexico's governor is granted more authority than those of other states, with the power to appoint most high-ranking officials in the cabinet and other state agencies. [219]

The legislative branch consists of the bicameral New Mexico Legislature, comprising the 70-member House of Representatives and the 42-member Senate. Members of the House are elected to two-year terms, while those of the Senate are elected every four years.

The judiciary is headed by the New Mexico Supreme Court, the state's highest court, which primarily adjudicates appeals from lower courts or government agencies. It is made up of five judges popularly elected every eight years with overlapping terms. Below the state supreme court is the New Mexico Court of Appeals, which has intermediate appellate jurisdiction statewide. New Mexico has 13 judicial districts with circuit courts of general jurisdiction, as well as various municipal, magistrate, and probate courts of limited jurisdiction.

New Mexico is organized into a number of local governments consisting of counties, municipalities, and special districts. [220]

Politics

Party registration by county (February 2021):
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Democrat >= 40%
Democrat >= 50%
Democrat >= 60%
Democrat >= 70%
Republican >= 40%
Republican >= 50%
Republican >= 60% New Mexico voter registration by party as of February 2021.png
Party registration by county (February 2021):
  Democrat >= 40%
  Democrat >= 50%
  Democrat >= 60%
  Democrat >= 70%
  Republican >= 40%
  Republican >= 50%
  Republican >= 60%

Since 2018, New Mexico has been led by Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham and Lieutenant Governor Howie Morales, both of the Democratic Party. All constitutional officers are currently Democrats, including Secretary of State Maggie Toulouse Oliver, [221] Attorney General Hector Balderas , [222] State Auditor Brian Colón, [223] State Land Commissioner Stephanie Garcia Richard, [224] and State Treasurer Tim Eichenberg. [225]

Party registration as of Sept 30, 2021 [226]
PartyNumber of votersPercentage
Democratic 600,01044.86%
Republican 413,20330.90%
Independent 296,71822.19%
Other 14,2211.06%
Libertarian 13,2240.99%
Total1,337,376100%

Both chambers of the New Mexico State Legislature have Democratic majorities: 26 Democrats and 16 Republicans in the Senate, and 47 Democrats and 23 Republicans in the House of Representatives. Likewise the state is represented in the U.S. Senate by Democrats Martin Heinrich and Ben Ray Luján. The state's three delegates to the U.S. House of Representatives are Democrat Melanie Stansbury, Republican Yvette Herrell, and Democrat Teresa Leger Fernandez, representing the first, second, and third districts, respectively.

Until 2008, New Mexico was traditionally a swing state in presidential elections. The 1992 election of Bill Clinton marked the first time the state was won by a Democrat since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. Al Gore narrowly carried the state in 2000 by 366 votes, and George W. Bush won in 2004 by less than 6,000 votes. The election of Barack Obama in 2008 marked the state's transition into a reliably Democratic stronghold in a largely Republican region; Obama was also the first Democratic to win a majority of New Mexico votes since Johnson. [227] Obama won again in 2012, followed by Hillary Clinton in 2016, and Joseph Biden in 2020.

Since achieving statehood in 1912, New Mexico has been carried by the national popular vote winner in every presidential election of the past 104 years, except 1976, when Gerald Ford won the state by 2% but lost the national popular vote by 2%. [228] In all but three elections—1976, 2000, and 2016—the candidate who won New Mexico won the presidency.

State politics, while decidedly Democratic leaning, have also been idiosyncratic. While registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by nearly 200,000, New Mexico voters have historically favored moderate to conservative candidates of both parties at the state and federal levels, but recent election cycles within the past decade have seen moderate incumbents replaced by progressive Democrats in urban areas like Albuquerque, Santa Fe and Las Cruces; and conservative Republicans being elected in the state's rural areas. Grisham succeeded Republican Susana Martinez on January 1, 2019, after she served two terms as governor from 2011 to 2019. Gary Johnson was governor from 1995 to 2003 as a Republican, but in 2012 and 2016 ran for president from the Libertarian Party. Republican Congresswoman Herrell of the state's Second District narrowly lost to Democrat Xochitl Torres Small in 2018 but retook her seat in 2020.

Democrats in the state are usually strongest in the Santa Fe area, parts of the Albuquerque metro area (such as the southeast and central areas, including the affluent Nob Hill neighborhood and the vicinity of the University of New Mexico), Northern and West Central New Mexico, and most of the Native American reservations, particularly the Navajo Nation. [227] Republicans have traditionally had their strongholds in the eastern and southern parts of the state, the Farmington area, Rio Rancho, and the newly developed areas in the northwest mesa. Albuquerque's Northeast Heights have historically leaned Republican, but have become a key swing area for Democrats in recent election cycles.

Local government

Local government in New Mexico consists primarily of counties and municipalities. There are 33 counties, of which the most populous is Bernalillo, which contains the state's largest city, Albuquerque. Counties are usually governed by an elected five-member county commission, sheriff, assessor, clerk and treasurer. A municipality may call itself a village, town, or city, [229] with no distinction in law and no correlation to any particular form of government. Municipal elections are non-partisan. [230] In addition, limited local authority can be vested in special districts and landowners' associations.

Female and minority representation

New Mexico is notable for electing more women of color to public office than any other U.S. state. [231] Research by the Center for American Women and Politics at Rutgers University found that two-thirds of all nonwhite women who have ever been elected governor in the U.S. are from New Mexico, including the current governor, Grisham. The state also accounts for nearly one-third of the women of color who have served in any statewide executive office, such as lieutenant governor and secretary of state, a distinction shared by only ten other states. [231] New Mexico also has a relatively high percentage of state legislators who are women of color, which at 16% is the sixth-highest in the country. While the trend is partly reflective of the state's disproportionately high Hispanic and indigenous populations, it also reflects longstanding cultural and political trends; in 1922, Soledad Chávez Chacón was the first woman elected secretary of state of New Mexico, and the first Hispanic woman elected to statewide office in the United States.

Law

New Mexico is one of 23 states without the death penalty; [232] on March 18, 2009, then-Governor Bill Richardson signed the law abolishing capital punishment following the legislature's vote the week before, making New Mexico the 15th U.S. state to do so. [233] The law went into effect July 1, 2009 and does not apply retroactively, meaning those currently awaiting execution are not affected by the ban.

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2020 43.50% 401,89454.29%501,614
2016 40.04% 319,66748.25%385,232
2012 42.84% 335,78852.99%415,335
2008 41.78% 346,83256.91%472,422
2004 49.8%376,93049.1% 370,942
2000 47.85% 286,41747.91%286,783
1996 42% 232,75149%273,495
1992 37% 212,61746%261,617
1988 51%270,34146% 244,49
1984 59%307,10139% 201,769
1980 55%250,77936% 167,826
1976 50%211,41948% 201,148
1972 60%235,60636% 141,084

New Mexico arguably has some of the least restrictive firearms laws in the country. Its constitution explicitly enshrines the right to bear arms, while state law preempts all local gun control ordinances. New Mexico residents may purchase any firearm deemed legal under federal law. There are no waiting periods under state law for picking up a firearm after it has been purchased, and there are no restrictions on magazine capacity. Additionally, New Mexico is a "shall-issue" state for concealed carry permits.

Before December 2013, New Mexico law was silent same-sex marriage. The issuance of marriage licenses to same-sex couples was determined at the county level, with some county clerks issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples and others not. In December 2013, the New Mexico Supreme Court issued a unanimous ruling directing all county clerks to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples, thereby making New Mexico the 17th state to recognize same-sex marriage statewide.

Based on 2008 data, New Mexico had 146 law enforcement agencies at the state, county, and municipal levels. [234] State law enforcement is statutorily administered by the Department of Public Safety (DPS). [235] The New Mexico State Police is a division of the DPS with jurisdiction over all crimes in the state. [236] [237] As of 2008, New Mexico had over 5,000 sworn police officers, a ratio of 252 per 100,000 residents, which is roughly the same as the nation. [234]

Fiscal policy

On a per capita basis, New Mexico's government has one of the largest state budgets, at $9,101 per resident. [238] As of 2017, the state had an S&P Global Rating of AA+, denoting a very strong capacity to meet financial commitments alongside a very low credit risk.

Education

The New Mexico Public Education Department is in Santa Fe. ApodacaBuildingNMEd.JPG
The New Mexico Public Education Department is in Santa Fe.

Due to its relatively low population, in combination with numerous federally funded research facilities, New Mexico had the highest concentration of Ph.D. holders of any state in 2000. [239] Los Alamos County, which hosts the eponymous national laboratory, leads the state in the most post secondary degree holders, at 38.7% of residents, or 4,899 of 17,950. [240] However, the state routinely ranks near the bottom in studies of the quality of primary and secondary school education. [241] It places 34th in public education spending, but by some metrics ranks last in overall performance and quality, with some of the highest dropout rates and lowest math and reading scores. [242]

By national standards, New Mexico has one of the highest concentrations of persons who did not finish high school or have some college education, albeit by a low margin. A little over 14% of residents did not have a high school diploma, compared to the national rate of 11.39%, the fifth lowest out of 52 U.S. states and territories. Almost a quarter of people over 25 (23.9%) have not completed college, [74] compared with 21% of the nation as a whole. [243] New Mexico ranks among the bottom ten states in the proportion of residents with bachelor's degrees or higher (27.67%), but 21st in Ph.D. earners (12.15%); the national average is 33.13% and 12.79%, respectively.

In 2018, a state judge issued a landmark ruling that "New Mexico is violating the constitutional rights of at-risk students by failing to provide them with sufficient education", in particularly those with indigenous, non-English-speaking, and low-income backgrounds. [244] The court had ordered the governor and Legislature to provide an adequate system by April 2019; [245] in response, New Mexico increased teacher salaries, funded an extended school year, and expanded prekindergarten childhood education programs, while developing budget formula for delivering more funding to schools that serve at-risk and low-income students. [246] Nevertheless, many activists and public officials contest the sufficiency of these efforts, particularly with respect to Native American schools and students. [246]

Primary and secondary education

The New Mexico Public Education Department oversees the operation of primary and secondary schools; individual school districts directly operate and staff said schools.

Postsecondary education

New Mexico has roughly one dozen four-year, degree-granting institutions. [247] Additionally, select students can attend certain institutions in Colorado, at in-state tuition rates, pursuant to a reciprocity program between the two states. [248]

Major research universities

Regional state universities

Lottery scholarship

New Mexico is one of eight states that fund college scholarships through the state lottery. [249] [250] [251] The state of New Mexico requires that the lottery put 30% of its gross sales into the scholarship fund. [252] The scholarship is available to residents who graduated from a state high school, and attend a state university full-time while maintaining a 2.5 GPA or higher. [253] It covered 100% of tuition when it was first instated in 1996, [254] decreased to 90%, then dropped to 60% in 2017. [250] The value slightly increased in 2018, and new legislation was passed to outline what funds are available per type of institution. [254]

Culture

Symbols of the Southwest: a string of dried chile pepper pods (a ristra) and a bleached white cow's skull hang in a market near Santa Fe Southwestern Chillis and Skull.jpg
Symbols of the Southwest: a string of dried chile pepper pods (a ristra) and a bleached white cow's skull hang in a market near Santa Fe

New Mexican culture is a unique fusion of indigenous, Spanish, Hispanic, and American influences. In addition to thousands of years of indigenous heritage, the state was among the earliest territories in the Americas to be settled by Europeans; centuries of Spanish and then Mexican settlement, often intermingled with an enduring indigenous presence, are reflected in the state's demographics, toponyms, cuisine, dialect, and identity. The uniqueness of New Mexico's culture and image, relative to the rest of the United States, is reflected in part by the fact that many Americans are unaware the state is part of the country. [255] This phenomenon is variably treated with frustration, amusement, or even as a source of pride as evidence of the state's distinct character and heritage. [256] [257]

The state is an important center of Native American culture, with a Native American population of close to 200,000 in 2010. [258] Both the Navajo and Apache share Athabaskan origin. The Apache and some Ute live on federal reservations in the state. With 16 million acres (6,500,000  ha), mostly in neighboring Arizona, the reservation of the Navajo Nation ranks as the largest in the United States. Pueblo Indians live in pueblos scattered throughout the state.

Almost half of New Mexicans claim Hispanic origin; many are descendants of colonial settlers called Hispanos or Neomexicanos, who settled mostly in the north of the state between the 16th and 18th centuries. By contrast, the majority of Mexican immigrants reside in the southern part of the state. Some percentage Hispanos claim Jewish ancestry through descendance from conversos or Crypto-Jews among early Spanish colonists. [259]

Many New Mexicans speak a unique dialect of Spanish. Because of the historical isolation of New Mexico from other speakers of the Spanish language, some of the vocabulary of New Mexican Spanish is unknown to other Spanish speakers. It uses numerous Native American words for local features and includes anglicized words that express American concepts and modern inventions.

Albuquerque has the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, the National Hispanic Cultural Center, and the National Museum of Nuclear Science & History, as well as hosts the famed annual Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta every fall.

Art and literature

The earliest New Mexico artists whose work survives today are the Mimbres Indians, whose black and white pottery could be mistaken for modern art, except for the fact that it was produced before 1130 CE. See Mimbres culture. Many examples of this work can be seen at the Deming Luna Mimbres Museum [260] and at the Western New Mexico University Museum. [261]

A large artistic community thrives in Santa Fe, and has included such people as Bruce Nauman, Richard Tuttle, John Connell and Steina Vasulka. The capital city has several art museums, including the New Mexico Museum of Art, Museum of Spanish Colonial Art, Museum of International Folk Art, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of Contemporary Native Arts, SITE Santa Fe and others. Colonies for artists and writers thrive, and the small city teems with art galleries. In August, the city hosts the annual Santa Fe Indian Market, which is the oldest and largest juried Native American art showcase in the world. Performing arts include the renowned Santa Fe Opera which presents five operas in repertory each July to August, the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival held each summer, and the restored Lensic Theater a principal venue for many kinds of performances. Santa Fe is also home to Frogville Records, an indie record label. The weekend after Labor Day boasts the burning of Zozobra, a fifty-foot (15 m) marionette, during Fiestas de Santa Fe.

Interior of the Crosby Theater at the Santa Fe Opera, viewed from the mezzanine Santa Fe Opera interior view from section 10.jpg
Interior of the Crosby Theater at the Santa Fe Opera, viewed from the mezzanine

Art is also a frequent theme in Albuquerque, New Mexico's largest city. The National Hispanic Cultural Center has held hundreds of performing arts events, art showcases, and other events related to Spanish culture in New Mexico and worldwide in the centerpiece Roy E Disney Center for the Performing Arts or in other venues at the 53-acre facility. New Mexico residents and visitors alike can enjoy performing art from around the world at Popejoy Hall on the campus of the University of New Mexico. Popejoy Hall hosts singers, dancers, Broadway shows, other types of acts, and Shakespeare. [262] Albuquerque also has the unique and memorable KiMo Theater built in 1927 in the Pueblo Revival Style architecture. The KiMo presents live theater and concerts as well as movies and simulcast operas. [263] In addition to other general interest theaters, Albuquerque also has the African American Performing Arts Center and Exhibit Hall which showcases achievements by people of African descent [264] and the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center which highlights the cultural heritage of the First Nations people of New Mexico. [265]

Luminarias in the old mission church, Jemez State Monument Farolitos, old church, Jemez State Monument.jpg
Luminarias in the old mission church, Jemez State Monument

New Mexico holds strong to its Spanish heritage. Old Spanish traditions such zarzuelas and flamenco are popular; [266] [267] the University of New Mexico is the only institute of higher education in the world with a program dedicated to flamenco. [268] Flamenco dancer and native New Mexican María Benítez founded the Maria Benítez Institute for Spanish Arts "to present programs of the highest quality of the rich artistic heritage of Spain, as expressed through music, dance, visual arts, and other art forms". There is also the Festival Flamenco Internacional de Alburquerque held each year in which native Spanish and New Mexican flamenco dancers perform at the University of New Mexico.

In the mid-20th century, there was a thriving Hispano school of literature and scholarship being produced in both English and Spanish. Among the more notable authors were: Angélico Chávez, Nina Otero-Warren, Fabiola Cabeza de Baca, Aurelio Espinosa, Cleofas Jaramillo, Juan Bautista Rael, and Aurora Lucero-White Lea. As well, writer D. H. Lawrence lived near Taos in the 1920s, at the D. H. Lawrence Ranch, where there is a shrine said to contain his ashes.

New Mexico's strong Spanish, Native American, and Wild West frontier motifs have provided material for many authors in the state, including the internationally recognized Rudolfo Anaya and Tony Hillerman. [269]

Silver City, originally a mining town, is now a major hub and exhibition center for large numbers of artists, visual and otherwise. [270] Another former mining town turned art haven is Madrid, New Mexico, which was brought to national fame as the filming location for the 2007 movie Wild Hogs . [271] Las Cruces, in southern New Mexico, has a museum system affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution Affiliations Program, [272] and hosts variety of cultural and artistic opportunities for residents and visitors. [273]

Owing to a combination of financial incentives, low cost, and geographic diversity, New Mexico has long been a popular setting or filming location for various films and television series. In addition to Wild Hogs, other movies filmed in New Mexico include Sunshine Cleaning and Vampires . Various seasons of the A&E/Netflix series Longmire were filmed in several New Mexico locations, including Las Vegas, Santa Fe, Eagle Nest, and Red River. [274] The widely acclaimed TV show Breaking Bad and its spin-off Better Call Saul were both set and filmed in and around Albuquerque. [275]

Sports

The Santa Ana Star Center Santa Ana Star Center.jpg
The Santa Ana Star Center

No major league professional sports teams are based in New Mexico, but the Albuquerque Isotopes are the Triple-A West baseball affiliate of the MLB Colorado Rockies. The state hosts several baseball teams of the Pecos League: the Roswell Invaders, Ruidoso Osos, Santa Fe Fuego and the White Sands Pupfish. The Duke City Gladiators of the Indoor Football League (IFL) plays their home games at Tingley Coliseum in Albuquerque. The city also hosts two soccer teams: New Mexico United, which began playing in the second-tier USL Championship in 2019, and Albuquerque Sol FC, which plays in the fourth-tier USL League Two.

Collegiate athletics are the center of spectator sports in New Mexico, namely the rivalry between various teams of the University of New Mexico Lobos and the New Mexico State Aggies. [276] The intense competition between the two teams is often referred to as the "Rio Grande Rivalry" or the "Battle of I-25" in recognition of the campuses' both being located along that highway. NMSU also has a rivalry with the University of Texas at El Paso which is called "The Battle of I-10". The winner of the NMSU-UTEP football game receives the Silver Spade trophy.

Olympic gold medalist Tom Jager, who is an advocate of controversial high-altitude training for swimming, has conducted training camps in Albuquerque at 5,312 feet (1,619 m) and Los Alamos at 7,320 feet (2,231 m). [277]

New Mexico is a major hub for various shooting sports, mainly concentrated in the NRA Whittington Center in Raton, which is largest and most comprehensive competitive shooting range and training facility in the U.S. [278]

Historic heritage

Owing to its millennia of habitation and over two centuries of Spanish colonial rule, New Mexico features a significant number of sites with historical and cultural significance. Forty-six locations across the state are listed by the U.S. National Register of Historic Places, the 18th highest of any state. [279]

New Mexico has nine of the country's 84 national monuments, which are sites federally protected by presidential proclamation; this is the second-highest number after Arizona. [38] The monuments include some of the earliest to have been created: El Morro and Gila Cliff Dwellings, proclaimed in 1906 and 1907, respectively, both of which preserve the state's ancient indigenous heritage. [38]

New Mexico is one of 20 states with a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and among only eight with more than one. Excluding sites shared between states, New Mexico has the most World Heritage Sites in the country, with three exclusively within its territory. [280] [281] [282]

See also

Terra.png Geography
portal
North America (orthographic projection).svg North America
portal
Flag of the United States.svg United States
portal

Notes

  1. 2020 U.S. Census
  2. Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
  3. Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Related Research Articles

Albuquerque, New Mexico City in New Mexico, United States

Albuquerque, abbreviated as ABQ, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico. Its nicknames, The Duke City and Burque, both reference its 1706 founding by Nuevo México governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdés as La Villa de Alburquerque. Named in honor of the Viceroy of New Spain, the 10th Duke of Alburquerque, the city was an outpost on El Camino Real linking Mexico City to the northernmost territories of New Spain. The 2020 census found the population of the city to be 564,559, making Albuquerque the 32nd-most populous city in the United States and the fourth-largest in the Southwest. It is the principal city of the Albuquerque metropolitan area, which had 916,528 residents as of July 2020.

Santa Fe County, New Mexico U.S. county in New Mexico

Santa Fe County is located in the U.S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 144,170, making it New Mexico's third-most populous county, after Bernalillo County and Doña Ana County. Its county seat is Santa Fe, the state capital.

Los Alamos County, New Mexico U.S. county in New Mexico

Los Alamos County is a county in the U.S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,950. The smallest county in area of this state was administered exclusively by the U.S. federal government during the Manhattan Project, but now has equal status to New Mexico's other counties. The county has two census-designated places: Los Alamos and White Rock.

Bernalillo County, New Mexico U.S. county in New Mexico

Bernalillo County is the most populous county in the U.S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 662,564. The county seat, Albuquerque, is the most populous city in New Mexico.

Tijeras, New Mexico Village in New Mexico, United States

Tijeras is a village in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, United States. The population was 541 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Albuquerque metropolitan area.

Farmington, New Mexico City in New Mexico, United States

Farmington is a city in San Juan County in the U.S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census the city had a total population of 45,877 people. Farmington makes up one of the four Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in New Mexico. The U.S. Census Bureau's population estimate in 2019 for Farmington was 44,372.

Kewa Pueblo, New Mexico Census-designated place in New Mexico, United States

Kewa Pueblo is a federally-recognized tribe of Native American Pueblo people in northern New Mexico, in Sandoval County southwest of Santa Fe. The pueblo is recorded as the Santo Domingo Pueblo census-designated place by the U.S. Census Bureau, with a population of 2,456 at the 2010 census.

Edgewood, New Mexico Town in New Mexico, United States

Edgewood is a town in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. Through annexations, its town boundaries now extend into Bernalillo and Sandoval counties. It is part of the Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area.

Los Cerrillos, New Mexico CDP in New Mexico, United States

Los Cerrillos is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. It is part of the Santa Fe, New Mexico Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 229 at the 2000 census. Accessible from State Highway 14 or The Turquoise Trail, Cerrillos is on the road from Santa Fe to Albuquerque, closer to Santa Fe. There are several shops and galleries, a post office, and the Cerrillos Hills State Park, which has five miles of hiking trails. The Cerrillos Turquoise Mining Museum contains hundreds of artifacts from the American Old West and the Cerrillos Mining District. It also displays cardboard cutouts of characters from the film Young Guns and information on other movies which have been filmed in and around Cerrillos. This is a good place to view Cerrillos Turquoise from the Browns' turquoise claim, The Little Chalchihuitl.

Madrid, New Mexico CDP in New Mexico, United States

Madrid is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. It is part of the Santa Fe, New Mexico Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 149 at the 2000 census and 204 in 2010. Today, Madrid has become an artists' community with galleries lining New Mexico State Road 14. It retains remnants of its history with the Mineshaft Tavern and the Coal Mine Museum.

San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico CDP in New Mexico, United States

San Ildefonso Pueblo is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States, and a federally recognized tribe, established c. 1300 C.E. The Pueblo is self-governing and is part of the Santa Fe, New Mexico Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 524 as of the 2010 census, reported by the State of New Mexico as 1,524 in 2012, and there were 628 enrolled tribal members reported as of 2012 according to the Department of the Interior. San Ildefonso Pueblo is a member of the Eight Northern Pueblos, and the pueblo people are from the Tewa ethnic group of Native Americans, who speak the Tewa language.

Santa Cruz, New Mexico CDP in New Mexico, United States

Santa Cruz is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States. It is part of the Santa Fe, New Mexico Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 423 at the 2000 census.

Española, New Mexico City in New Mexico, United States

Española is a city primarily in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, United States. A portion of the central and eastern section of the city is in Santa Fe County. Founded as a railroad village near the site of San Juan de los Caballeros, first capital for Nuevo México in 1598, it was named Española and officially incorporated in 1925. It has been called the first capital city in the United States. At the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 10,495. Española is within the Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area.

Santa Fe, New Mexico State capital of New Mexico in the United States

Santa Fe is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in New Mexico with a population of 84,683 in 2019, the county seat of Santa Fe County, and its metropolitan area is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area, with a population of 1,178,664 in 2018. The city was founded in 1610 as the capital of Nuevo México, after it replaced the capital San Juan de los Caballeros at San Gabriel de Yungue-Ouinge, which makes it the oldest state capital in the United States. With an elevation of 7,199 feet, it is also the state capital with the highest elevation.

Economy of New Mexico Overview of the economy of New Mexico

Oil and gas production, tourism, and federal government spending are important drivers of New Mexico's economy. State government has an elaborate system of tax credits and technical assistance to promote job growth and business investment, especially in new technologies.

Outline of New Mexico Overview of and topical guide to New Mexico

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the U.S. state of New Mexico:

Doña Ana County, New Mexico U.S. county in New Mexico

Doña Ana County is located in the southern part of the State of New Mexico, United States. As of the 2020 U.S. Census, its population was 219,561, which makes it the second-most populated county in New Mexico. Its county seat is Las Cruces, the second-most populous municipality in New Mexico after Albuquerque, with 111,385 as of the 2020 U.S. Census.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico, US.

2018 New Mexico gubernatorial election Election in New Mexico

The 2018 New Mexico gubernatorial election took place on November 6, 2018, to elect the next Governor of New Mexico, concurrently with the election of New Mexico's Class I U.S. Senate seat, as well as other elections to the United States Senate in other states, elections to the United States House of Representatives and various local elections.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "United States Summary: 2010—Population and Housing Unit Counts" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. September 2012. p. 41. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  2. "Wheeler". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey . Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  3. 1 2 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  4. 1 2 Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  5. "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
  6. Neomexicano definition Archived June 27, 2018, at the Wayback Machine by Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española)
  7. "Most spoken languages in New Mexico in 2010". MLA Data Center. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
  8. "U.S. federal state of New Mexico - real GDP 2000-2020". Statista. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  9. "New Mexico: per capita real GDP 2000-2019". Statista. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  10. "New Mexico's film industry has bounded back to near pre-pandemic levels". www.abqjournal.com. Retrieved July 19, 2021.|first= missing |last= (help)
  11. Roberts, Calvin A. Roberts; Susan A. (2006). New Mexico (Rev. ed.). Albuquerque: Univ. of New Mexico Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN   9780826340030.
  12. "Is New Mexico a State? Some Americans Don't Know". NPR. Archived from the original on February 5, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  13. "How Did New Mexico Get Its Name". mexica.org. Word Press. Archived from the original on February 5, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  14. Norris, Tina; Vines, Paula L.; Hoeffel, Elizabeth M. (February 2012). "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010" (PDF). Census 2010 Brief. United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
  15. Edward B. Kaye (2001). ""Good Flag, Bad Flag, and the Great NAVA Flag Survey of 2001". Raven: A Journal of Vexillology. 8: 11–38. doi:10.5840/raven200182.
  16. "New Mexico State Flag—About the New Mexico Flag, its adoption and history from". Netstate.Com. Archived from the original on September 16, 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  17. Weber, David J. (1992). The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 79.
  18. Stewart, George (2008) [1945]. Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: NYRB Classics. pp. 23–24. ISBN   978-1-59017-273-5. There was Francisco de Ibarra, a great seeker after gold mines. In 1563, he went far to the north ... when he returned south, Ibarra boasted that he had discovered a New Mexico. Doubtless, like others, he stretched the tale, and certainly, the land of which he told was well south of the one now so-called. Yet, men remembered the name Nuevo México, though not at first, as that of the region which Coronado had once conquered.
  19. Sanchez, Joseph P. (1987). The Rio Abajo Frontier, 1540–1692: A History of Early Colonial New Mexico. Albuquerque: Museum of Albuquerque History Monograph Series. p. 51.
  20. Rivera, José A., Acequia Culture: Water, Land, and Community in the Southwest, University of New Mexico Press, 1998.
  21. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 24, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. "MAPS". NM Partnership. Archived from the original on September 14, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  23. 1 2 "CLIMATE OF NEW MEXICO". New Mexico State University. Archived from the original on July 8, 2004. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 "New Mexico | Flag, Facts, Maps, & Points of Interest". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  25. "Colorado Plateau shrublands | Ecoregions | WWF". World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  26. "Rivers of the World". USGS. Archived from the original on March 5, 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  27. "Bureau of Reclamation". September 26, 2006. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  28. "All-Time Climate Extremes for NM". National Climatic Data Center. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
  29. John W. Briggs."Making it in Magdalena" Archived February 11, 2017, at the Wayback Machine ."Reflector".2016.
  30. Lauren Villagran. "New Mexico's window to the stars" Archived February 11, 2017, at the Wayback Machine . Albuquerque Journal. 2017.
  31. 1 2 "New Mexico - Climate". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  32. Lowrey, Timothy K. (2017). Flora of New Mexico: Biology 463. University of New Mexico. pp. 88–162.
  33. Ivey, Robert DeWitt (2008). Flowering plants of New Mexico (5th ed.). Albuquerque, NM: RD & V Ivey. ISBN   978-0-9612170-4-4.
  34. Merriam Bailey, Florence (1928). Birds of New Mexico. The University of Michigan.
  35. Hogan, C. Michael (2008). "Wild turkey: Meleagris gallopavo". GlobalTwitcher.com. Archived from the original on July 25, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
  36. New Mexico; New Mexico Compilation Commission (1966). New Mexico statutes, 1953, annotated. 2. Indianapolis: A. Smith Co. p. 68. OCLC   28494004. Archived from the original on May 29, 2013. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
  37. "Threatened and Endangered Species of New Mexico: 2012 Biennial Review" (PDF). New Mexico Department of Game and Fish. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 13, 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  38. 1 2 3 4 Mazurek, Anna (June 18, 2021). "A monumental journey through New Mexico".
  39. "Find a Forest by State". USDA Forest Service. Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
  40. "New Mexico". National Park Service. Archived from the original on July 9, 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2008.
  41. "Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument". www.blm.gov. Archived from the original on December 23, 2018. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
  42. "EMNRD State Parks Division". www.emnrd.state.nm.us. Archived from the original on May 11, 2019. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
  43. Levin, Sam. "New Mexico to sue EPA after massive mining spill filled rivers with toxic waste" Archived February 20, 2019, at the Wayback Machine , The Guardian , London, January 14, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
  44. Hedden, Adrian. "New Mexico eyeing stricter regulations, more fines on oil and gas spills". Carlsbad Current-Argus. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  45. 1 2 3 "Report: Oil and gas leads New Mexico in greenhouse gas emissions, renewable sector growing". www.msn.com. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  46. 1 2 Hedden, Adrian. "Oil and gas industry, New Mexico works to curb greenhouse gas emissions, fight climate change". Carlsbad Current-Argus. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  47. 1 2 "New Mexico targets vehicle emissions » Albuquerque Journal". www.abqjournal.com. August 2021. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  48. 1 2 Murphy, Dan (2000). New Mexico, the distant land: an illustrated history. photo research by John O. Baxter (2000 ed.). Sun Valley, CA: American Historical Press. ISBN   978-1-892724-09-0.
  49. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Simmons, Marc (1988). New Mexico: An Interpretive History (New ed.). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN   978-0-8263-1110-8.
  50. Stewart, George (2008) [1945]. Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: NYRB Classics. pp. 23–24. ISBN   978-1-59017-273-5. There was Francisco de Ibarra, a great seeker after gold mines. In 1563, he went far to the north ... when he returned south, Ibarra boasted that he had discovered a New Mexico. Doubtless, like others, he stretched the tale, and certainly, the land of which he told was well south of the one now so-called. Yet men remembered the name Nuevo México, though not at first as that of the region which Coronado had once conquered.
  51. "Cuarto Centenario: 400 Years of New Mexico Culture and History". New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs. 1999. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
  52. 1 2 Simmons, Mark (1991). The Last Conquistador: Juan De Oñate and the Settling of the Far Southwest. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN   978-0-8061-2368-4.
  53. Resistance and Accommodation in New Mexico. Source: C. W. Hackett, ed., Historical Documents relating to New Mexico, Nueva Vizcaya, and Approaches Thereto, to 1773, vol. III [Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1937] pp. 327–335.
  54. The Pueblo Revolt of 1680:Conquest and Resistance in Seventeenth-Century New Mexico, By, Andrew L. Knaut, University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, 1995
  55. "The Founding of Albuquerque—The Albuquerque Museum". City of Albuquerque. Archived from the original on May 29, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
  56. New Mexico (state) Archived September 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  57. "Boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase as Recognized Today". Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase. Library of Congress. December 2001. Archived from the original on July 6, 2008. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
  58. "American Civil War Research Database statistics". Civilwardata.com. March 4, 2012. Archived from the original on June 17, 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  59. Charles Montgomery, "Becoming 'Spanish-American': Race and Rhetoric in New Mexico Politics, 1880–1928" Archived November 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine , Journal of American Ethnic History Vol. 20, No. 4 (Summer, 2001), pp. 59–84 (published by University of Illinois Press for Immigration and Ethnic History Society); accessed via JSTOR, July 20, 2016,
  60. Van Holtby, D. (2012). Forty-Seventh Star: New Mexico's Struggle for Statehood. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN   978-0-8061-8786-0 . Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  61. de Aragón, R.J. (2020). New Mexico's Stolen Lands: A History of Racism, Fraud & Deceit. HISTORY Press. ISBN   978-1-4671-4403-2 . Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  62. "New Mexico Art Tells New Mexico History | History: Statehood". online.nmartmuseum.org. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  63. 1 2 3 Willard Hughes Rollings, "Citizenship and Suffrage: The Native American Struggle for Civil Rights in the American West, 1830–1965" Archived November 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine , Nevada Law Journal Vol. 5:126, Fall 2004; accessed July 18, 2016
  64. "New Mexico Oil Discovery". Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
  65. Wells, Bruce. "New Mexico Oil Discovery". American Oil & Gas Historical Society. Archived from the original on June 8, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2014.
  66. "Historical Population Change Data (1910–2020)". Census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  67. "New Mexico - Spanish and Mexican rule". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  68. "Table 16. Population: 1790 to 1990". Population and Housing Unit Counts. 1990 Census of Population and Housing. CPH-2-1. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. pp. 26–27. ISBN   978-99946-41-25-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 28, 2011. Retrieved July 3, 2008.
  69. Adler, Les. "Albuquerque's Near-Doomsday". Archived May 15, 2019, at the Wayback Machine Albuquerque Tribune. January 20, 1994.
  70. "Accident Revealed After 29 Years: H-Bomb Fell Near Albuquerque in 1957". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. August 27, 1986. Archived from the original on September 10, 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  71. Reynis, Lee A.; Marshall J. Vest (2005). "The Southwest Heartland: The Good, the Bad & the Ugly" (PDF). University of New Mexico, Bureau of Business and Economic Research. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 25, 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
  72. "QuickFacts New Mexico; UNITED STATES". 2019 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. April 2, 2020. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  73. 1 2 3 4 5 "Census: New Mexico Among Slowest Growing Western States". U.S. News & World Report. April 26, 2021.
  74. 1 2 3 "New Mexico | Bureau of Business and Economic Research UNM". bber.unm.edu. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
  75. Bureau, U.S. Census. "U.S. Census website".
  76. Hill, Catey. "This is the No. 1 state for retirees — and it's not Florida". MarketWatch. Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  77. Schoen, Darla Mercado (April 17, 2019). "Retirees are flocking to these 3 states — and fleeing these 3 states in droves". CNBC. Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  78. 1 2 Why New Mexicans are Fleeing the State | Best States | U.S. News & World Report
  79. Writer, Dan McKay | Journal Staff (May 3, 2021). "NM 2020 census count higher than expected". www.abqjournal.com. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  80. "data" (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 25, 2018. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  81. "data" (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  82. "data" (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  83. "data" (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 3, 2018. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  84. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 1, 2019. Retrieved February 21, 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  85. "Data" (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Retrieved December 21, 2019.
  86. "Data" (PDF). www.cdc.gov. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
  87. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018 - United States -- Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 2019. Retrieved October 5, 2019.
  88. "NM Colonias | Bureau of Business and Economic Research UNM". bber.unm.edu. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  89. "COLONIAS History". June 2, 2015. Archived from the original on June 2, 2015. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  90. "Of The Four Majority-Minority States In America, Minorities Do Best In Texas". Forbes.com. Archived from the original on January 15, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  91. Table 46. New Mexico – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1850 to 1990 U.S. Census Bureau.
  92. 1 2 "New Mexico QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  93. "Alaska QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
  94. 1 2 "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Census.gov. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
  95. 1 2 "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Census.gov. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
  96. Population of New Mexico: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts [ dead link ]
  97. 2010 Census Data. "2010 Census Data". Census.gov. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
  98. Brittingham, Angela; de la Cruz, G. Patricia (June 2004). "Table 3. Largest Ancestries for the United States, Regions, States, and for Puerto Rico: 2000" (PDF). Ancestry: 2000; Census 2000 Brief. US Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2004. Retrieved November 8, 2008.
  99. Sonnad, Nikhil. "Against the odds, English is on the rise in four US states". Quartz. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
  100. "MLA Language Map Data Center: Most spoken languages in New Mexico". Mla.org. July 17, 2007. Archived from the original on August 9, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  101. "The Spanish language in New Mexico and southern Colorado". Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  102. Bills, Garland D., and Neddy A. Vigil. 2008. The Spanish Language of New Mexico and Southern Colorado: A Linguistic Atlas. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. p. 14. ISBN   978-0-8263-4549-3
  103. Rubén Cobos. A Dictionary of New Mexico & Southern Colorado Spanish. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 2003
  104. Bills & Vigil 2008 , pp. 51–74, Ch.5 "Retentions"
  105. Bills & Vigil 2008 , pp. 123–151, Ch.8 "El Nuevo México"
  106. Crawford, John (1992). Language loyalties: a source book on the official English controversy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 62.
  107. 1 2 Cobarrubias, Juan; Fishman, Joshua A (1983). Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives. Walter de Gruyter. p. 195.
  108. Perea, Juan F. Los Olvidados: On the Making of Invisible People. New York University Law Review, 70(4), 965–990.
  109. 1 2 3 Constitution of the State of New Mexico. Archived January 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Adopted January 21, 1911.
  110. New Mexico Code 1-16-7 (1981).
  111. New Mexico Code 14-11-13 (2011).
  112. Roberts, Calvin A. (2006). Our New Mexico: A Twentieth Century History. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. p. 23.
  113. "Constitution of New Mexico - NMOneSource.com". nmonesource.com. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
  114. Joseph, John Earl (2006). Language and Politics. Edinburgh University Press. p. 63.
  115. "State Symbols". New Mexico Blue Book 2007–2008. New Mexico Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 29, 2008. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
  116. Felicia Fonseca (July 31, 2008). "New Mexico first state to adopt Navajo textbook". Seattle Times. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
  117. "Religion in America: U.S. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics—Pew Research Center". Archived from the original on December 10, 2017. Retrieved December 9, 2017.
  118. "The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
  119. "ARCHDIOSF.ORG". Archived from the original on January 16, 2010. Retrieved April 11, 2010. There is one Eastern Catholic parish in the state, which is under the Byzantine Catholic Eparchy of Phoenix.
  120. "Religion in New Mexico | Frommer's". www.frommers.com. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
  121. 1 2 "Religion in New Mexico | Frommer's". www.frommers.com. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  122. "Most and least religious U.S. states". Pew Research Center. Retrieved July 24, 2021.
  123. "New Mexico". Forbes. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
  124. "U.S. federal state of New Mexico - real GDP 2000-2020". Statista. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
  125. "GDP by State". Greyhill Advisors. Archived from the original on February 3, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
  126. "Per Capita Personal Income by State". University of New Mexico, Bureau of Business and Economic Research. April 4, 2008. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
  127. "U.S. per capita personal income, by state 2020". Statista. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
  128. "Persons Below Poverty by New Mexico County". University of New Mexico, Bureau of Business and Economic Research. January 18, 2008. Archived from the original on June 24, 2010. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
  129. "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: New Mexico". www.census.gov. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
  130. "Travel Economic Impact Model" (PDF). New Mexico Tourism Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 28, 2008. Retrieved October 2, 2008.
  131. The Economic Impact of Tourism in New Mexico
  132. "New Mexico—State Energy Profile Overview—U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". www.eia.gov. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  133. "Oil & Gas Program". New Mexico Institute of Technology, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
  134. "EIA State Energy Profiles: New Mexico". US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. October 9, 2008. Archived from the original on September 23, 2008. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
  135. "US soon to leapfrog Saudis, Russia as top oil producer". www.abqjournal.com. The Associated Press. July 11, 2018. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  136. "The United States is now the largest global crude oil producer—Today in Energy—U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". www.eia.gov. Archived from the original on October 3, 2018. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  137. "NM Oil and Natural Gas Production". www.emnrd.state.nm.us. New Mexico Energy, Minerals, Natural Resources Department: Oil Conservation Division. Archived from the original on December 31, 2018. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  138. "Annual Energy Outlook 2017" (PDF). www.eia.gov. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 12, 2018. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  139. "Tiny U.S. Region Is Methane 'Hot Spot', NASA Finds". NASA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Archived from the original on November 22, 2018. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  140. "EIA—Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview". www.eia.gov. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  141. "EPA Facility Level GHG Emissions Data". ghgdata.epa.gov. Archived from the original on October 16, 2018. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  142. Robinson-Avila, Kevin (June 21, 2018). "Study: Methane emissions much higher than EPA says". www.abqjournal.com. Albuquerque Journal. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  143. 1 2 3 4 "New Mexico has higher percent of oil and gas producing federal land than most western states » Albuquerque Journal". www.abqjournal.com. April 30, 2020. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  144. Chokshi, Niraj (December 30, 2013). "A third of New Mexico is federally owned, but the state might buy some of it back". The Washington Post.
  145. "Federal Spending Received Per Dollar of Taxes Paid by State, 2005". Tax Foundation. October 9, 2007. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  146. Laura Schultz and Michelle Cumming , Giving or Getting? New York’s Balance of Payments with the Federal Government January 8, 2019, Rockefeller Institute of Government, p. 13.
  147. Hoffower, Hillary. "11 states pay more in federal taxes than they get back — here's how every state fares". Business Insider. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  148. Dr. Chris Erickson; Erin Ward (May 2005). "Economic Impact of the Closure of Cannon Air Force Base". New Mexico Business Outlook. New Mexico State University. Archived from the original on September 2, 2006. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
  149. Susan Montoya Bryan, Report: US nuclear lab gives New Mexico economy $3B boost, July 18, 2019
  150. "Business Assistance: Incentives". State of New Mexico Economic Development Department. Archived from the original on April 6, 2008. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
  151. Domrzalski, Dennis (September 19, 2003). 28 New Mexico towns tap into $45M in incentives. New Mexico Business Weekly. OCLC   30948175. Archived from the original on September 18, 2008. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
  152. "State of New Mexico Incentives". City of Albuquerque. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
  153. "Governor Signs Film Production Tax Incentives". New Mexico Economic Development Department. March 4, 2002. Archived from the original on November 14, 2006. Retrieved September 12, 2007.
  154. "New Mexico's Film Incentives". New Mexico Film Office. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
  155. 1 2 "NBCUniversal Officially Opens its New Mexico Production Facility". www.krwg.org. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
  156. Hay, Kiera (December 10, 2007). State's Incentives Keep Film Industry Growing. Albuquerque Journal. OCLC   9392114. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
  157. "Netflix to expand production hub in New Mexico". ABC News. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
  158. Sohm, Joe (May 4, 2012). "Top 10 US Tax Haven States | SBC Magazine". www.sbcmag.info. Archived from the original on April 21, 2018. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
  159. English, Michael (September 18, 2015). "New Mexico touted as tax-friendly state in latest ranking". www.bizjournals.com. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
  160. Bell, Kay. "State taxes: New Mexico". Bankrate. Archived from the original on April 22, 2018. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
  161. "New Mexico Retirement Tax Friendliness | SmartAsset.com". SmartAsset. Archived from the original on June 21, 2018. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
  162. Loughead, Katherine. "State Individual Income Tax Rates and Brackets". Tax Foundation. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
  163. Loughead, Katherine (January 5, 2021). "State Tax Changes Effective January 1, 2021". Tax Foundation. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
  164. "Wage Withholding Taxes". Governments. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
  165. "Gross Receipts Taxes FAQ" (PDF). State of New Mexico, Taxation and Revenue Department. August 6, 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 31, 2007. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
  166. Archived October 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  167. "Property Tax FAQ" (PDF). State of New Mexico, Taxation and Revenue Department. August 7, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 31, 2007. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
  168. "New Mexico Tax Rates & Rankings | NM State Taxes". Tax Foundation. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  169. 1 2 3 Chief, Dan Boyd | Journal Capitol Bureau (August 9, 2021). "NM considering statewide guaranteed basic income program". www.abqjournal.com. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
  170. "Births Financed by Medicaid". KFF. October 17, 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  171. "U.S. Fortune 500 companies 2020, by state". Statista. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
  172. "Local Area Unemployment Statistics". Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
  173. "Consolidated Minimum Wage Table | U.S. Department of Labor". www.dol.gov. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
  174. "New Mexico Department of Workforce Solutions > Labor Relations > Resources > Minimum Wage Information". www.dws.state.nm.us. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
  175. "Santa Fe County : Living Wage Ordinance". www.santafecountynm.gov. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
  176. "Santa Fe just agreed to send some parents $400 per month - and New Mexico could take it statewide". www.msn.com. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  177. Writer, T. S. Last | Journal Staff (June 16, 2021). "Santa Fe signs on to guaranteed income program". www.abqjournal.com. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  178. 1 2 McDevitt, Michael. "Las Cruces will open bids for economic relief programs. One could be guaranteed basic income". Las Cruces Sun-News. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  179. Chaco Canyon Archived June 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  180. Suina, Kim. "Indigenous trade". Digital History Project—Book of Migrations. New Mexico Office of the State Historian. Archived from the original on September 3, 2007. Retrieved March 31, 2009.
  181. Santa Fe Trail Association Archived March 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  182. "Santa Fe National Historic Trail (U.S. National Park Service)". Nps.gov. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  183. Los Angeles Times, New Mexico turns a corner on drunk driving, July 7, 2009, by Kate Linthicum, http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jul/07/nation/na-new-mexico-dwi7 Archived May 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  184. U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-2: New Mexico Public Road Length, Miles by Ownership 2000 Archived October 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  185. U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-1: New Mexico Public Road Length, by Functional System Archived October 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  186. "U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 2-1: Highway Traffic Fatalities and Fatality Rates: 2000". Bts.gov. Archived from the original on June 23, 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  187. U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-5: Highway Bridge Condition: 2001 Archived June 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  188. "ABQ RIDE—City of Albuquerque". City of Albuquerque. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  189. "Table 3: Interstate Routes in Each of the 50 States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico". Route Log and Finder List. Federal Highway Administration. Archived from the original on July 11, 2018. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  190. "On What's Left of America's 'Mother Road,' Remnants of Road Trips and Migrations". Science. December 31, 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  191. "Route 66 National Scenic Byway - New Mexico Tourism - Travel & Vacation Guide". www.newmexico.org. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  192. "New Mexico Scenic Road Trips | 25 State and National Byways | New Mexico True". www.newmexico.org. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  193. "National Scenic Byways Program - Planning, Environment, & Real Estate - FHWA". www.fhwa.dot.gov. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  194. U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-9: Freight Railroads in New Mexico and the United States: 2000 Archived March 20, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
  195. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Myrick, David F. (1970). New Mexico's Railroads—An Historical Survey. Golden, Colorado: Colorado Railroad Museum. ISBN   978-0-8263-1185-6. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 70-116915.
  196. 1 2 3 "New Mexico and its Railroads". La Crónica de Nuevo México/New Mexico Office of the State Historian: Digital History Project—The Book of Mapping. Historical Society of New Mexico. August 1984. Archived from the original on September 3, 2007. Retrieved March 31, 2009.
  197. 1 2 3 4 Richards, C Fenton Jr (2001). Santa Fe—The Chief Way. Second Printing, 2005. Robert Strein & John Vaughn. New Mexico Magazine. ISBN   978-0-937206-71-3.
  198. 1 2 3 4 Dorin, Patrick C. (2004). Santa Fe Passenger Trains in the Streamlined Era. design and layout by Megan Johnson. USA: TLC Publishing, Inc. ISBN   978-1-883089-99-3.
  199. 1 2 "Stations—New Mexico Rail Runner Express". Nmrailrunner.com. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  200. Herron, Gary (December 22, 2008). "Media and politicians enjoy inaugural ride, public opening met with delays". The Observer. UK. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  201. Proctor, Cathy (May 15, 2005). "Idea floated for Front Range rail line". Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  202. ""Front Range Commuter Rail - History and Documents"". Colorado Secretary of State. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  203. Holmes, Sue Major (January 14, 2009). "Mass. firm sues state over Railrunner name". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on December 15, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  204. Grimm, Julie Ann (December 17, 2008). "Delays, struck cow mark Rail Runner's first day, but riders optimistic". The Santa Fe New Mexican . Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  205. "Rail Runner schedule page". NM Railrunner. April 12, 2010. Archived from the original on July 23, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  206. "New Mexico Rail Runner Express weekday schedule" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  207. "Southwest Chief passenger timetable" (PDF). Amtrak. October 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  208. Blaszak, Michael W. (2009). Speed, Signals, and Safety. Fast Trains. Classic Trains Special Edition No. 7. p. 47. ISBN   978-0-89024-763-1.
  209. "Sunset Limited passenger timetable" (PDF). Amtrak. January 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 5, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  210. U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-9: Freight Railroads in New Mexico and the United States: 2000 Archived March 20, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
  211. Ohtake, Miyoko (August 25, 2007). "Virgin Galactic Preps for Liftoff at World's First Commercial Spaceport". Wired Magazine (15:10). Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
  212. Robinson-Avila (December 31, 2008). "NM Spaceport, Virgin Galactic sign 20-year lease". New Mexico Business Weekly. Archived from the original on January 2, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
  213. 1 2 AFP (December 19, 2008). "First Commercial Spaceport Gets Green Light". Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
  214. UP Aerospace does launches 'quickly and cheaply', DenverBiz Journal, October 2008 Archived December 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  215. "Tenants, Customers and Partners | Spaceport America - The First Purpose-Built Spaceport". Spaceport America. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
  216. Robinson-Avila, Kevin (May 22, 2021). "NM 'has finally reached the stars'". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved May 30, 2021.
  217. "New Mexico paid $1.5 million to show state logo during Virgin Galactic space flight". Las Cruces Sun-News. Associated Press. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
  218. Constitution of New Mexico, Sec. 24.
  219. 1 2 "New Mexico - Government and society". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  220. "New Mexico Government". www.newmexico.gov. Archived from the original on January 2, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  221. "NM Secretary of State's Office official web site". Sos.state.nm.us. Archived from the original on January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
  222. "NM Attorney General's Office official web site". Ago.state.nm.us. Archived from the original on August 17, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  223. "NM State Auditor's Office official web site". Saonm.org. Archived from the original on October 30, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  224. "NM State Lands official web site". Nmstatelands.org. Archived from the original on July 28, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  225. "NM State Treasurer's Office official web site". Stonm.org. Archived from the original on August 9, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  226. "Voter Registration Statistics". New Mexico Secretary of State . Retrieved March 21, 2021.
  227. 1 2 Weigel, David (October 8, 2012). "How Obama Won New Mexico Long Before Election Day". Slate Magazine. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
  228. "New Mexico Presidential Election Voting History". 270towin.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
  229. New Mexico Statutes § 3-1-3
  230. New Mexico Statutes § 3-8-29C
  231. 1 2 Thomson-DeVeaux, Amelia (January 31, 2020). "Why New Mexico Elects More Women Of Color Than The Rest Of The Country". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  232. "State by State". Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
  233. Le Nouveau-Mexique abolit la peine de mort [archive] in Le Monde of March 19, 2009
  234. 1 2 Brian A Reaves, "2008 Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies", US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, July 2011
  235. "New Mexico Statutes Chapter 29. Law Enforcement § 29-2-1". Findlaw. Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  236. "New Mexico State Police | Welcome to NewMexico.gov" . Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  237. "New Mexico Statutes Chapter 29. Law Enforcement § 29-1-1". Findlaw. Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  238. "General Appropriation Act of 2019". Section 4, HB No. 2 of 2019. New Mexico Legislature. p. 173. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  239. Hillner, Jennifer. "Venture Capitals". Wired. Archived from the original on March 13, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  240. "County Data | Bureau of Business and Economic Research UNM". bber.unm.edu. Archived from the original on March 1, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
  241. "These Are The States With The Best And Worst School Systems, According To New Rankings". Huffington Post. August 4, 2014. Archived from the original on November 23, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  242. "Public School Rankings By State 2021". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved July 25, 2021.
  243. "Data | Bureau of Business and Economic Research UNM". bber.unm.edu. Archived from the original on February 28, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
  244. Mckay, Dan; Perea, Shelby (July 21, 2018). "New Mexico loses education lawsuit". www.abqjournal.com. Albuquerque Journal. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  245. "Martinez v. New Mexico, consolidated with Yazzie v. New Mexico" (PDF). nmpovertylaw.org. State of New Mexico, County of Santa Fe, First Judicial District Court. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2019.