Gallup, New Mexico

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Gallup
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Motels and businesses in Gallup
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Location of Gallup in New Mexico
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Gallup
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 35°31′41″N108°44′33″W / 35.52806°N 108.74250°W / 35.52806; -108.74250 Coordinates: 35°31′41″N108°44′33″W / 35.52806°N 108.74250°W / 35.52806; -108.74250
CountryUnited States
State New Mexico
County McKinley
Founded1881
Government
   Mayor Jackie McKinney
Area
   City 13.4 sq mi (34.6 km2)
  Land13.4 sq mi (34.6 km2)
  Water0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation
6,468 ft (1,971 m)
Population
 (2010)
   City 21,678
  Estimate 
(2018) [1]
21,929
  Density1,600/sq mi (630/km2)
   Metro
71,492
Time zone UTC−7 (MST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−6 (MDT)
ZIP codes
87301-87305
Area code(s) 505
FIPS code 35-28460
GNIS feature ID0902825 [2]
Website www.gallupnm.gov
American Coal Company mine and plant, Gallup, circa 1920. Early coal mining here supplied the railroad's steam locomotives. Coal mine, Gallup 1920.jpg
American Coal Company mine and plant, Gallup, circa 1920. Early coal mining here supplied the railroad's steam locomotives.

Gallup (Navajo : Naʼnízhoozhí /nɑ̀ʔnɪ́ʒòːʒɪ́/; Zuni: Kalabwakin) is a city in McKinley County, New Mexico, United States, with a population of 21,678 as of the 2010 census. A substantial percentage of its population is Native American, with residents from the Navajo, Hopi, and Zuni tribes. Gallup is the county seat of McKinley County [3] and the most populous city between Flagstaff and Albuquerque, along the historic U.S. Route 66.

Contents

The city was founded in 1881 as a railhead for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, and named after David Gallup, a paymaster for the railroad. It is on the Trails of the Ancients Byway, one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways. [4] Because of the nearby rugged terrain, it was a popular location in the 1940s and 1950s for Hollywood Westerns.

History

Gallup was founded in 1881 as a railhead for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. The city was named after David Gallup, a paymaster for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. During World War II, the city fought successfully to prevent 800 Japanese American residents from being placed in wartime internment, the only New Mexico city to do so. [5] [6]

Gallup is known as the "Heart of Indian Country" because it is on the edge of the Navajo reservation and is home to members of many other tribes as well. [7]

Culture

U.S. Route 66 passed through Gallup, and the town's name is mentioned in the lyrics of the song "(Get Your Kicks on) Route 66" ("You'll see Amarillo and Gallup, NM"). In 2003, the U.S. and New Mexico Departments of Transportation renumbered US Highway 666, the city's other major highway, as Route 491. Former Governor Bill Richardson pushed for (and got) the number changed because "666" is associated with Satan and Devil worship, and thus it was considered "cursed" or a "Beast" to some locals. The situation was exacerbated by the high death toll on the highway, which was largely a result of high rates of drivers under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and budget shortfalls among both the New Mexico Department of Transportation and state and local law enforcement agencies. [8]

Gallup has a modestly lively night time culture downtown, Indian dances during summertime nights, art crawls, small museums including a Navajo Code Talk museum. [9] Gallup commissioned a number of murals highlighting local culture and contributions dot downtown. [10] [11]

Being the largest city between Flagstaff and Albuquerque, Gallup claims many notable buildings, places, events and people. [12] The historic El Rancho Hotel & Motel has hosted a numerous array of movie stars including John Wayne, Ronald Reagan, Humphrey Bogart, Spencer Tracy, Katharine Hepburn, Joan Crawford, Kirk Douglas, Doris Day, Gregory Peck, and Burt Lancaster. The rugged terrain surrounding Gallup was popular with Hollywood filmmakers during the 1940s and 50s for the on-location shooting of Westerns. Actors and film crews would stay at that hotel during filming. Films made in Gallup include Billy the Kid (1930), Pursued (1947), The Sea of Grass (1947), Four Faces West (1948), Only the Valiant (1951), Ace in the Hole (1951), Escape from Fort Bravo (1953), A Distant Trumpet (1964), and The Hallelujah Trail (1965). Other movies shot here are Redskin (1928) and Superman (1980). [13]

Gallup is sometimes called the "Indian Capital of the World", for its location in the heart of Native American lands, and the presence of Navajo, Zuni, Hopi, and other tribes. 1/3 of the city's population has Native American roots. Gallup's nickname references the huge impact of the Native American cultures found in and around the city.

In 2013, Gallup was named by Rand McNally as the "Most Patriotic Small Town in America 2013." [14]

Geography

Gallup is located at 35°31′41″N108°44′33″W / 35.52806°N 108.74250°W / 35.52806; -108.74250 (35.5280783, −108.7425843). [2] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.4 square miles (35 km2), all land.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1900 2,948
1910 2,264−23.2%
1920 3,92073.1%
1930 5,99252.9%
1940 7,04117.5%
1950 9,13329.7%
1960 14,08954.3%
1970 14,5963.6%
1980 18,16724.5%
1990 19,1545.4%
2000 20,2095.5%
2010 21,6787.3%
Est. 201821,929 [1] 1.2%
U.S. Decennial Census [15]

As of the census [16] of 2000, there were 20,209 people, 6,810 households, and 4,869 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,513.7 people per square mile (584.5/km²). There were 7,349 housing units at an average density of 550.5 per square mile (212.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 35.2% White, 43.8% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 1.2% African American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 12.0% from other races, and 5.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31.7% of the population.

There were 6,810 households out of which 41.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 19.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.5% were non-nuclear families. 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.39.

In the city, the population was spread out with 32.7% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 8.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males.

It has close proximity to Native American reservations, and historic lack of economic development in addition to many mine closures in the last century. As a result of these mine closures, a large proportion of Gallup's households are low-income. The median income for a household in the city was $34,868, and the median income for a family was $39,197. Males had a median income of $33,380 versus $24,441 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,789. About 16.6% of families and 20.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 16.8% of those age 65 or over.

Crime

Crime is a serious problem in Gallup. In 2012, violent crime was nearly five times the national average. [17] As a result, the city has the highest violent crime rate in the state of New Mexico. According to an article published in November 2014, "Gallup saw 463 violent crimes last year including murder, rape, robbery and aggravated assault. That’s an eleven percent increase from the year before and two times the rate of Albuquerque, the state’s largest city." [18]

Transportation

Airports

Major highways

Train

Climate

Gallup, like most of the interior Mountain West, has a cool semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk). The summers are hot during the day, but the high altitude and low humidity means that nights remain distinctly cool: as late as July 2 of 1997 the temperature fell to 31 °F (−1 °C). Despite the large diurnal temperature range, most rain falls in the summer from afternoon thunderstorms. Despite the dry atmosphere, hot sun and an average of only 7.4 days with maxima below 32 °F (0 °C), winter nights are so cold snow is common and sometimes heavy: the maximum in a month is 29.10 inches (0.74 m) in December 1992 and the most in a year 65.10 inches (1.65 m) between July 1990 and June 1991. Actual snow cover, with the hot sun at Gallup’s altitude, however, has never exceeded 13.1 inches (0.33 m), and for no day averages over 3.5 inches (0.089 m).

Climate data for Gallup, New Mexico
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)67
(19)
73
(23)
81
(27)
84
(29)
95
(35)
98
(37)
100
(38)
98
(37)
93
(34)
87
(31)
78
(26)
66
(19)
100
(38)
Average high °F (°C)45
(7)
50
(10)
57
(14)
65
(18)
75
(24)
86
(30)
89
(32)
86
(30)
80
(27)
69
(21)
55
(13)
46
(8)
67
(20)
Average low °F (°C)11
(−12)
16
(−9)
20
(−7)
24
(−4)
33
(1)
42
(6)
51
(11)
50
(10)
42
(6)
29
(−2)
18
(−8)
11
(−12)
29
(−2)
Record low °F (°C)−20
(−29)
−19
(−28)
−10
(−23)
6
(−14)
12
(−11)
25
(−4)
31
(−1)
35
(2)
20
(−7)
5
(−15)
−26
(−32)
−34
(−37)
−34
(−37)
Average precipitation inches (mm)0.81
(21)
0.65
(17)
0.89
(23)
0.51
(13)
0.62
(16)
0.45
(11)
1.56
(40)
1.99
(51)
1.12
(28)
1.19
(30)
0.95
(24)
0.71
(18)
11.45
(292)
Average snowfall inches (cm)6.5
(17)
6.0
(15)
3.8
(9.7)
2.3
(5.8)
0.5
(1.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.7
(1.8)
4.1
(10)
6.5
(17)
30.4
(77)
Average precipitation days6664431010655671
Source: Western Regional Climate Center. [19]

Notable people

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved July 29, 2019.
  2. 1 2 "Gallup". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey.
  3. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  4. Trail of the Ancients. Archived August 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine New Mexico Tourism Department. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  5. "Gallup bucked the system". Route 66 News. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 2016-09-25.
  6. "curriculum, "Enduring Communities, "page 60, day 9, "the Gallup Experience"" (PDF). Japanese American National Museum, 369 East First Street, Los Angeles, CA 90012. Retrieved 2016-09-25.
  7. "Plaques to be guide to city's past". Gallup Independent. Archived from the original on 7 May 2006. Retrieved 2008-07-24.
  8. "U.S. 666: "Beast of a Highway"?". Highway History. United States Department of Transportation – Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
  9. "Downtown Gallup". Gallup Chamber of Commerce. Gallup Chamber of Commerce, Gallup NM. Retrieved 2016-09-25.
  10. "Downtown Gallup". Gallup Chamber of Commerce. Gallup Chamber of Commerce, Gallup NM. Retrieved 2016-09-25.
  11. "Navajo Code Talkers Mural". Be Sargent. Be Sargent, artist. Retrieved 2016-09-25.
  12. "Photos Cities Gallup". gallup.ipub.us. ipub.us, Actual news in your location. Retrieved 2016-09-25.
  13. Barth, Jack (1991). Roadside Hollywood: The Movie Lover's State-By-State Guide to Film Locations, Celebrity Hangouts, Celluloid Tourist Attractions, and More. Contemporary Books. Page 55. ISBN   9780809243266.
  14. "Presenting the 2013 Winners". Rand McNally. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
  15. "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  16. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  17. "Crime in Gallup, New Mexico (NM): murders, rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, thefts, auto thefts, arson, law enforcement employees, police officers, crime map". City-data.com. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
  18. "Report: Gallup has highest violent crime rate in NM". Krqe.com. 11 November 2014. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
  19. "GALLUP MUNI AP, NEW MEXICO - Climate Summary". Wrcc.dri.edu. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
  20. New York Times . "Indian Director Sworn In: Glenn L. Emmons Takes Office Succeeding Dillon S. Myer." August 11, 1953.