Broken Arrow, Oklahoma

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Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
Statue downtown Broken Arrow Oklahoma.jpg
Statue of an early 20th-century family,
Centennial Park on Main Street
Tulsa County Oklahoma incorporated and unincorporated areas Broken Arrow highlighted.svg
Location within Tulsa County, and the state of Oklahoma
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
91607 in the United States
Coordinates: 36°2′11″N95°47′1″W / 36.03639°N 95.78361°W / 36.03639; -95.78361 Coordinates: 36°2′11″N95°47′1″W / 36.03639°N 95.78361°W / 36.03639; -95.78361
CountryUnited States
State Oklahoma
Counties Tulsa, Wagoner
Founded 1902
Incorporated 1903
Government
  Type Council-Manager
   City Manager Michael L. Spurgeon
   Mayor Craig Thurmond
Area
   City 45.6 sq mi (118.1 km2)
  Land45.0 sq mi (116.5 km2)
  Water0.6 sq mi (1.6 km2)
Elevation
755 ft (230 m)
Population
   City 98,850
  Estimate 
(2015) [2]
106,653
  RankUS: 279th
  Density2,200/sq mi (840/km2)
   Metro
961,561 (US: 55th)
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
74011-74014
Area code(s) 539/918
FIPS code 40-09050
GNIS feature ID1090512 [3]
Website City of Broken Arrow

Broken Arrow is a city located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma, primarily in Tulsa County but also with a section of the city in western Wagoner County. It is the largest suburb of Tulsa. According to the 2010 census, Broken Arrow has a population of 98,850 residents and is the fourth-largest city in the state. [4] However, a July 2017, estimate reports that the population of the city is just under 112,000, making it the 280th-largest city in the United States. The city is part of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, which has a population of 961,561 residents.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Oklahoma State of the United States of America

Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

Tulsa County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Tulsa County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 603,403, making it the second-most populous county in Oklahoma, behind only Oklahoma County. Its county seat and largest city is Tulsa, the second-largest city in the state. Founded at statehood, in 1907, it was named after the previously established city of Tulsa. Before statehood, the area was part of both the Creek Nation and the Cooweescoowee District of Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory.

Contents

The Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad sold lots for the town site in 1902 and company secretary William S. Fears named it Broken Arrow. [5] The city was named for a Creek community settled by Creek Indians who had been forced to relocate from Alabama to Oklahoma along the Trail of Tears.

Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad former American Class I railroad

The Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railway is a former Class I railroad company in the United States, with its last headquarters in Dallas. Established in 1865 under the name Union Pacific Railway, Southern Branch, it came to serve an extensive rail network in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri. In 1989, it merged with the Missouri Pacific Railroad; today, it is part of Union Pacific Railroad.

Alabama State of the United States of America

Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state.

Trail of Tears Series of forced relocations of Native Americans

The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native Americans in the United States from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States, to areas to the west that had been designated as Indian Territory. The forced relocations were carried out by government authorities following the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830. The relocated peoples suffered from exposure, disease, and starvation while en route to their new designated reserve, and many died before reaching their destinations. The forced removals included members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Ponca nations, as well as their African slaves. The phrase "Trail of Tears" originates from a description of the removal of many Native American tribes, including the infamous Cherokee Nation relocation in 1838.

Although Broken Arrow was originally an agricultural community, its current economy is diverse. The city has the third-largest concentration of manufacturers in the state. [6]

History

The city's name comes from an old Creek community in Alabama. [7] Members of that community were expelled from Alabama by the United States government, along the Trail of Tears in the 1830s. The Creek founded a new community in the Indian Territory, and named it after their old settlement in Alabama. The town's Creek name was Rekackv (pronounced thlee-Kawtch-kuh), meaning broken arrow. The new Creek settlement was located several miles south of present-day downtown Broken Arrow.

Indian Territory U.S. 17th-, 18th- and early-20th-century territory set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of the indigenous peoples of the Americas

As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803. The concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War (1861–1865), the policy of the government was one of assimilation.

In 1902 the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad planned a railroad through the area and was granted town site privileges along the route. [5] They sold three of the as-yet-unnamed sites to the Arkansas Valley Town Site Company. William S. Fears, secretary of that company, was allowed to choose and name one of the locations. He selected a site about 18 miles (29 km) southeast of Tulsa and about five miles north of the thlee-Kawtch-kuh settlement and named the new town site Broken Arrow, after the Indian settlement.[ citation needed ] The MKT railroad, which was completed in 1903, ran through the middle of the city. It still exists today and is now owned by Union Pacific which currently uses it for freight.

For the first decades of Broken Arrow's history, the town's economy was based mainly on agriculture. [8] The coal industry also played an important role, with several strip coal mines located near the city in the early 20th century. The city's newspaper, the Broken Arrow Ledger, started within a couple of years of the city's founding. Broken Arrow's first school was built in 1904. [8] The city did not grow much during the first half of the 1900s. During this time Broken Arrow's main commercial center was along Main Street. Most of the city's churches were also located on or near Main Street as well. A 1907 government census listed Broken Arrow's population at 1383. [9]


The Broken Arrow Ledger was a weekly newspaper, published on Wednesdays and delivered mostly for free in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma. The newspaper was established in 1904. Over the century, the names have changed, i.e. Broken Arrow Ledger-Democrat, Broken Arrow Democrat, Broken Arrow Daily Ledger, Broken Arrow Scout, when new owners took over the company. The Broken Arrow Ledger was purchased as part of the Oklahoma Weekly Group in 2015 by BH Media, and was published by the Tulsa World until February 22, 2017. BH Media/Tulsa World still owns the rights to the Broken Arrow Ledger. The final edition was published Wednesday, February 22, 2017.

The only remnant of Haskell State School of Agriculture, built 1911, demolished 1987 Cornerstone of Haskell State School of Agriculture, built 1911, demolished 1987.JPG
The only remnant of Haskell State School of Agriculture, built 1911, demolished 1987

The Haskell State School of Agriculture opened in the Broken Arrow, Oklahoma Opera House on November 15, 1909. The school closed in 1917 for lack of funding, and the building was then used as Broken Arrow High School. The building was razed in 1987. [10] Only a marker, shown here, remains at 808 East College Street in Broken Arrow. The front of cornerstone reads, "Haskell State School / Of Agriculture / J. H. Esslinger Supt. / W. A. Etherton Archt. / Bucy & Walker Contr." The side of cornerstone reads "Laid by the Masonic Fraternity / May 25, A. D. 1910, A. L. 5810. / George Huddell G. M. / Erected by The State Board of Agriculture / J. P. Conners Pres. / B. C. Pittuck Dean.". The school is commemorated on the National Register of Historic Places.

In the 1960s, Broken Arrow began to grow from a small town into a suburban city. The Broken Arrow Expressway (Oklahoma State Highway 51) was constructed in the mid-1960s and connected the city with downtown Tulsa, fueling growth in Broken Arrow. The population swelled from a little above 11,000 in 1970 to more than 50,000 in 1990, and then more than 74,000 by the year 2000. During this time, the city was more of a bedroom community. In recent years, city leaders have pushed for more economic development to help keep more Broken Arrowans working, shopping and relaxing in town rather than going to other cities.

Geography and climate

Broken Arrow is located in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma. The city is part of the state's Green Country region known for its green vegetation, hills and lakes. Green Country is the most topographically diverse portion of the state with seven of Oklahoma's 11 eco-regions. [11]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 45.6 square miles (118 km2), of which 45.0 sq mi (117 km2) is land and 0.6 sq mi (1.6 km2) (1.34%) is water.

Climate

Broken Arrow has the typical eastern and central Oklahoma humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with uncomfortably hot summers and highly variable winters that can range from very warm to very cold depending on whether the air mass comes from warmed air over the Rocky Mountains or very cold polar anticyclones from Canada.

Climate data for Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °F (°C)45.7
(7.6)
51.2
(10.7)
61.3
(16.3)
72.1
(22.3)
79.1
(26.2)
87.1
(30.6)
92.9
(33.8)
91.9
(33.3)
83.6
(28.7)
74.5
(23.6)
60.9
(16.1)
49.8
(9.9)
70.8
(21.6)
Average low °F (°C)22.2
(−5.4)
26.5
(−3.1)
35.5
(1.9)
46.8
(8.2)
56.1
(13.4)
64.8
(18.2)
69.1
(20.6)
66.7
(19.3)
59.3
(15.2)
46.4
(8.0)
35.8
(2.1)
26.5
(−3.1)
46.3
(7.9)
Average precipitation inches (mm)1.6
(41)
1.8
(46)
3.2
(81)
3.5
(89)
5.0
(130)
4.6
(120)
2.9
(74)
2.8
(71)
4.7
(120)
3.7
(94)
3.1
(79)
2.0
(51)
38.9
(996)
Source: Weatherbase.com [12]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1900 1,383
1910 1,57614.0%
1920 2,08632.4%
1930 1,964−5.8%
1940 2,0745.6%
1950 3,26257.3%
1960 5,98283.4%
1970 11,78797.0%
1980 35,761203.4%
1990 58,04362.3%
2000 74,85929.0%
2010 98,85032.0%
Est. 2016107,403 [13] 8.7%
U.S. Decennial Census [14]
2013 Estimate [2]

According to the 2010 census, there were 98,850 people, 36,141 households, and 27,614 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,200 people per square mile (850/km²). There were 38,013 housing units at an average density of 602.0 per square mile (232.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 79.3% White, 4.3% African American, 5.2% Native American, 3.6% Asian (1.0% Vietnamese, 0.7% Indian, 0.4% Chinese, 0.3% Korean, 0.3% Hmong, 0.2% Pakistani, 0.2% Filipino, 0.1% Japanese), [15] 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, and 5.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino were 6.5% (4.4% Mexican, 0.4% Puerto Rican, 0.3% Spanish, 0.1% Venezuelan, 0.1% Colombian). [16] [17]

There were 36,141 households, out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.4% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.6% were non-families. Of all households, 19.2% were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the city, the population dispersal was 30.8% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 7.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $65,385 and the median income for a family was $74,355. The per capita income for the city was $29,141. About 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line. Of the city's population over the age of 25, 30.3% holds a bachelor's degree or higher. [18] [19]

Awards

Business and industry

Historic building on Main Street after a total restoration (June, 2007) Historicbuilding.JPG
Historic building on Main Street after a total restoration (June, 2007)

Broken Arrow is home to a wide range of businesses and industries. In fact, the city is ranked third in its concentration of manufacturers in the state. [6]

Some of the city's more notable employers include:

Located in Broken Arrow since 1985, FlightSafety International (FSI) designs and builds aviation crew training devices called Flight Simulators at its Simulation Systems Division. With currently over 675 employees located there, of which about half are engineers, FSI is the largest private employer in the city. A number of new commercial developments are being built throughout the city, most notably along Oklahoma State Highway 51, which runs through the city. A Bass Pro Shops Outdoor World opened several years ago as the anchor to a development that includes hotels, restaurants, shopping, and eventually offices. A new full-service hospital and medical office building were constructed nearby in 2010 as an anchor to another large commercial development that will include retail space and two hotels. Oklahoma's first Dick's Sporting Goods opened in late 2011. [24]

In 2007 the city created the Broken Arrow Economic Development Corporation to help oversee economic development. [25]

In late 2007, the Broken Arrow Chamber of Commerce began "Advance Broken Arrow", an economic development campaign aimed at expanding and diversifying the city's economic base. [26]

Downtown redevelopment

Historic 1904 Victorian home on Main Street in downtown BA that has been converted into a business (July, 2007) Historic house Broken Arrow Oklahoma.jpg
Historic 1904 Victorian home on Main Street in downtown BA that has been converted into a business (July, 2007)

In 2005, the city adopted a downtown revitalization master plan to help revive the city's historic downtown area. Some of the plans include a new 3-story museum to house the historical society and genealogical society, a farmer's market and plaza, a new performing arts center, updates and expansions to area parks, the conversion of the historic Central Middle School on Main Street into a professional development center, infrastructure and landscape improvements, and incentives to encourage denser infill, redevelopment, and reuse of the area's historic structures. Numerous buildings and homes have since been renovated, many new shops and offices have moved to downtown, and new townhomes are being built. The new historical museum, farmers market, and performing arts center opened in 2008.

The city also set strict new design standards in place that all new developments in the downtown area must adhere to. These standards were created to prevent "suburban" development in favor of denser, "urban" development and to ensure that new structures compliment and fit in with the historic buildings in downtown. In October 2012 Downtown Broken Arrow's main street corridor was named the Rose District. [27]

Government

City government: [28]
Ward 1Debra Wimpee
Ward 2Mayor Craig Thurmond
Ward 3Mike Lester
Ward 4Vice Mayor Scott Eudey
At-LargeJohnnie Parks

Broken Arrow uses the council-manager model of municipal government. The city's primary authority resides in the city council which approves ordinances, resolutions, and contracts. The city council consists of five members with four members are elected from the four city wards with the fifth member as an at-large member. Each council member serves for a two-year term and is eligible to serve for four years. Out of the council members, a mayor and vice-mayor is chosen every two years. [28] The day-to-day operations of the city is run by the city manager who reports directly to the city council. [29]

At the federal level, Broken Arrow lies within Oklahoma's 1st congressional district, represented by Kevin Hern. [30] In the State Senate, Broken Arrow is in District 25 (Joe Newhouse) and 36 (Bill Brown). [31] [32] In the House, District 75 (Karen Gaddis), 76 (Ross Ford), 98 (Michael Rogers) covers the city. [33]

Education

Primary and secondary schools

Education in Broken Arrow is provided by Broken Arrow Public Schools. The district operates 25 schools with 15 elementary schools, five middle schools, and five secondary schools. [34] A portion of Broken Arrow is also served by Union Public Schools. [35]

Colleges and universities

The NSU clock tower at sunset. NSU clock at night.jpg
The NSU clock tower at sunset.

Higher education in Broken Arrow is provided by Northeastern State University (Broken Arrow campus). The campus opened in 2001 and has an upperclassmen and graduate student population of 3,000. [36]

Broken Arrow is also served by Tulsa Technology Center Broken Arrow Campus. Established in 1983, it has an enrollment of about 3,500 full- and part-time secondary and adult students. [37]

Broken Arrow is also home to Rhema Bible Training Center, established in 1974 by Kenneth E. Hagin; located on 110 acres (45 ha), it has graduated over 40,000 alumni and has seven ministry concentrations. RBTC is currently led by Hagin's son, Kenneth W. Hagin.

Libraries

The city's two libraries, Broken Arrow Library and South Broken Arrow Library, are part of the Tulsa City-County Library System.

Infrastructure

Major highways in Broken Arrow include State Highway 51 (Broken Arrow Expressway). It passes through the north side of the city and leads to downtown Tulsa to the northwest. Heading east on the Broken Arrow Expressway leads to the Muskogee Turnpike, which connects the city to Muskogee. [38] Partial beltway Creek Turnpike circles around the south of the city and connects the Turner Turnpike to the west terminus of the Will Rogers Turnpike. [38]

Public transportation for Broken Arrow is provided by Tulsa Transit. It has one route that connects the city to Tulsa. Bus services run Monday through Friday. [39]

Media

Newspapers

Broken Arrow has one newspaper, the Broken Arrow Ledger. The paper is published every Wednesday. [40] It is owned by BH Media Group. [41] The Tulsa World , northeast Oklahoma's major daily newspaper, also features Broken Arrow news regularly. The staff at the Ledger has featured journalists and photographers Lesa Jones, Doug Quinn, and G. B. Poindexter.

Television

Cox Cable channel 24 is the Broken Arrow government-access television (GATV) cable TV municipal information channel. It displays, among other things, information about the city government, upcoming events, and general information about the city. The channel also features local weather reports.

Internet

Broken Arrow has a website that provides information on the city, its government, local amenities, safety, local news, and economic development. [42] The city's chamber of commerce also has a website, which contains information about the chamber and economic development in the city. [43]

Notable people

See also

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